Numerical EcologyThe book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others.

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Contents
Complex ecological data sets
 1 
Matrix algebra a summary
 59 
Dimensional analysis in ecology
 109 
Multidimensional quantitative data
 143 
Multidimensional semiquantitative data
 195 
Multidimensional qualitative data
 219 
Ecological resemblance
 265 
Cluster analysis
 337 
Interpretation of ecological structures
 521 
Canonical analysis
 625 
Ecological data series
 711 
Spatial analysis
 785 
Multiscale analysis spatial eigenfunctions  859 
907  
969  
Ordination in reduced space
 425 
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Common terms and phrases
algorithm association autocorrelation axis binary biplot calculation canonical analysis centroids Chapter columns computed contingency table correlation coefficient correlogram correspondence analysis covariance data matrix data series data sets dbMEM dendrogram described detrended diagonal dimensional distance classes distance matrix distribution Ecological application ecological data ecologists eigenfunctions eigenvalues eigenvectors environmental variables equal equation estimate Euclidean distance explained explanatory variables Fstatistic fraction frequency function gradient graph groups Legendre linear regression Mantel test measure methods multidimensional multiple regression multivariate normal null hypothesis Numerical example objects observations obtained ordination orthogonal package pairs parameters partial PCoA periodogram permutation test plot polynomial presenceabsence principal component analysis produce qualitative descriptors quantitative random reduced space relationships represented residuals response variable rows sampling scaling Section similarity spatial correlation spatial structure species abundance statistic Subsection sum of squares symmetric tests of significance transformation values variance variogram vector zero