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The Gossypium arboreum, or tree cotton, is of ed why Linnæus should have bestowed on it so uch larger growth. If left without being pru. singular a title. It is cultivated in the Maori.. ed to luxuriate to its full height, it has sometius. There are two varieties of this species, mes attained to fifteen or twenty feet. The in the one the cotton is extremely white, in the aves grow upon long hairy footstalks, and are other it is of a yellowish brown, and is the ma. ivided into five deep spear-shaped lobes. This terial of which the stuff called nankeen is made; brub is a native of India, Arabia, and Egypt. it may therefore be presumed that this species is Another species is distinguished by the name a native of China, whence nankeen cloths are Gossypium religiosum. No reason is assign- I obtained.

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Of all the species the annual herbaceous plant riod is, however, well indicated by the spoatayields the most valuable produce. The "sea. neous bursting of the capsule or seed-pod. The island cotton," imported into England from Geor. plantations at this time present a very pleasing gia, bears a price double to that imported from appearance. The glossy dark green leaves fineany other country.

ly contrast with the white globular forms pro The quantity of cotton which each plant yields fusely scattered over the tree. In the East the is as various as its quality. Accordingly there produce is gathered by taking off the whole of are scarcely two concurrent opinions to be col. the pod. In other parts, and this is the more lected on this subject. The average produce per general practice, the seeds and cotton are taken English acre is reckoned by different writers at away, leaving the empty husks. The first is of various quantities, varying from one hundred course much the most expeditious method, but and fifty to two hundred and seventy pounds of it has a very serious disadvantage. The outer picked cotton.

part breaks in minute pieces and thus mixes with The cotton plant will grow in most situations the cotton, which cannot be freed from it withand soils, and is cultivated with very little trou. out much time and difficulty. Whichever meth. ble or expense. According to Humboldt, the lar. ocis pursued this work is always performed in ger species which attain to the magnitude of trees the morning before sunrise, as soon as possible require a mean annual temperature of 630 Fah. after the cotton displays itself, because long exrenheit ; the shrubby kind may be cultivated posure to the sun injures its color. The cotton with success under a mean temperature of 600 shrub does not in general last more than five or to 640. The plant is propagated by seed. six years in full or productive bearing; the plan

When the season has been favorable, the cot- tation is therefore generally after that period reton is in general fit for polling about seven or newed. eight months after it has been sown. This pel


(Cotton, showing a pod bursting.) The separation of the cotton from the seeds is Before the invention of spinning machinery in a very long and troublesome operation, when 1787, the demand for cotton wool in England performed by the hand; for the fibres of the was comparatively small. In the 17th century cotton adhere tenaciously to the seed, and some we obtained our trifling supply wholly free time is consumed in cleansing even a small weight Smyrna and Cyprus, and when we were ETB of so light a material. In the greater part of receiving it from our own colonies, we find ta india, the use of machinery for this purpose is from 1763 to 1787, the average annual in naknown, and all the cotton is picked by hand. I was barely four millions of pounds. In 19 A man can in this manner separate from the we imported 19,900,000 pounds ; viz, 5.800,00 reeds sonreely more than one pound of cotton in i pounds from the British West Indies : 9.100,00

day. The use of the machine called a gin, from the French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Datch very much facilitates the process. This machine Colonies ; and 5,000,000 from Smyrne est in general consists of two or three fluted rollers Turkey. not in motion by the foot in the manner of a tur! The average annual import for the last six ming lathe, and by its means one person may se- / years has been 777,372 packages-each bale varate and cleanse sixty-five pounds per day, weighing about 2 or 3 cwt. and thus, by the use of a simple piece of machi. Of 227,760,000 lbs. of cotton wool imported bery, increase his effective power sixty-five into the United Kingdom in 1828, 151,752,000 times. But a still greater increase may be ob- lbs. were from the United States; 29,143,000 Inined by the employment of more complex en- lbs. from Brazil ; 32,187,000 lbs. from the East gines. In the United States of America mills Indies ; 6,454,000 lbs. from Egypt ; 5,893,000 are constructed on a large scale, and which are | lbs. from the British West Indies ; 726,000 lbs. impelled by horses, steam, or other power. - from Columbia ; and 471,000 lbs. from Turkey Fight or nine hundred pounds of cotton are and Continental Greece. cleansed in a day by one of these machines, which requires the attendance of very few per. NOTICE TO PUBLISHERS. sons.

A Committee has been appointed by an EduEntirely to cleanse the cotton from any remain ! cational Convention of Teachers, Town Supering fragments of seed, it is subjected to another intendents and others, of the county of Seneca, process. This consists in whisking it abont in consisting of De Witt Clinton Van Siyek, George a light wheel, through which a current of air is H. Bottsford and Watts Livingston, to select a made to pass. As it is tossed out of this win. full series of Text-Books, and report the same nowing machine it is gathered up and conveyed to the County Institute” which convenes in to the packing-house, where, by means of screws, this village on the 15th of October next. it is forced into bags, each when filled weighing Authors are requested to furnish copies of about three hundred pounds. These are then such works as are puòlished by them, directed to sewed up and sent to the place of shipment, the care of E. R. Lundy, Waterloo. All works rewhere they are again pressed and reduced to half ceived, will be duly appreciated by the committee. their original size.

W. C. LIVINGSTON, Pres't. Com.


PUBLISHED BY HUNTING TON & SAVAGE, 216 PEARL-STREET, NEW-YORK. The Geography of the Heavens, and Class Book of i A Dictionary for Primary Schools. By Noah WebAstronomy, 1 vol. 18mo., accompanied by a Celestial ster. I vol. 16mo., 330 pp. Atlas, imperial 4to, neatly colored.

The Child's Picture Defining and Reading Book, by Contents of the Atlas.

the Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet. 1. Plan exhibiting the relative magnitudes, distances, The Malte Brun School Geography and Atlas, 288 and positions of the different bodies which compose the pages royal 18mo. and 32 engravings from original deSolar System. 2. The Visible Heavens in January, / signs. By S. Griswold Goodrich. February, and March. 3. The Visible Hearens in Oc- A practical Grammar of the English language, or an tober, November, and December. 4. The Visible Hea: introduction to Composition; in which the construcvens in July, August, and September. 6. The Visible tions of the language are classified into Predications Heavens in April, May, and Jane. 6. The Viaible Hea- and Phrases, by Edward Hazen, author of "The Synvens in the south polar regions for each month in the bolicae Spelling Book," "The Speller and Definer, year. 7. The Visible Heavens in the north polar regions and" Popular Technology, or Professions and Trades." for each month in the year. 8. The Planisphere of the Peter Parley's Geography for Children; illustrated whole Heavens, on Mercator's Projection. By E. A. with 9 maps and 75 engravings. Burritt, A. M., with an Introduction by Thomas Dick, Peter Parley's History of the World, 75 engravings. LL. D., author of the Christian Philosopher. Written A New Introduction to the Science of Algebra; de expressly for this work.

signed for Students in Colleges and the higher Schools Astronomy for Beginners, with a Map and twenty

and Academies. By Silas Totten, M. A., Presidentof geven Engravings. By Francis Fellowes, A. M.

Washington College, Connecticut. Familiar Lectures on Botany; practical, elementary, The Ecclesiastical Class Book, or History of t and physiological; with an appendix containing descrip. Chureh, from the birth of Christ, to the present time; tions of the Plants of the United States, the Exotics, adapted to the use of Academies and Schools. By &c.; also a Dictionary of the Symbolical language of Charles A. Goodrich. I vol. 18mo. Flowers.-1 vol. imperial 12mo., by Mrs. Almira H. Elements of Criticism by Henry Home, Lord Kaimes, Lincoln.

Judge of the Court of Sessions in Scotland, &c. &c. Botany for Beginners; an Introduction to Mrs. Lin. with Analyses and Translations of the Illustrations. coln's Lectures on Botany, for the use of Common Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of ladepend Schools and the Younger Pupils of Higher Schools and ence, with an introduction, giving a short sketch of the Academies. By Mrs. Lincoln Phelps, 1 vol. royal 18mo. causes which led to the Declaration of Independence,

Familiar Lectures on Natural Philosophy, for the use containing seven beautiful engravings on steel, among of Schools and Academies, 1 vol. 12 mo.

which is one taken from Col. Trumbull's celebrated Natural Philosophy for Beginners; designed for Com picture of the "Signing of the Declaration of Inde mon Schools and Families. By Mrs. Phelps, author of pendence." I vol. imperial 12ino. pp. 479. " Familiar Lectures on Botany," &e. I vol. 18mo.

| Townrow's Stenography; prepared expressly for Familiar Lectures on Chemistry, for the use of Schools Schools and private instruetion. and Academies. By Mrs. Phelps (formerly Mrs. Lin

O A number of recommendations from the highest coln,) I rol. 12mo.

Chemistry for Beginners: designed for Com. Schools sources, could be appended to each of the above menand the Younger Pupils of Higher Schools and Acade-lobed w

tioned works; but, from their extended and very gene mies, with Engravings. By Mrs. Phelps, 1 vol. 18mo.

ral use, the publishers deem this unnecessary. A Dictionary of the English Language : Abridged H. & S in addition to their own publications, keep me from the American Dictionary, for the use of Primary | assortment of School, Miscellaneous, and Classical Schools and the Counting-House. By Noah Webster, Books, and Stationery, which will be sold on the most LL. D. I vol. duodecimo, 650 pp.

llavorable terms.


Roe Lockwood and Son,

411 BROADWAY, NEW-YORK. The snbscribers keep constantly for sale I MITCH They have also just published two certificates for the ELL'S OUTLINE MAPS,” together with all of Tanger's district schools, beautifully engraved on steel, one for and Mitchell's complete maps, both general and local. monthly and the other for semi-annual distributioe. They would particolarize but one, and that was got up The last is surmonnted by a tasteful vignette, in whioh especially for the schools of this state; viz: Burr's the arms of the state are blended with the emblems of new and beautiful map of the State of New York--size, education. 4 feet by 4 feet 10 inches.

1 The subscribers also beg leave to say, that their na They bave globes of 5, 6, 10, 12, and 13 inches diamo. sort me pt of sehool books is not surpassed, if it is egnalter: and all except the first are made in the most per: led, by any other in this state. And it is their intention

c, as it regards both firmness and accuracy. I to sell for cash, at the lowest prices possible. Some of the maps are flered at prices greatly reduc. School committees and others wanting school books. ed, and the globes are sold at the manufacturers' low. I are respectfully solicited by the subscribers, to favor est rates. They are carefully packed in boxes, and eaa l them with orders. safely be transported to any part of the country.

The 13-inch Globes are of a new edition, with corrections, &c. to 1844.




BRU GRAPHIC MA P 8. www Waldeligste

w etenses are the following: m wag e as a tee Vap, Questions on the Map, and description Lo w wesend the loved the sailles pages ar on pages direcily opposite, enabling the

eshi www dinilen tosi huo the order, without the inconvenience of two books, Ja seed wat 'n we urting the leaf

uge et nuits S ports and generally on a larger scale, than in any other རw ངieཝཱ མི ཙན0

'n bees hoe die lug framed as to present a connected view of the to when was to make a wa vuniry

a. It Poulisagiatures de toit e series of short paragraphs, written in concise style, Quined in sollten in de solide hersing and characteristic matter.

wasomi UHAREMA Za teult kuumes is indicated by dividiog into syllohos Assassile

en l os probe with compusalzes views at the end of the volume are on the plan Balanced by we author in 1820, and since adopted in many other School Geographies. They are regarded as well átted to exercise and strengthen the judgment.

7. The new art up srograpite is applied for the first time to the illustration of a woud of this kund, and enables the publishers to sell it at a very low price.

The whole work is the result of loog and careful study, and is intended to impress upon the mind of the student such outlines of geography as will form the best foundation for farther and extensive acquisitions.

09- Confident of the superiority of MORSE'S SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY urer every other work of the kind, the publishers respectfully inform editors, teachfre, and superintendents of schools, that they may obtain gratuitously a copy of the Vaud for examination from the principal booksellers throughout the United States. 'l by typography of tho work, and iis peculiar adaptation to teaching, together will llo extreme choupnese, can hardly fail to command for it a general, if not a universal Aspent in the schools of our country.






| unanimously approved by the Board, and the book COBB'S SPELLING BOOK.

adopied. Philadelphia, April 9, 1944. COBB's JUVENILE READER

al a meeting of the Association of Teachers of the COBB'S JUVENILE READER,

the Public School Society of the city of New York, held COBB'S JUVENILE READER,

Feb. 171b, 1814, after a full discussion of the merits and COBR'S SEQUEL, OT READER,

peculiarities of Cobb's New series of Reading Books, a COBB'S 10 NORTH AM. READER, 4 b.

unanimous expression was made favorable to the said PRACTICAL ADVANTAGES OF THE CLASSIFICA works, and a committee appointed to communicate to

Mr. Cobb their entire and bearty approlation of them. TION OF COBB'S NEW SPELLING BOOK.

At a previous meeting of the same Association, the Words of similar terminition, combination, viher report from which the following extiact in relation to single or double consonants, &., Leing classed, the Cobb's New Spelling Book is taken. Was adopted. scholar is aided in spelling other words of the same "The work is strictly a Spelling Book fur Schools, ciass or common basis hy their similarity, thus learn and in the opinion of your Committee, is better calcu. ing the differences between the several words, instead lated, froin its strict regard to system throughout, to of constantly learning an entirely new, different, and overcome the difficulties that beset tbe way of the dissimilar word.

young learner of the ori bography of our language, than In this Spelling Book, and in this Spelling Pook only, any other book that bas come under our observation." all the varieties of towel and consonant sounds, and com. From the Priucipals of the Public Schools in Rochester. dinsions of siends are so classed as to make the scholar "We have no hesitation in bazarding the opinion that nactically and familiarly acquainted witb them, and I for all tie purposes for which a Speeling Book is need. also have theon permanently impressed upon bis mind.ed, this is far the most valuable one extant.

The easy words are separaled trom the dif cult ones, Of a series of Reading Books hy the same aathor, we thus giving the teacher an opportunity to drill or prac. can also speak in terms of approbation. He has adapt. tise the scholar a greater length of time on the difficulted his selections to the capacities of every class of than easy words, thereby saving from a THIRD to a half renders, con mencing with words of one syllable, and of the time of the scholar and teacher. usunily wasted | gradually rising to the higher order of composition, evor throun away by studying, pronouncing, and spelling Iery word in ench lesson, that requires explanation, be. over and over, again and ag 111, words which require no ing duiy accentuated and defined. Mudy, spelling, or repetition of the letters to impress Proceedings of the College of Teachers of the city of their orthography on the mind, as, from their analogy

Philadelphia. they are never spelled wrong.

" Me, LYMAN Cobe, By the use of this Spelling Book the words of similar Dear Sir: At stated meeting of the College of orthography and sound being classed together, the eye Teachers of Philadelphia, held on the evening of the und ear aci in concert or unison without confusion or 1 271h of March, 1844-It was doubt thus enabling the scholar to spell right instead Resolved, That in the opinion of this College, Mr. Ly.

or continually guessing at the orthograplay of man Cobb's Spelling Book, possesses superior merit; each word; as to spell wrong makes just as deep up and the arrangement of it, is beter suited for facilitaimpression upon the mind of the scholar as to sell ting tbe progress of the pupil, than any other they have right, hence the great importance of having a correct seen. repetition of the let ers alweys, instead of spelling righe Resolved, Secondly, that Mr. Cobb's Series of Read. a part of the time, and wrong a part of the time.

ers, though not without objectionable points, are cer. it is believed that a scholar will learn to speil by this tainly arranged on an admirable plan; and they believe system of classification in ONE HALT the time required by

by them calculated to make a child read more understand. any other system of classification ever devised

inxly, than any other books, of similar description they PRACTICAL ADVANTAGES OF COBB'S NEW have met with." SERIES OF READING BOOKS.

From the Proceedings of the Chenango County Con

vention of Superintendents and Friends of Education, All the new words contained in each Reading Lesson

January 171b, 1844. of these books are formed into a spelling Les-on, and Cobb's New Spelling Book is regarded as the best placed immediately before each Reading Lesson, each word being divided, accented, pronounced, defined, and

in the department.

Cobb's flew Series of Reading Books are recommend. the part of speech desia nated. By this system the scholar becomes a cquainied with and progressive improvement of scholars, in this

ed as unquestionably the best, for securing the early the ditsision, docentuation, pronunciation, and definition olcvery word be'ore he reads it.

brinch." The different shades of the meaning of words and

The following recommendation has been signed by a

great masy Practical Teachers (over three hundred,) their proper use and application can best be learned in

in the State of lew Jersey. connexion wiib oihr words. as in a cading lesson By this system a scholar "ill furin a fixed hubit of in-lving examined Cobb's New Series of School Books, con

"We, the undersigned, Teachers in New Jersey, ba. quiring in alier life, into the meaning of every ner

sisting of a Spelling and a Reading course, are of the word which may oocur in his daily or occasional read ing.

opinion that they are far superior to any series with By this system the worse than useless practice of learn.

which we are acquainted ; and therefore shall introIng the Webmitjons of words in the abstract columns of

duce them into our respec:ive schools as speedily as

the circumstances of the case will admit. a dictionary, onconnected with the sentences or para graphs in which the words are properly used, is entire

At a meeting of ibe New Jersey State Education Soly done away.

ciety, held June 7th, 1844, Cobb's New Spelling and By this syster the scholas is constantly rxercised in

Reading Books, were adopted by a large majority.

This series is also extensively used in the Public and the business of spelling in connexion with his reading, which in the ordinary plan of teaching the scholar tu

private schools or the cities of New York, Philadelphia, read is nearly or wholly omitted.

Albasiy, Ulica, Rochester, Buffalo, Reading, Harris. The puts of speech are designated so as to enable the

burgh, Burlington, Trenton, &c. &c., and have been reAchol. to know the precisp accent and pronunciation

commended and adopted by a great number of County or every word as well tbe change of orthograpby which

Conventions in tbis Stae. take place when words are one or the othis part of

In adaition to the above books, which are daily be.

coming more popular, the subscriber is prepared to speech.

supply Tenchers, School Committees, Country Mer. EXTRACTS FROM RECOMMENDATIONS. chants and the Book Trcde, with every variety of School (From th- Proceedings of the Board of Comptrollers of Books of any value, together with a general assortment the city and congty of Philadelphia )

of Stationery adapted to the book husiness. He also "The simplicity of Mr. Cobb arrangement and the respectfully calls the alleation of Teachers, &c., to a accuracy manifested in carrying it out, cominend bis #pulling Book it once to those who give their attention

IMPROVED SCHOOL SLATE, to an ei mination of it, and well potiue it to a place which for beauty, durability and cheapness, is unequalled on the list of books to be used in our Public Schools." I by any other state in use. The report from which tbe above is an extract, was

CALEB BARTLETT, 225 Pearl-st., cor. Plati.

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