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WEDNESDAY, APRIL 14, 1937.
EDUCATION OF INDIANS
SUPPORT OF INDIAN SCHOOLS, INCLUDING TUITION OF PUPILS ATTEND
ING PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Mr. Johnson. We will now take up the items under the heading of “Education."
The first item is for the support of day and reservation boarding schools, tuition of pupils attending public schools, and for other miscellaneous educational purposes. You are asking for a total of $5,896,950.
Mr. Dodd. We offer the following justification for the record: Regular appropriation, 1937 act..
$5, 379, 820 Deduct nonrecurring ar ot items not required 1938: Aid to public schools.
$67, 600 State cooperation contracts..
6, 100 Alabama and Coushatta Indians.
4, 500 Boarding home care..
88, 200 Base for 1938.
5, 291, 600 Increases requested for 1938: Boarding schools.
$299, 300 Day pupils in boarding schools.
22, 000 Day schools (4,950 transferred from tribal funds).
69, 000 Special consolidated day schools...
135, 075 Deaf, dumb, and blind
5, 000 Mission contracts (transfer from tribal funds)
12, 875 Care and training of delinquents.
10, 000 Supervision, local reservation.
3, 920 Supervision, general.
23, 160 Summer subsistence.
15, 000 Apprentice teacher.
Total estimate, 1938.
5, 896, 950 General.-This appropriation is used for support and maintenance of day- and boarding-school facilities on Indian reservations, payment of tuition for Indian pupils in public schools and other educational institutions, school lunches and clothing for school children, school supervision, and other educational purposes. With the reduction in nonreservation boarding schools and the development of educational facilities for Indians close to their own homes as far as possible, this appropriation now covers the major educational activities of the Indian Service.
There follows a tabulation showing the various items of this estimate together with a statement of the amounts appropriated in 1937:
1. Boarding schools (reservation). 2. Day pupils in boarding schools (reservation) 3. Day schools. 4. Special consolidated day schools 5. Aid to public schools. 6. State cooperation contracts 7. Tuition grants for higher education. 8. Tuition, deal, dumb, blind, and incapacitated. 9. Alabama and Coushatta Indians in Texas. 10. Mission contracts. 11. Boarding home care. 12. Care and training of delinquents 13. Food, clothing, books, etc., public school pupils 14. Supervision, local reservation.. 15. Supervision, general 16. Miscellaneous.. 17. Summer subsistence. 18. Apprentice teachers..
Gross total. Less savings...
1. Boarding schools, $2,009,200 (increase, $299,300).-This amount is composed of the following:
To show the detail by schools, there follows a tabulation showing the number of boarding pupils contemplated in each of the reservation boarding schools during 1938, together with the number proposed in the upper grades:
Vocational differential.—No increase is requested for the regular per-capita rate nor for the per-capita differential rate. The net increase of $28,500 for vocational differential is accounted for through an increase of 570 additional pupils who are enrolled in grades above the sixth and for whom special vocational training work is required. At the Fort Sill School, for example, on the Kiowa Reservation, we are asking for an increase of 35 pupils in grades above the sixth. At the Riverside School we are requesting the vocational differential for 50 additional pupils. At these two schools we are developing senior high-school facilities of an agricultural nature. These two illustrations are typical of all of the other requests for the vocational differential and are in line with our policy of developing senior vocational high-school facilities on the reservations, where local needs can more adequately be provided for than in the non-reservation boarding schools.
Increased enrollment in existing schools.-A total net increase of 910 pupils, spread over the varying per-capita rates and amounting to $270,800, represents increased enrollments at numerous schools as itemized in the above table. It also represents the reestablishment of boarding facilities at Blackfeet, Mont., Fort Totten and Standing Rock, N. Dak., and Crow Creek., S. Dak. These four items are discussed separately.
Cherokee.- We are asking for 40 additional pupils at this school. Senior vocational high-school facilities are being provided and since local public schools will not accept these Indian pupils, it is necessary that we make provision for them. Included in this additional group are provisions for 20 children below the sixth grade who are unable to attend on a day basis.
Cheyenne and Arapaho.—We are requesting an increase in the enrollment at this school of 25 in order to care for the senior vocational high-school program. At the present time such facilities are not available, and these pupils are not attending anywhere. The tribal council has petitioned for these facilities.
Cheyenne River.-We are requesting an increase of 35 at this school in order to care for pupils who are not now in attendance at any school and also to provide senior high-school facilities there.
Crown Point (Navajo).--We are requesting an increase of 50 pupils on a boarding basis at the Crown Point School. A corresponding decrease of 50 pupils is indicated under the item for day pupils in boarding schools. Our experience in the past 2 years has demonstrated that these pupils are not available on a day basis and they are being cared for at the present time as boarding pupils.
Fort Sill. -- We are asking for an increase of 50 pupils at the Fort Sill Boarding School, 35 of whom will be on a senior vocational-high-school basis. As has previously been explained, we are developing a senior high-school program at the Fort Sill School. At the present time the majority of these pupils have not been in attendance in any school.
Riverside.- We are requesting an increase of 25 pupils at the Riverside School on the Kiowa jurisdiction. The justification submitted for Fort Sill is applicable for Riverside.
Leupp.--We are requesting an increase of 25 pupils on a boarding basis and under the item for day pupils in boarding schools, there will be found a corresponding reduction of 25 pupils on a day basis. Our experience in the past 2 years has demonstrated that these 25 pupils cannot attend-on a day basis. They are being cared for at the present time as boarding pupils.
Pawnee. We are asking for an increase of 25 pupils at the Pawnee Boarding School. The justification submitted for the Fort Sill School is applicable here.
Pine Ridge.—We are asking for an increase of 40 pupils at the Pine Ridge Boarding School. A new school building is being erected at this school and will make possible facilities for 40 additional pupils who are not otherwise being cared for.
Quapaw (Seneca).-We are asking for an increase of 25 pupils at the Seneca Boarding School. A senior high-school program is being developed here and this additional number of pupils is already enrolled at this school, but no appropriation has ever been requested for them.
Rosebud.- We are requesting an increase of 20 pupils at the Rosebud Boarding School. This is to make available the educational facilities that are now being denied this number of pupils.
Shiprock (Navajo).- We are requesting an increase of 100 pupils at the Shiprock Boarding School, and under the item for day pupils in boarding schools will be found a corresponding decrease on a day basis. Our experience of the past 2 years has demonstrated conclusively that not more than 100 children are available for attendance at the Shiprock School on a day basis, whereas our budget has previously provided for 200 on a day basis. It has been necessary for us to care for these 100 pupils on a boarding basis or deny them school privileges.
Tongue River.-A careful survey has indicated a considerable number of pupils of the Tongue River jurisdiction who are not enrolled in any school upon compleo tion of the elementary school program there. We are proposing an increase of 30 pupils and provisions for senior vocational high school opportunities particularly adapted to the local reservation needs.
Tuba City (Navajo). — We are proposing an increase of 40 pupils on a boarding basis at the Tuba City School and inder the item for day pupils in boarding schools will be found a corresponding decrease. Experience in the past 2 years has demonstrated that it is not possible for these 40 pupils to attend on a day basis.
Warm Springs.--A complete reservation educational program is being developed on the Warm Springs Reservation and provision for 25 pupils on a senior vocational high-school basis are the minimum requirements at the present time. There are a considerable number of pupils who have not had the opportunity of such facilities upon completion of the elementary and junior high-school program at this boarding school.
SCHOOLS REESTABLISHED Blackfeet.-- We are requesting funds for the reopening of the Blackfeet Boarding School with an enrollment of 150 pupils, for 50 of whom the vocational differential should be allowed. Because of the reduction of funds for the Indian Service several years ago, drastic action was necessary in order to continue an educational program in the Indian Service within the funds allowed. We attempted to meet the spirit and letter of the economy legislation and made a conscientious effort to provide educational opportunities for the Indians of the Blackfeet jurisdiction. For the past several years those children who have been attending have been enrolled in the Browning public schools. Conditions have not been entirely satisfactory. A comprehensive survey was recently made of the situation. It was found that with the abolishment of the boarding school, Indian families moved into the town of Browning in order that their children might attend the public school. These Indians are stockmen and farmers and should be out on their land. It is extremely difficult, however, to provide day school facilities in the local areas because of the nature of these industries. The Indians have settled in the so-called slum district of Browning and live in abject proverty and filth. Moral conditions are bad. Their homes consist of shacks built of tin cans, old tents, and dilapidated sheds. Frequently there is nothing more than a blanket for a door. As many as from 4 to 10 adults and children actually live in a oneroom shack of this kind, in an area where the thermometer goes to 40° below zero in the winter and the snow at times completely covers the shacks.
Our survey indicated a list of about 400 children of school age on the Blackfeet Reservation who were apparently without suitable home care; 57 were full orphans, 276 had one parent dead, 50 were illegitimate, 79 had been deserted by their parents, and 50 or more were the victims of broken homes or other adverse circumstances. It is recognized that making provision of only 150 in a boa ding school will not entirely meet the situation. Existing facilities, however, at the old Blackfeet Boarding School plant are inadequate to care for more than this number. This is one of our most urgent needs.
Fort Totten.- As a result of reduced appropriations it was necessary to close the Fort Totten School. This school has been operated in the past 2 years as & Federal consolidated day school. During 1936, as the result of a tuberculosis survey, a considerable number of children of this northern area were found to be afflicted with tuberculosis. Many others were diagnosed as pretubercular. It is proposed to establish at the Fort Totten Boarding School a preventorium school for the care of pretuberculosis children. The survey indicated that 100 will be the minimum number for whom such facilities should be provided in 1938. Additional funds will be needed for medical care of these pupils and this request will be found in connection with the appropriation for health activities in the Indian Service.
Standing Rock.- We propose accommodations for 80 pupils on a boarding basis at the Standing Rock School, Fort Yates, N. Dak. This was an old boarding school plant that was abandoned several years ago. Some of the pupils formerly