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OFFICE, 22, TOOK'S COURT, CHANCERY LANE, E.C.

BY JOHN C. FRANCIS.

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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 3, 1886.

Places 'I have shown the Celtic character of local

names in Galatia, and will only add that there
CONTENTS.-No 27.

seems to be no reason to question the identification
NOTES :-The Belgæ, 1- John Bunyan Gipsy-Byronic of the Tectosages of Ancyra and the Tectosages of

Literature, 3–'Rule Britannia'- Editions of Vicar of
Wakefield, 4-st. Moritz-Wasted Ingenuity, 5-Revival of Gaul. Unless, therefore, we reject the evidence of

Sedan Chairs-Hair turned White-Trades and Streets, 6. such a skilled philologistas Jerome, we must
QUERIES :-Antiquity of a Boat and Road-Extra Verses in admit that the Treviri, the leading Bélgic tribe,

St. Matthew-Brereton Faber Fortunæ,' 7–Prayers for spoke a Celtic speech. Moreover, the very name
Royal Family-Oliver=Moon- Matthew Buckinger-Dedi. of these Treviri is from the Cymric trêv, which
cations—** Standard” Tavern-Revels-Blanketeer-Sir R.
Fry-Wordsworth's Bible-Corinth's Pedagogue-Forbes of enters 80 largely into the local names of Wales,
Culloden-Pseudonyms, 8-Egmont-Blade-Auction Mart Cornwall, and Brittany.

- Defender of the Faith-"Deaf as the adder "_Bellman-

O Keele-Authors Wanted, 9.

The Aedui, Mela tells us, were the typical

REPLIES :-Britannia, 10- Suzerain - Ham, 11 – Parish Celtic race of Gaul. Now the Aeduan and Belgic

Registers-Slare, 12–Grace after Meat-Joshua Barnes, 13

names curiously agree.

Divitiacus, the Aeduan,

- Transmission of Folk-Tales-St. Helen, 14—" Farmer's hore the same name as Divitiacus, King of the
Creed "-Game of Thirty-Scotch Peerg-Rob Roy in New-
gate, 15–British Institution-Quotation Wanted-Chapel,

Suessiones, the Belgic tribe who under him ob-
Somerset House-" Square meal" – Book-plates-" Tipped tained supremacy over a large part of Southern
the wink" – Stevens-History of Electric Lighting-Birth of Britain. Venta Belgarum, now Winchester, the
King of Spain-Last Earl of Anglesea, 16– Horace Smith-
Fyllot-Russian Id-Marshal – Bradford Family-Southey's chief city of the Belga of Britain, admittedlý do-
* Battle of Blenheim'-, “Montjoye St. Denys"

- Easter rives its name from the Cymric word gwent, &
Bibliography - 'Faithful Register of the late Rebellion'

Veritable – Noble Masters and their servants - Old term descriptive of the open downs of Hampshire,

Style," 17 - Costanus – Shakspeare's Doctor - Latin Lino The capital of the Suessiones of Gaul was Novio-

Wanted - Glyn - Children's Crusade, 18 – Blue Roses-dunum, a Celtic name meaning the new fort,"

Anthors Wanted, 19.

and Noviodunum was also the name of a city of

NOTES ON BOOKS:-Firth's Newcastle's 'Life of Cavendish: the Aedui, who are undoubtedly Celtic.

-Lee's 'King Edward the Sixth' - Smith's Ethics of
Aristotle'-Hishwick's Calendar of Lancashire and Che- From the Bibroci, or“ beavers,” we obtain the
shire Depositions'-'Annual Register.'

name of Bibracte, the Aeduan capital, which_com-

Notices to Correspondents, &c.

pares with Bibrax, a city of the Romi, a Belgic

tribe. The name of Nemetocenna, now Arras, the

chief town of the Atrebates, a Belgic people, is

Notes.

derived from nemet, a

sacred grove,”

"caput.” The Atrebates, some of whom passed
WHO WERE THE BELGÆ?

over into Britain with the Belgic invaders and

(See 7th 8. i. 441, 461.)

settled in the upper valley of the Thames, bear a

BROTHER Fabian's contention that the Belgæ Celtic name, meaning, as Glück has shown, the

of Gaul and Britain were not Celts, but Dutchmen "farmers," the “land-owners," from the Cymric

or Danes, must not be allowed to pass without word athref, “mansio, possessio."

protest. When Prof. Rhys states that there is not Calleva Atrebatum, now Silchester, the capital of

any reason to suppose that the Belgæ were Teu- the British Atrebates, is “the town in the wood,”.

tonic" ("Celtic Britain,' p. 276), he is in accord the sil of Silchester being probably a remnant of

with all those who are entitled to speak with the Latin silva, used to translate the Belgic name.

authority on the matter. It may, therefore, be From Cymric sources Zeugs and Glück have suc-

well to enumerate a few of the arguments by cessfully explained many other Belgic names. The

which scholars have been led to this opinion, Suessiones of Gaul and Britain are the "bene locati”

arguments which BROTHER FABIAN will have to or "bene statuti"; and the name of their king,

meet if his thesis is to be established.

Galba, the “great” or the “fat,” is found also

The first argument is one that by itself was re- among the Cisalpine Gauls. The Aduatici are

garded as “decisive" by so great a scholar as Dr. *the bold” or the courageous." The Remi are

Guest. From Pomponius Mela we learn, “ Celt- “ the foremost” or “the leaders." The name of

arum clarissimi sunt Aedui ; Belgarum, Treviri.” the Caletes is from the Cymric calet, durus,

The people about Treves were, therefore, the lead-firmus," and it may be noted that if this name had

ing and typical Belgic tribe. Now Jerome, who been Teutonic the initial c would have become h,

had resided at Treves and who must often bave since the Celtic calet corresponds to the German

passed through Galatia, tells us in his celebrated hart.

preface to the Epistle to the Galatians, that the Since the Celtic cath, " battle," answers to the

people of Treves spoke the same language as the German hadu, the same remark applies to the

Galatians of Ancyra. We know that the Gala- name of Catuvolcus (a prince of the Belgic Ebu-

tians were the descendants of the Gauls under rones), which signifies "alacer ad pugnandum.” In

Brennus, who, after pillaging Rome and Delphi, like manner the Celtic Caturix answers to the

finally settled in Asia Minor. In 'Words and German Hadurich, while the two elements of the

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Belgic name Catuvolcus appear in two Celtic tribe- Belgic division of Gaul was Celtic. The term pames, the Caturiges, or battle kings," and the Belge is clearly not the name of a race, but of a Volcæ. The name of Ambiorix, another prince of warlike confederation of certain tribes in Gaul for the Eburones, means rex opulentus," and the mutual resistance to German invasion. Of the first part of this word appears also in the name of tribes forming this Belgic confederation the most the Ambiani, a Belgic tribe who have left a prominent were Celtic ; they had Gallic manners, memorial of themselves in the name of Amiens. habits, and a common religion. They spoke the The Belgic Mediolanum may be compared with Gallic language ('B. G.,' i. 47). Moreau ('La the Mediolanum (Milan) of the Cisalpine Gauls ; France,' p. 156) concludes that these were Celtic and the Belgic tribe-name Eburones with the ad tribes who were the last to come across the Rhine, mittedly Celtic names Eburovices, Eburodunum, either driven by the Germans or in search of a Eburomagus, and Eburobriga. The name of thé milder climate and more fortile soil. Belgic Lugdunum (Leyden) is identical with that There is evidence of a people of German race of the Celtic Lugdunum (Lyons), while the Belgic inhabiting the valley of the Lys, who united with tribe of the Morini are the "maritimi," the name the Menapii and subsequent Saxon invaders to be being, derived from the same Celtic word mor, ancestors of the more modern Flemings, over“sea," which with the preposition ar, "ad,” gives whelming by their numbers the Morinian or Celtic us the name of the Celtic Armorica, “terra ad element ; but it would seem that the Belgians of mare sita."

France proper were chiefly Celtic in origin. It would be easy to go through the other Belgic But I freely admit the entire question is diffinames that have come down to us, and show that, cult. The following are the principal writers while they can be readily explained from Cymric who have debated the subject with more or less sources, they are inexplicable if regarded as of of learning and good temper :-Schayes, Les Teutonic origin. In the face of all this body of Pays-Bas avant et pendant la Domination des evidence BROTHER Fabian maintains that the Romains,' 8vo., 1877; Wastelain,"Description de Belgæ were Danes or Dutchmen! His sole argu- la Gaule Belgique selon les Trois Ages de ment seems to be that Cæsar tells us that the l'Histoire, 8vo., 1788 ; Thierry, Histoire GaulGalli and the Belgæ differed in language, insti- oise,' 12m0., 1858; Moke, 'La Belgique Ancienne,

' tutes, and laws. The same may be said of the 8vo., 1855; Vanderkindere, 'Recherches sur l'EthIrish and the Welsh, and yet we do not doubt nologie des Belges,' 8vo., 1872 ; Roget de Bellothat the Welsh as well as the Irish are Celts. guet, 'Ethnogénie Gauloise,' 8vo., 1872 ; and I agree with Prof. Rolliston as to the early date Poullet, 'Histoire Politique Interne de lá Belof the Germanization of Eastern Britain, but I gique,' 8vo., 1879. look for these early Teutonic settlers on the The conclusion of the last-mentioned writer eastern coasts of our island, and not in the Belgic is :region between Winchester and Bath.

Quant à la masse de la population, fixée dans la BelISAAC TAYLOR.

gique à l'époque de la conquête romaine, on débat encore, avec arguments sérieux de part et d'autre, la question de

savoir si elle était ou germaine, ou celtique, ou formée Is BROTHER FABIAN justified in assuming d'un mélange de Celtes et de Germains...... Si les populathat the Belgæ of Cæsar were of German origin? tions du premier siècle avant notre ère étaient celtiques, I would respectfully submit that historians en tout ou en partie, elles n'ont guère laissé d'autres are not agreed upon this question. Cæsar, in- traces durables dans l'état social des âges futurs que cer. deed, asserts that they came from the country sidérable de noms de lieux. Si ces populations étaient

taines superstitions populaires et un nombre assez con. then inhabited by the Germani, but this does not germaniques, ce n'est cependant pas elles qui ont mainsufficiently prove that all the tribes comprehended tenu dans le pays cet élément germain dont l'influence under the general name of the Belgæ were of Teu- permanente eut une action si décisive sur le développetonic origin. On the contrary, Cæsar ranks them ment des institutions belgiques.”—P. 8. with the Gauls, and evidently regards them as The conclusion of Moke ('Belgique Ancienne,' allied in speech, in manners and customs, to the p. 107) is different :Gallic race.

He implies ('B. G.,' i. 1) that there “ La Belgique ancienne offrait avant l'arrivée des were differences of language, laws, and customs Belges de race gallique, établis à l'ouest de la Meuse et

Romains trois groupes de population différents; des between the three leading nations in Gaul; but de l'Escaut ; des Belges de race germanique qui avaient if we compare his account with that of Strabo possession des pays situés à l'est de ces deux fleuves ; des (iv. 176) the differences were not considerable, Germains pas encore regardés comme Belges et qui occubeing chiefly modifications of dialect. It may be paient les cantons les plus sauvages et les plus arides.” admitted that the Menapii, the Treviri, and those I have omitted to indicate another authority, specially described as calling themselves “Ger- Moreau de Jonnes, 'La France avant ses Premiers mans” in Cæsar (‘B. G.,' ii. 4) were Teutonic; but Habitants,' 12mo., Paris, 1856. I believe that most French and Belgian his- May I add that the name Belge is considered torians contend that the prevailing element in the by Zeuss ("Gram. Celtica,' p. 140) to be Celtic,

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and that its meaning is “ warriors "? Another Yet, in spite of all this, the latest and best reason for regarding them as a Celtic people is the biographer of Bunyan, the Rev. John Brown, of terminations of their local names. Zeuss considers Bedford, has the weakness to claim for him a tbem Celts, and that, even if they claimed kinship remote connexion with a Norman family that came with the Germani, it was from the desire to be over with the Conqueror! Mr. Brown collects all separately regarded from the beaten and subdued the names of Bonyons and Bunians who figure in Gaals. For a like reason Tacitus ("Germania,' ancient archives to prove that “ the Bunyan family 28) thinks the Treviri and Nervii called them- flourished before gipsies were heard of in England.” selves Germani. Rhys ("Celtic Britain,' p. 276) Mr. Simpson shrewdly remarks that we might as asserts that there is “no reason to suppose that the well affirm that a Lancashire or Cheshire gipsy, Belgą were Teutons.". After reading Guest assuming and bearing the name of Stanley, must (Origines Celticæ ') and Beale Poste (* Belgæ of belong necessarily to the house of the Earls of Britain, Journal Archæolog. Assoc., xi. 205) I Derby, because he is the head of the Stanleys. feel satisfied that the Belgze were of the same race Mr. Brown's book is so meritorious in the main, as the Galli, but that there were German fugitives that this weak point, of ignoring the disputed amongst them, and that some few of the tribes question of Bunyan's gipsy origin, is the more to be comprehended within the fifteen or sixteen na- regretted. Mr. Simpson, in a review of Mr. Brown's tions of the Belgic confederation may have been book, has noticed the omission ; and Germanic originally. But in spite of this, before interesting facts as to there being no discredit in the arrival of Cæsar, the Celtic element prepon- gipsy blood, reminds us that Dr. Robert Gordon, derated and they had practically become one peo- formerly minster of the High Church of Edinburgh, ple, Celtic in sentiment, manners, and speech. a divine and preacher well known and much

J. MASKELL. honoured, was of gipsy origin ; and that Mrs.

Thomas Carlyle had pride in telling that her

grandmother was a Baillie, one of a gipsy tribe WAS JOHN BUNYAN OF GIPSY ORIGIN ? who had adopted the name of an ancient Scottish In his own account of himself and his family, family. This explains her reference to Tennyson John Bunyan speaks of his " father's house being as “having something of the gipsy in his appearof that rank that is meanest and most despised of ance, which to me is perfectly charming.". all the families in the land." It has always

That the popular idea of Banyan's origin prebeen popularly understood that this admission, vailed throughout his own lifetime we know from coupled with the fact of his employment at first the famous anecdote about Charles II. and Dr. being that of a tinker, pointed to gipsy birth and Owen. The king asked the doctor“ how a learned origin. In another notable passage of his auto-man, such as be was, could sit and hear an illiterate biography, " the Bedfordshire tinker” tells us that tinker prate.” “May it please your Majesty," at one time he wondered“ whether his family were was Dr. Owen’s reply, “could I possess the tinker's of the Israelites," another of the meanest and most ability for preaching, I would gladly relinquish all despised” races in England. This was when he my learning." I do not affirm the gipsy origin of was troubled about his soul's salvation, and he “the immortal dreamer,” but only say that the thought be could take some comfort if he were one question has not been settled by showing that of God's chosen people, though they were now down there were Bunyans in England ever since the trodden and in exile. "At last,” he says, “I asked Conquest ; nor is it fair to ignore the discussion, in my father of it, who told me, 'No, we were not.'" the face of Bunyan's own statements in his autobioThis answer threw him back on the tinkers, as the graphy, as has been done not only by Mr. Brown, mixed gipsy race were usually called.

but also by Mr. Froude in his memoir. This led Sir Walter Scott to say that “ Bunyan

JAMES MACAULAY, M.D. was most probably a gipsy reclaimed”; and led Mr. Offor, a laborious editor of Bunyan's works,

BYRONIC LITERATURE. to say " His father must have been a gipsy.” With still more elaborate statement and cogent argument,

(Continued from p. 426.) Mr. James Simpson, a Scotchman long resident

Class III.-- Poetry relating to Byron. in New York, author of a ' History of the Gipsies,' Five fugitive pieces addressed to Lord Byron at affirms that the Bunyan family were gipsies, who, various intervals. Rev. F. Hodgson. Circa 1816, on settling in Bedfordshire, took the name of the and Smith. Circa 1812.

Cui Bono. From the Rejected Addresses.' Horace family on whose soil they chiefly lived, as had been

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Anti Byron : a Satire. Circa 1814. the common usage since feudal times.

Julian and Maddalo. Percy B. Shelley. 1818. That this humble origin, so far from being a

Childe Harold's Monitor. Rev. F. Hodgson, 1818. disgrace or discredit to the illustrious John

Lines written among the Euganean Hills. Percy B. Banyan, gives greater lustre to his genius and

Shelley. 1818.

Adonais. Stanza xxx, Percy B. Shelley. Pisa, 1821. worth we have always been accustomed to think. Uriel : Poetical Address to Lord Byron. 1822.

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