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mentary on the Fourth Gospel. The second volume of Harnack's Contributions to New Testament Criticism, dealing with the document Q, has been translated into English,1 and a third part devoted to the Acts of the Apostles has appeared in German. The admirably written account of Jesus and His Teaching, by Von Schrenck, may also be mentioned here, since it is based primarily upon the Synoptic Gospels. The most recent work on the problem is by Nicolardot. It is written with a very full knowledge of the literature. In this section I should call attention to a volume by Muirhead, the author of The Eschatology of Jesus, the title of which might disguise its real character. Its careful investigation into the eschatology of Jesus and the primitive church is designed to take the reader to the centre of present discussion, and it contains a most useful survey of recent literature on Jewish Eschatology, with special reference to the consciousness of Jesus. Dr Garvie has published a series of penetrating studies of the Gospels with an important critical introduction, and still more important constructive conclusion.

Turning now to Johannine literature, I have first to mention the very large and thorough commentary on the Fourth Gospel by Zahn, whose output is as marvellous as his erudition. A warm welcome must also be given to the new edition of Holtzmann's Gospel, Epistle, and Revelation of John. It has been prepared by Bauer on the basis of 1 The Sayings of Jesus; London, Williams & Norgate, 1908.2 Die Apostelgeschichte; Leipzig, J. C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung,

1908.

3 London, James Clarke & Co., 1908.

Les Procédes de Rédaction des Trois Premiers Evangélistes ; Paris, Librairie Fischbacher, 1908.

The Terms Life and Death in the Old and New Testament ; London, Andrew Melrose, 1908.

Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus; London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1907.

'Das Evangelium des Johannes; Leipzig, A. Deichert'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Nachf. (Georg Böhme), 1908.

Hand-Commentar zum Neuen Testament: Evangelium, Briefe, und Offenbarung des Johannes; Tübingen, Verlag von J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1908.

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Holtzmann's second edition, and differs from it chiefly in the addition of a translation and a very careful account of investigation during the fifteen years that have elapsed since the second edition was published. It is also a very much pleasanter work to use than its predecessor. Holtzmann himself contributes the preface, in which he expresses the hope, which will be shared by most New Testament students, that the promised edition of his New Testament Theology may soon be ready for publication. A very useful little book on the Fourth Gospel by Riggs has appeared in the series known as Messages of the Bible. It contains a fairly extensive introduction from a conservative point of view, and a careful paraphrase of the text. The Dean of Westminster has published three lectures on the Gospel, the most noteworthy portion of which is the note at the end on the Apostle John's alleged martyrdom. On the Apocalypse, in addition to the commentary by Holtzmann and Bauer, a commentary on the first three chapters by Hort has been published. A striking introduction defends the position generally accepted in his time that the work was written before the destruction of Jerusalem. Matters have naturally not stood still since the time when Hort prepared the lectures, and on several of the new problems, especially those raised by Gunkel, he naturally gives no help. But on the data before him, which have still to be taken into account, his judgment is weighty and far-seeing. A very different attitude is represented by Wellhausen, to whom we owe a fresh and most suggestive discussion, which reminds me more than anything else of the stimulating analysis by J. Weiss. Those who feel that the phenomena demand the hypothesis that the book represents divergent points of

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1 The Messages of Jesus according to the Gospel of John; London, James Clarke & Co., 1908.

2 The Historical Character of St John's Gospel; London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1908.

3 The Apocalypse of St John, i.-iii.; London, Macmillan & Co.,

1908.

4 Analyse der Offenbarung Johannes; Berlin, Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1907.

view, which are most naturally to be explained by a theory of documentary analysis, will find their faith strengthened by Wellhausen's acute examination.

I have little to mention on the Pauline epistles. G. Milligan's very full and thorough commentary on the Epistles to the Thessalonians1 is specially distinguished by its use of the papyri, as mentioned by Dr Moulton in last year's volume. In Zahn's commentary, Paul Ewald, who had previously written on Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon, now completes the imprisonment epistles with a commentary on Philippians.2 By the side of Rutherford's translation of the Epistle to the Romans, we can now set a posthumous volume containing translations of First and Second Thessalonians, First Corinthians, and Second Corinthians, 1-8.3 In a volume by Ramsay, we have most valuable and learned accounts of Tarsus, Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra, together with a discussion on Paulinism in the Graeco-Roman world. To his earlier works on the teaching of Jesus and of Paul, Du Bose has now added a characteristic discussion of the Epistle to the Hebrews.5

ARTHUR S. PEAKE.

1 St Paul's Epistles to the Thessalonians; London, Macmillan & Co., 1908.

2 Leipzig, A. Deichert'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Nachf. (Georg Böhme), 1908.

3 London, Macmillan & Co., 1908.

4 The Cities of St Paul; London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1907. High Priesthood and Sacrifice; London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1908.

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