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Jeast, that they are so, in a greater made on the nux vomica led to the same abundance, and more rapidly, than by conclusions; no convulsions appeared in the lacteal vessels.

the members of this fislı, the serves of M. Foilera, a young Sicilian physi. which had lost their anterior routs, but cian, has presented a Memoir, wherein those which bad only retained their posbe considers absorption and exhalation terior roots bad shocks as violent as if as a simple imbibition (imbibing) and a all the roots had remained untouched. transudation, which depend only on the The effects of the irritation are put su organic capillarity of the tissue of the distinct; there appears a number of convessels. The same physiologist has re- tractions, mixed with signs of seusibia peated, with great precision, the experi- lity, but the contractions excited by ments of Messrs. Woollaston, Brande, pinching or pricking the anterior roois and Marcet; which tend to prove that are marked more seusibly by iuliuile certain substances pass directly from the degrees. stomach into the reins and bladder, M. Geoffroy St. Hilairc, who has prowithout being drawn into the circu- duced a work on monstrosities, bas lation.

been extending his researches to a l'omThe following details certain facts ob. parison of the Organs of Dejection, and served by M. Majendic. The nerves those of Generation, in Birds, proceed. are, at once, the organs of sentiment ing, at length, 10 compare the genita! and of voluntary motion ; but these two organs in the two sexcs. Herein, all functions are not, entirely, depending the difficulties of the question are cola one on the other; the former may be an- lected. In these respects, the author nihilated, without any diminution of the considers the monotremes, those extraJatter, and vice versa. It has already ordinary quadrupeds of New Holland, been proved, that they have different which unite the shoulders of a reptile seals in the masses which compose the with the beak of a bird, and the strucbrain. Anatomists have been long en- ture of whose genital organs is so paradeavouring to ascertain whether they doxical, that, though they are boihave also, in the tissue of the nervous blooded, and have bodies covered with cordons, pendicles (des filets) exclu- bair, as quadrupeds, it is doubtfui uhesively assigned to them ; but, hitherto, ther they are not oviparous, like repliles. bypotheses have been advanced on this M. Geoffroy inclines to the aflirmative, head rather than positive facts. The relying on the testimony of a traveller, experiments of M. Majendie may seem who vouches for having observed the to resolve this problem definitively. The fact; and, according to report, las nerves that proceed from the spinal brought over to Europe some eggs of marrow derive their origin through two the ornithoryncus, the name of that sorts of roots or fillets, some anterior, singular species of animals. According others posterior, which unite at their to bis account, which he professes to issuing from tho spine, to form the trunk have received from the aboriginals of of cach pair of nerves. M. Majendie, the country, the female prepares a nest, having opened the spine of the back of a wherein she deposits two eggs. young dog, without injuring the nerves, The organization of the lamprey las or its marrow, proceeded to cat the pos- never been correctly discriminated as to terior roots only of some nerves, and he any distinctive index of sex. Messrs. instantly perceived that the correspond- Majendie and Desmoulins have ob ing member was insensible to any punc- seried, in an individual of this species, During or squeezing. He, at first, con- that it had an organ placed like the sidered it as paralysed; but soon, to hi's ovary of others; but, in its form or great surprise, saw it move very dis- structure, it was analogous to the organis tinctls. Three experiments producing of the male or the bad. At the same a similar eflect, he was led to think that time, and in the same river, another the posterior roots of the nerves might be lamprey, smaller, with ovaries more especially appropriated to sensibility, prominent, and visibly filled with eggs, and the anterior to motion. lle next was taken. Hence the former lamprey attempted to cut, separately, the ante- is supposed to be ouc of those males that rior roots, an operation much more dif- have been so long sought for: its liver ficult, and which, after a number of was of a dark green colour, the female's trials, he effected. The member then was of a reddish yellow. became faint and motionless, but retain- The approaches of the animal and ing the symptoms of sensibility. Trials vegetable kingdoms to each other, are

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by such of their respective species as are

cles resemble small batoons or staves. the most imperfect. The marine poly. Amongst the kinds that compose it is pus has long been considered as that animalcule, which, according to the plant; for a longer time, still, it was observations of M. Gaillon, is the real thought to be an intermediate being be- cause that produces the green colour of twcen the two kingdoms; but there are certain oysters. several other bodies that appear to be- M. Guyou bas sent from Martinico long to the animal kingdom, although, the description of a lecchi, twenty india during a part of their existence, they viduals of which he found in the nasal exbibit all the phenomena of vegetables. fosses or cavities of a beron, ( Ardea They bare, pretty generally, been virescens) of that island. If this were included in the family of conferves, the constant residence of that worm, (hairweerl); Adanson, however, bad the fact would be remarkable, as we are observed voluntary movement in one of nut acquainted with any other species of them, aud M. G. Chantran bad noticed, leech that lives, constantly, in the intein some others, corpuscles which had all rior of other aniinals. the appearances and properties of infi- · M. Lalnouroux bas described the sory animalcules. To obtain correct 10- polypus which inhabits a singular coral of tions in respect to this group of organ- ihe Ludian seas, and has been called the ized beings, a rigid examination became organ.player (Tubipora musica ). M. necessary. This M. B. de St. Vincent Delamarck bas terminated bis History bas iludertaken; placing under a mirro. of Animals tion-vertebrated, the seventh scope all the filaments he had discovered, and last volume of wbich comprehends in salt or fresh water, tracing, atten- the Moilasræ, the most elevated in sively, their metamorphoses and deve. point of organization. The History of lopnienis, he has uistinctly ascertained the Quadrupeds of the Menagerie, hy degrees of animality. The groupe of Messrs. F. Cuvier and Geoffroy si. fragillariated show but few signs of Hilaire, las come to its 36th number. animai existence; the oscillariated have M. Devaucel has given the description a movement similar to what their name and drawings of several animals from expresses ; in the conjugated, the fillets India; bis labours are emiching the at times draw near together, place them• cabinet of Natural History with a mul-selycs one beside and close to another, titude of valuable objects. M. L. communicating and conjoining the co- Dolatour has also placed, in that vast Jouring matter with which their articula- depot, the collections that he formed in tions are replenished, by means of small India, as also M. Anynste de St. lateral holes or mouths. One of the Hilaire, the produce of bis excursions articulations is emptying, while another into the interior of Brazil. M. de Feris charging into one or several globules, susac is proceeding on liis great work that appear to be the means of reproduce respecting Molluscæ of the land and tion. The zoocarpated are those glo- of fresh water. He bas begun the debules which have assumed all the cha- scription of fresh-water shells found in racters of real animals. After a certain the fossile slale, and instituted a compa. number of transformations, they burst rison between the living and fussile the case wherein the last metamorphosis species, treating, also, of a kind but was effected, and then have a voluntary little known, to which he gives the name movement, and swim about, rapidly, in of melanopsides. One point which lie every direction, like the animalcules to aims to prove is, that the different spc. which the name of Volvox has been cies of this last genus, and of several given. At another period they again others that abound in potter's clay, and become fixed, extending, lengthways, in the lignites, in several lower regions by the successive appearance and of Europe, are the same as those now growib of several articles or joints accu. found alive in more southern countries. mulating into another filament, which In medicine and surgery, the number - remailis motionless, till, in its turn, it of memoirs is considerable. An account produces a fresh generation, in the of these, with the judgment of the acasame order as the preceding. Each of demy respecting them, is postponed. these groupes is divided into several M. de Humboldt has announced his kinds, according to the detailed circum- intention to rear and bring the vigon or stances accurately specified by M. de llama 10 a state of domesticity, if prac. St. Vincent. To this numerous family ticable, previous to transporting them our naturalist has added another, which into Europe, where it is probablc thiey he terms bacilliarated, as these corpus- might live without degenerating.

M. Lem

M. Lemarc has presented to the aca. An indelible ink is becoming more and demy an apparatus, which he calls a more necessary in proportion to the imCalefactor, one that may be very usefully proving skill and industry of forgers. A employed in domestic economy. The manufacturer of Paris, M. de la Renaucylindrical vessel, placed in the middle, dière, has presented a sample of ink of is every where surrounded by the fuel this description, which combines all the that heats it, and the fuel is, itself, sur- desirable qualities, and which resists all rounded by another vessel in the shape the agents usually employed to efface of a crown, of the same height as that in writing. It has received the approba. the middle, and which is olled with tion of the academy, and the recipe of it water. The circular void between these is placed under soal in the secretary's two vessels, and which serves ofiice, to try whether it will retain its hearth, is pierced at the lower part with qualities; some other kinds, with similar small holes for the circulation of air. pretensions, having failed herein.

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NEW PATENTS AND MECHANICAL INVENTIONS,

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To JACOB PERKINS, of Fleet-street, steam-pipe, without a steam-chamber

London, Engineer ; for certain Im- immediately on the piston of a steamprovements in Steam-Engines. Parlly engine, or to be collected in a reservoir communicuted to him by a Foreigner or steam-chamber, and thence to aci on residing abroad.-Dec. 10, 1822. the piston, or for heating the water for

TR. Jacob Perkins declares the ordinary steam-engines, or for any other consist in bcating water, or other fluid further compliance with the said pro. or fluids, for the purpose of generating viso, he does hereby describe a manner steam for steam-engines, in a vessel or in which his said invention may be pervessels kept, during such process of formed, which manner is the best be heating, full of such water, or other has hitherto discovered, or is at this fluid or fluids, and also under pressure; time in possession of, or informed of, and which said vessel he sometimes and which is ascertained by the followsubstitutes for the ordinary boiler used ing description thereof.—The said gein steam-engines, and calls a generator. Derator may be heated by a variety By this arrangement steam is generaled of known furnaces, but the one he has with a much smaller quantity of fuel used and found to be the best, is one than by the ordinary boilers used in of the cupola kind fed by a blast: and steam-engines of a like power. And his safety-pipe, indicator, and forcinghe also declares that the nature of bis pump, are not new, but he claims ex. improvements further consists in cau- clusive privilege for the following imsing such water, or other Buid or fluids, provements only; that is to say: so heaied as aforesaid, to escape from First, for heating water, or other fluid under the said pressure, and pass at or fluids, for the purpose of generating once from the generator into the steam- steam for steam-engines, in a vessel or pipe, where it becomes steam or vapour, vessels kept (during such process of and in that form may pass thence to the beating) full of such water, or other cylinder, or to any other situation con- fluid or Quids, and under a pressure nected with a steam-engine, without greater than the expansive force of the the necessary intervention of any steam. steam to be generated from such water, chamber or other reservoir of steam. or other fluid or fluids, at the time of its Also, that the nature of bis improve- generation. ments consists in causing such escape of Secondly, for causing such water, or water, or other fluid or fluids, to tako other fluid or fluids, so beated as aforeplace, by forcing other water, or other said, to escape from under the said fluid or fluids, into the generator; and pressure, and pass at once from the gethereby maintaining the generator in nerator into the steam-pipe, where it that state of fulness required for the becomes steam or vapour, and in that purposes of his said invention. Also, form may pass thence to the cylinder, further consists in the application of the or to any other situation connected with hereinbefore declared improvemeiits gea stean-engine, without the necessary nerally, for the purpse of generating intervention of any steam-chamber, or steam for steam-engines, whether such other reservoir of steam. stean be employed to act through the Thirdly, for the manner of causing such water, or other huid or fluids, to pearance, and would in fact present a escape as aforesaid ; that is to say, by kind of screwed bolts, composed of as forcing other water, or other Anid or many threads as they were angles orifluids, into the generator, until the pres- ginally given to the piece of rod before sure against the steam.valve shall cause being thus twisted ; and such a piece of it to rise, the valve being so loaded as polygonal rod, when thus treated, may not to rise, except by means of such be considered as a bolt or nail of my extra pressure as aforesaid.

such

said improved form.- Repertory. Fourthly, for the general application of sucb water, or other fluid or fluids, LIST OF PATENTS FOR NEW INVENTIONS. so beated as aforesaid, and of the steam Edward Ollerenshaw, of Manchester, or vapour generated thereby, whether bat-manufacturer; for a method of dressing snch steam or vapour be employed and furnishing hats, by means of certain through a steam-pipe wit!out a steam. machinery and implements to be used and chamber or reservoir, to act immedi. applied thereto.—May 27, 1893. ately on the piston, or to be collected

Thomas Peel, of Manchester, esq. for in a reservoir or stcam-chamber, and municating motion by means of steam or

a rotary.engine for the purpose of com. thence to act on the piston, or only for

other gaseous media.-May 27. heating water to generate other steam,

Stephen Wilson, of Streatham, esq.; for or for any other purpose or purposes certain improvements in machinery for whatsoever ; provided always that such wcaving and winding. Communicated to general application as aforesaid be for him by certain foreigners residing abroad. the purposes of steam-engines.

--May 31.

John Mills, of Silver-street, London ; TO ALEXANDER LAW, of the Commer- and Herman William Fairman, merchants;

cial-road, Founder; for an Improve. for certain improvements in rendering ment in the form of Bolts and Nails leather, linen, tlax, sail-cloth, and certain for Ships, and other Fastenings. - cated to them by a certain foreiguer re

Communi. July 17, 1821.

siding abroad.-May 31. This improvement consists in giving the bolts and nails used for ships and turer; for certain improvements in dyeing.

Richard Badnall, of Leek, silk-nianufac. other fastenings such a form or figure, - June 3. that, when once driven home into their

Thomas Aitwood, of Birmingham, place, they cannot work themselves out banker; for certain improvements in the by jars or strains, and this he effects by making of cylinders for the printing of formiug them with four, five, or a cottons, calicos, and other articles. Com. greater number of sides, and consc- municaied to him by a person residing quently as many intervening angles; abroad. – June 3. and making the said sides and angles to

Thomas Milis, of Dudbridge, near wind round the axis of the bolt or nail Stroud, cloth.dresser; for certain improve. in a screw form, so that the said bolts ments on machines for shearing or cropping

Communicated to him or nails, when in the act of being driven by certain foreigners residing abroad. into a hole of proper size, revolve on

June S. their axis, as they are made to advance

Jacob Perkins, late of Philadelphia, but by the force applied to them; and the

now of Fleet-street, London, engineer; for pieces therewith bolted together are certain improvements in steam-engines. held much more securely than they Partly communicated to him by a certain would be with common bolts; as the foreigner residing abroad.--June 5. bolts thus formed cannot be drawn from Edward Cowper, of Kennington, me. either the one piece or the other, there- canist ; for certain improvements in with bolted together, by any of the machines and apparatus for printing cacommon strains to which such fasten- lico, linen, silk, vool, paper, and other ings are exposed, without absolutely substances capable of receiving printed

impressions.- June 10. tearing out a portion of the solid substance of the wood. Of these improved Tower-bill, gentleman ; for mean or means,

Robert Mushet, of ihe Royai Mint bolts and nails a proper idea may be process or processes, for improving the formed, by conceiving them, in the quality of copper and alloyed copper, approcess of manufacturing them, to be plicable to the sheathing of ships and other formed in the ürst place into polygonal purposes.—June 14. rods or prisms, of as many sides and in- Copies of the specifications, or further tervening angles as may be required, notices of any of these inventions, will be any portion of whiclı rod, if cquably inser:ed free of expense, on being trunsmitted

to the Editor, twisted, would assume a screwed ap

VARIETIES,

VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL;

Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.

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Wareneighbourey Libraries again

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E are glad to see Plans of Village and, if Spain had been educated, her

population would have risen en masse 112 afloat, and we once more recommend ihe armed banditti who now spread dethem to the zealous si!pport of our readers. solation thronglı her fertile provinces, They complete the education of the peo. Thegoud effects of Mr. MARTIN's Law ple. The national schools commence a against cruelty to animals begins to be system of generalinstruction, which these acted upon ihrough the nation, and perfect.' The good effects of schools are must tend to produce sentiments of hrlost if books are not provid. d for sub- manity among persons who hitherto have sequent amusement and instruction; treated animals as they would blocks of and these may be introduced into every stone. Rational beings, as they call village or neighbourly circle for ten or themselves, are nevertbeless so irratwelve grincas, and kept up at a guinea tional as seldom to reflect on the love of or two per unit). The hooks should lite and the feelings of creatures not es. not be of a cantins or gloomy descrip- actly in their own form; and this total tion, but should illustrate History, Geo- absence of the faculty of thinking in graphy, Biograplıy, Natural Knowledge, nine of every len of the human race is and Voyages and Travels. We have the cause of the numberless crnelties seen a computation that there already practised on beings as sensitive as otrexist in the United Kingdom not less selves. To the immortal honour of Mr. than 340 permanent subscription libra- Martin, he has, unaided, becur indela. ries, 1900 book societies of circulation, tigable in carrying his own Law into and double the number of village libra- action, and has brought to panishment ries, the annual purchase of books by the some of the brntal bipeds who abuse whole exceeding sixty thousand pounds, cattle in Smithfield, and who ill-treat and supplying one hundred thousand that noble animal the horse. We are persons with reading of a soliil and in- sorry to find that even Christians, who structive character. Besides these affect to respect the great moral lax. means of enlightening the public, there suffer it to operate only in regard in us. are above 1000 circulating libraries, jects whose reaction they fear. Ther which supply sentimental reading to the generally do as they would be done anto female sex; and, in the three kingdorns, when men as powerful as themselves, not short of 2,500 shops, which subsist and under cqual protectioa of tbe kv, wholly or chiefly by the sale of books. are concerned; but, when the oliject is All these serve more or less as antidotes defenceless, and under no legal protoc. to superstition and political stasery; tion, they then skin, boil, and roast alive, and, while they csist and Dourish, a without remorse, and inilict other tormillion of men in the liveries of power, tures too horrible to describe. The God the corruptions of parliament, and the of all must view these matters differchicanery of law, cannot cheat us of ently. those rights and privileges on which de- Mr. Roscoe has been long engaged pend our national cnergies and social on a variorum edition of Pope, and it prosperity. Behold this trae picture of may be expected to make iis appearBritain, all ye foreign nations who sigh ance in the ensuing winter. for liberty, and seek to enjoy it in paper Sir J. E. SMITH, president of the constitutions. These may please the eye Linncan Society, &c. has nearly ready of speculative pliilosophy, ljut the genius for publication the first portion of his of freedom will never fix her abode ex- English Flora. So much has been done cept among an educated population; in botany since the publication of this and, whenever a papei constitution is author's “ Flora Britannica" and "Enge promulgated, it should be accompanied Jish Botany," especially with regard 80 simultaneously by the instruction of the 'natural affinities;" and he has for tbirty whole population, and by the multipli- years past found so much to correct, in cation and activity or printing presses. The characters and synonyms of Britisha If France had thus been instructed by plants, that this will be entirely an eiNapolcon, the vjlo Cossacks would never ginal work. The language, also, is af

. have polluted her soil, nor the Bour- tempted to be reduceri to a correct bous have obtruded their abominations; standard. The genera are reformado

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