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SCHOOLS IN HOLLAND. ferent parts of the world. Rev. Dr. Thomson, First part of the report on the establishments for ten years agent of the British and Foreign for public instruction in Holland by M. Cuvier. Bible Society, acting in Mexico and South Ame. It would be difficult to describe the effect rica, when he arrived at the city of Mexico, produced upon us by the first primary school from a visit to this city, ordered a considera- we entered, on our arrival in Holland. I was ble quantity of specimens of different kinds, at one of those maintained at the public expense, produced in part by those street scholars. A for the children of the poorest classes. Two large few days since, I received from him the third or rooms, well lighted and well ventilated, con. fourth package, containing some Indian curiosi- tained three hundred of those children, all ties. Ir the street boys and girls in New York cleanly dressed, arranging themselves without city can enter into exchanges with the Mexican any confusion, without noise, without rudeness, Indians, and in a manner to benefit schools doing all they were desired, in obedience to through our country, (for the specimens re- signals, without the necessity of the master ceived from Mexico have gone out to many parts sayıng a word. They learn by sure and ready of the country,) it will perhaps be difficult to methods, to read fluently, to write a good and propose any limits to the system of exchanges. correçt hand, to understand such arithmetic as Hurely New-York, with its admirable system of is required for ordinary life, both mental and county and town superintendents, can enter upon written, and to express their thoughts clearly it, and carry it out more completely, perhaps, in short written exercises. The books put into than in any other part of the Union.

their hands, and the examples they get to write, An exchange in county maps, simply, between advance by such judicious gradations, and the the schools of this state, would, as it seems to precepts and examples are intermingled so skil. me, be a great and good enterprise. These maps fully, that the children imbibe, at one and the might embrace, not only the geography, but the same time, the truths of religion, the maxims topography, geology, botany, and other depart. of morality, and that knowledge which will be ments of Natural History; also agriculture, useful to them, and afford them consolation in manufactories, internal improvements, educa. their unhappy lot. By means of frequent ques. tion, &c. &c. forming together, materials for tions, and by encouraging them to state iheir

New-York Bopk,” good for every school and difficulties, it is fully ascertained that they un. every citizen of the state. Please, my dear sir, derstand what they read. Prayers, and hymns to give that subject a thought.

sung by the whole school, both composed exI remain, as ever, with great respect, pressly for these children, and all breathing a Your friend,

spirit of duty and of gratitude, give a charm to J. HOLBROOK. the business of teaching, while at the same time

they impress upon it a religious and benevolent EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION. character, calculated to produce lasting effects.

One master, and two assistants, who might (By the author of Popular Lessons, School Friend, &c.] themselves be taken for pupils, maintain com.

plete order among this large number of children, To Dr. Chalmers' treatise on Political Eco- without any speaking; or angry words, or nomy, is appended a note, from the communica corporal punishment; but by interesting them tion of a gentleman residing in Holland to an in what they are about, and keeping their at. other in Scotland, setting forth the favorable lention constantly alive. change that had taken place of la te years in the The first sight of the school gave us an agree, general tone of manners and morals. The wri. able feeling of surprise ; but when we entered ter affirms that though the country had, during into an examination of the details, it was im. the last half century sustained many revolu. posible not to be sensibly affected, when one tions, and had suffered the decay of its com considered what these children would have come merce, and all the external evils incident to politi- to, had they been left unnoticed, and what they cal changes, yet the people were steadily advanc. then were. But we said to ourselves, this is ing in decorum, industry, intelligence, and com- perhaps a solitary case, the results of the exerfort; and he attributed this manifest improvement tions of a wealthy town, or of the zeal of some in their character and condition to their schools. citizens of unusaal liberality; we were assured,

A full exposition of the state of education in however, that the more we travelled through Holland has been made by Cousin, formerly the country the more we should see reason to minister of public instruction in France. alter that opinion; and so it turned out, for

Cousin's report was made in 1836, and has since wherever we weni, we found primary schools been translated into our language by Leonard on the same plan, with the exception of some Horner, Esq. His translation was published in few instances, in which superannuated teachers London, and has not been reprinted in this could not shake off their old habits of routine. country; but its subject matter, and undoubted Nor was it in the towns that we found them the authenticity, render it of great importance to best ; even on the frontiers of the country, in those who are seeking for all the lights of ex. Groningen, and many lengues from the great perience in practical education. A former corn lines of communication, we sa woprimary schools mission in 1911, had been entrusted by the in villages as numerously attended, and compoFrench government to the celebrated Baron sed of a better class of children, and altogether Cuvier, and the results of his statements are fully of a better description, ihan those in the great corroborated by the later report.

lowns : in the latter, the children of the opulent The account given in brief by Cuvier of the classes are educated at home, whereas in the schools he visited in Holland may be eminently villages they go to school like other children. instructive in this country, and on that account Wherever we went, we witnessed the same extracts from it are furnished to the Journal. gaiety, the same propriety, the same neatness,

both in the pupils and the master, and every the immediate and pervading presence of the where the same kind of instruction.

great Fountain of life, and light, and happiness. The most remarkable thing of all is, that they | To us the morat is one full of interest and inhave arrived at this state of excellence in a few struction. The gardens of Paradise are open to years; by means simple in themselves. A short all; the " tree of knowledge of good and evil” account of this important operation is essential is still standing in the midst ; and the solemn in. to the right fulfilment of our object.

junction of the Creator of our spirits, warning Thirty years ago, the inferior schools of us to beware lest we put forth our hands and Holland resembled those of the same class intake and eat of its forbidden fruit, is ever sound. other countries. Masters, nearly as ignorant ing in our ears. Shall this voice continue to be as the children they had to teach, succeeded unheeded, and the arts of the tempter still prevail, with difficulty to impart, in several years, a until the flaming sword of the angel of retributive slender amount of instruction in reading and justice debars us forever from the Eden of our writing to a small number of scholars. There existence? Shall we not rather listen to the voice was no general superintendence of the schools; of God, speaking through nature and revelation; the most of them were set up on private specu- learn to know ourselves, and our whole duty ; lation: the different religious secis maintained and cheerfully and intelligently fulfil the purposes several for their poor, under the supervision of and the end of our being, while we daily and their deacons ; but these schools were exclusive hourly reap the rich rewards of wisdom and ly for the children of the parish; those whose experience ? parents did not belong to some particular church To the YOUNG," the innocent in heart and were not provided for ; the Catholics bad no soul," for whom life still blooms in all the schools of the sort, although so numerous in the freshness and beauty of hope and truth, who country. The result of all these circumstances bask in the bright sunshine of moral purity and was, that a large proportion of the young were peace, little dreaming of the countless perils sunk in ignorance and immorality.

which surround them, breathing the ethereal

odors of a Paradise they have not as yet forTHE SPRING TIME OF LIFE. feited,--to such, how earnest, how unwearied,

should be our constant and most impressive (From S. S. RandaLL'3 "Mental and Moral Culture.”) admonition-Avoid the first approaches of the

tempter ; heed not for a wavering moment his Whence is it that, in the advanced stages of subtle and fatal voice; wrap yourselves in the existence, the "sere and yellow leat' of our being; sacred mantle of your innocence, and repose in the mind 'so loves to linger upon the scenes and trustful assurance upon the promises of the associations of life's opening dawn? that the heart Author of your being, the Dispenser of the rich forgets its withering sorrows and its bitter expe. blessings by which you are surrounded-blessings rience, and often and fondly recurs to the elastic you cannot now appreciate, but which once lost energies which prompted the glowing anticipa- can never be recalled. The conditions of prestions and bright hopes of childhood and inno. ent enjoyment and continued happiness, are cence? The memories thus invoked, come to us clearly unfolded to your mental and moral percep. loaded with freshness and fragrance ; with a tion by Him who called you into existence, and vivid impression of happiness and enjoyment, long curiously moulded the constitution of your being. unknown; with the distant echoes of a harmony, While those conditions are faithfully observed, which has ceased to vibrate upon our blunted that existence will prove a constant source of senses ; with a soul-subduing gentleness, which pleasure, an unfailing well-spring of improve. has power to unseal the deep sources of feelings, ment, a perpetual concord of sweet and harmo. whose destined current the cares and the passions, nious influences. Around and about you, on the anxieties and the sufferings, of worldly expe. every hand, are withered hopes, blasted expecrience have choked and suppressed. None are tations, irremediable sorrow, fruitless remorse, so far beyond the pale of humanity, as to be in pain, anguish, disease, premature decay, and accessible at times to these soothing and benig.death. Hope 'not to disobey the voice of God nant influences of our mysterious nature. The within your souls, and to escape these dire and conqueror, in his mad career of crime, borne bitter consequences of transgression. The rec, onward by the impetuous waves of passion, and ords of human experience, from the creation of revelling in severish dreams of ambition, power, the world to the present hour, furnish not a and fame; the miser, surrounded by his wealth; solitary instance of such an exemption from the the sensualist, by his luxurious appliances; and penalty denounced by the voice of the Almighty, even the doomed criminal, darkly brooding over Venture not, then, upon the fearful and most his career of guilt, and its fearful retribution ;- presumptous experiment. Walk while you may to each and all, the visions of early lite, of unsul. in the placid shades of innocence and virtue; lied innocence and undimmed purity of soul, commune with the Being whose presence will throng upon the mind, insensible though it may surround you at all times, and whose blessing; be to every other impression of goodness, of "even length of days and life forevermore, beauty, or of truth. It is the feeling which we will consecrate and reward your obedience to may imagine our first parents to have experienced his perfect laws. in all its intensity, when, after long years of wandering over the arid waste of a world no

So live, that when the summons comes to join

The innumerable caravan that moves longer clothed, to their eyes, in its primeval

To the pale realıns of shade, where each shall take freshness and verdure, they recalled the bright His chamber in the silent halls of death, image of the Paradise they had forfeited, --its Thou go noi, like the quarry-slave at night, ever-present delights, its hallowed scenes of quiet

Chained, to his dungeon, buí, sustained and soothed

By an unfaltering trust, approach iby grave bliss, its unceasing strains of celestial harmony, Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch and all the pure and holy influences lowing from About hia, and lies down to pleasing dreams."

MISCELLAN Y.

MAHOGANY.

centuries, expands to such a gigantic trunk,

throws out such massive arms, and spreads the

shade of its shining green leaves over such a The common mahogany (called by botanists vast surface, that even the proudest oaks of our Swieteria mahagoni) is one of the most majestic forests appear insignificant in comparison with troes of the whole world. There are trees of it. A single log, such as is brought to this coun. greater height than the mahogany—but in Cuba try from Honduras, not unfrequently weighs six and Honduras this tree, during a growth of two or seven tons.

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(Mahogany Tree.) When we consider the enormous size of a the latter number. They are composed of slaves trunk of mahogany, and further learn that the and free persons, without any comparative dismost valuable timber grows in the most inacces. tinction of rank, and it very frequently occurs sible situations, it must be evident that a great that the conductor of such work, here styled the portion of the price of this timber must be made Captain, is a slave. Each gang has also one up of the cost of the labor required for trans. person belonging to it termed the Huntsman. porting it from its native forests to the place of He is generally selected from the most intelli. its embarkation for other countries. The mode in gent of his fellows, and his chief occupation is which this difficult work is accomplished is high- to search the woods, or, as it is called, the bush, ly interesting; and we have, fortunately, the to find labor for the whole. Accordingly, about means of giving an account of the process the beginning of August, the huntsman is de. (which, we believe, has never before been mi. spatched on his important mission. He cuts his nately described in any publication,) from some way through the thickest of the woods to some statements printed in a Honduras Almanac, elevated situation, and climbs the tallest tree he which has been kindly put into our hands for finds, from which he minutely surveys the sur. this purpose.

rounding country. At this season the leaves of The season for cutting the mahogany usually the mahogany tree are invariably of a yellow commences about the month of August. The reddish bue, and an eye accustomed to this kind gangs of laborers employed in this work con. of exercise, can, at a great distance, discern the gist of from twenty to tifty cach, but few exceed places where the wood is most abundant. He now descends, and to such places his steps are cleared of brush-wood, they still require the directed; and, without compass, or other guide labor of hoes, pick-axes, and sledge hammers, than what observation has imprinted on his re. to level down the hillocks, to break the rocks, collection, he never fails to reach the exact point and to cut such of the remaining stumps as at which he aims. On some occasions no ordi. might impede the wheels that are hereafter to nary stratagem is necessary to be resorted to by pass over them. the huntsman, to prevent others from availing The roads being now in a state of readiness, themselves of the advantage of his discoveries; which may generally be effected by the month for, if his steps be traced by those who may be of December, the cross-cutting, as it is techai. engaged in the same pursuit, which is a very cally called, commences. This is merely divid. common thing, all his ingenuity must be exerted ing cross-wise, by means of saws, each mahoto beguile them from the true scent. In this, gany tree into logs, according to their length; however, he is not always successful, being fol. and it often occurs, that while some are but long lowed by those who are entirely aware of all the enougb for one log, others, on the contrary, wit arts he may use, and whose eyes are so quick admit of four or five being cut from the same that the lightest turn of a lear, or the saintest trunk or stem. The chief guide for dividing the impression of the foot, is unerringly perceived. trees into logs is the necessity for equalizing the The treasure being, however, reached by one loads the cattle have to draw. Consequently, party or another, the next operation is the fell as the tree increases in thickness, the logs are ing of a sufficient number of trees to employ the reduced in length. This however, does not al. gang during the season. The mahogany tree is together obviate the irregularity of the loads, commonly cut about ten or twelve feet from the and a supply of oxen are constantly kept in rea. ground, a stage being erected for the axe-man diness to add to the usual number, according to employed in levelling it. The trunk of the tree, the weight of the log. This becomes unavoida. from the dimensions of the wood it furnishes, is ble, from the very great difference of size of the deemed the most valuable; but, for ornamental mahogany trees, the logs taken from one tree purposes, the limbs, or branches, are generally being about 300 cubic feet, while those from the preferred.

next may be as many thousand. The largest A sufficient number of trees being felled to oc. log ever cut in Honduras was of the following cupy the gang during the season, they commence dimensions: Length, 17 feet; breadth, 57 inches; cutting the roads upon which they are to be depth, 64 inches; measuring 5,168 superficial transported. This may fairly be estimated at feet, or 15 tons weight. two-thirds of the labor and expense of mahoga. The sawing being now completed, the logs are ny cutting. Each mahogany work forms in itself reduced, by means of the axe, from the round a small village on the bank of a river-the choice or natural form, into the square. The month of of situation being always regulated by the proxi. March is now reached, when all the preparation mity of such river to the mahogany intended as before described is, or ought to be, completed; the object of future operations.

when the dry season, or time of drawing down After completing the establishment of a suffi. the logs from the place of their growth com. cient number of huts for the accommodation of mences. This process can only be carried on in the workmen, a main road is opened from the the months of April and May: the ground, dur. settlement, in a direction as near as possible to ing all the rest of the year, being too soft to ad. the centre of the body of trees so felled, into. mit of a heavily laden track to pass over it with which branch-roads are afterwards introduced, 1 out sinking. It is now necessary that not a mo. the grounds through which the roads are to run ment should be lost in drawing out the wood to being yet a mass of dense forest, both of high the river. trees and underwood. The laborers commence A gang of forty men is generally capable of by clearing away the underwood with cutlasses. working six trucks. Each truck requires seven This labor is usually performed by task.work, pair of oxen and two drivers; sixteen to cut food of one hundred yards, each man, per day. The for the cattle, and twelve to load or put the logs underwood being removed, the larger trees are on the carriages. From the intense heat of the then cut down by the axe, as even with the sun, the cattle, especially, would be unable to ground as possible, the task being also at this work during its influence; and, consequently, work one hundred yards per day to each laborer. the loading and carriage of the timber is per. The hard woods growing here, on failure of the forined in the night. The logs are placed upon axe, are removed by the application of fire. the trucks by means of a temporary platform The trunks of these trees, although many of laid from the edge of the truck to a sufficient them are valuable, such as bullet-tree, ironwood, distance upon the ground, so as to make an in. redwood, and sapodilla, are thrown away as clined plane, upon which the log is gradually useless, unless they happen to be adjacent to pushed up by bodily labor, without any further some creek or small river, which may intersect mechanical aid. the road. In that case they are applied to the The operations of loading and carrying are construction of bridges, which are frequently of thus principally performed during the hours of considerable size, and require great labor to darkness. The torches employed are, pieces of make them of sufficient strength to bear such wood split from the trunk of the pitch-pine. immense loads as are brought over them. The river-side is generally reached by the wea.

If the mahogany trees are much dispersed or ried drivers and cattle before the sun is at its scattered, the labor and extent of road-cutting highest power; and the logs, marked with the is, of course, greatly increased. It not unfro owner's initials, are thrown into the river. quently occurs that miles of road and many 'About the end of May the periodical rains bridges are made to a single tree, that may ulti. again commence; the torrents of water discharg. mately yield but one log. When roeds are all from the clouds are so great as to render the roads impassable in the course of a few hours, etors, where they are taken out of the water, when all trucking ceases. About the middle of and undergo a second process of the axe, to June the rivers are swollen to an immense height. make the surface smooth. The ends, which The logs then float down a distance of two hun. frequently get split and rent by being dashed dred miles, being followed by the gang in pit-against rocks in the river by the force of the pans, (a kind of lat. bottomed canoe,) to disen. current, are also sawed off. They are aow gage them from the branches of the overhanging ready for shipping. trees, outil they are stopped by a boom placed The ships clearing out from Balize, the prinin some situation convenient to the mouth of the cipal port of Honduras, with their valuable river. Each gang then separates its own cut- freight of mahogany, either go direct to England, ting, by the marks on the ends of the logs, and or take their cargo to some free warehousing port forms them into large rasts; in which state they in the British Possessions, in the West Indies, are brought down to the wharves of the propri or America.- Penny Maguzine.

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BY ROBERT THE RHYMESTER.

COUNSELS FOR THE YOUNG.

He that revenges knows no rest;

The meek possess a peaceful breast.
If you have an enemy act kindly to him, and

make him your friend. You may not win him Never be cast down by trifes. If a spider over at once, but try again. Lei one kindness breaks his thread twenty times, twenty times be followed by another, till you have compassed will he mend it again. Make up your minds to your end. By little and little great things are do a thing, and you will do it." Fear not if a completed. trouble comes upon you ; keep up your spirits,

Water falling, day by day,

Wears the hardest rock away. though the day be a dark one.

And so repeated kindness will soften a heart of Troubles never stop for ever, The darkest day will pass away!

stone. If the sun is gone down, look up at the stars ; if

Whatever you do, do it willingly. A boy that the earth is dark, keep your eyes on heaven! is whipped 10 school never learns his lesson well. With God's presence and God's promises, a man A man that is compelled to work cares not how or a child may be always cheerful.

badly it is performed. He that pulls off his coat Never despair when i he fog's in the air! cheerfully, strips up his sleeves in earnest, and

A sunshiny morning will come without warning. sings while he works, is the man for me. Mind what you run after! Never be con- A cheerful spirit gets on quick;. tented with a bubble that will burst, or with a A grambler in the mud will stick. firework that will end in smoke and darkness.

Evil thoughts are worse enemies than lions Get that#which you can keep, and which is worth and tigers, for we can keep keep out of the way keeping.

of wild beasts, but bad thoughts win their way Something sterling that will stay

everywhere. The cap that is full will hold no When gold and silver fiy away.

more; heep your heads and your hearts full of Fight hard against a hasty temper. Anger good thoughis, that bad thoughts may find no will come ; but resist it stoutly. A spark mayroom. set a house on fire. A fit of passion may give Bc on your goard, and strive, and pray, you cause to mourn all the days of your life. To drive ali evil thoughts away. Never revenge an injury.

Youth's Penny Gazette.

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