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government that Connecticut and Rhode Island retained t their organic law for about forty and seventy years, respe after they had ceased to own allegiance to the British croy

The more important of these fundamental laws whi interwoven throughout the fabric of our government a tained in the following charters:

Carolina.— The first charter granted by Charles II lords proprietors of Carolina, March 20, 1661, in the fi year of his reign.

The second charter granted by Charles II to the lords tors of Carolina, June 30, 1664, in the eighteenth year reign.

Connecticut.- Charter granted by Charles II to the Connecticut, April 20, 1662, in the sixteenth year of h Retained until 1818.

Georgia. - Charter granted by George II to the ce Georgia, June 9, 1732, in the fifth year of his reign.

Maryland.-- Charter granted by Charles I to Caecil baron of Baltimore, for the colony of Maryland, June 28, the seventeenth year of his reign.

Massachusetts.- Charter of the Plymouth company, N 3, 1620, granted by James I, in the eighteenth year of 1 (By this instrument forty noblemen, knights and gentlei incorporated under the title of “The council establ Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, ruli ing and governing of New England in America.” foundation of all the first grants of territory of New Er

Charter granted by Charles I to the colony of Mass Bay, March 19, 1633, in the eighteenth year of his reign

Charter granted by William and Mary to the inha the province of the Massachusetts Bay, in New Englan 7, 1691, in the third year of their reign.

New Jersey.— Duke of York's release to John, Lord and Sir George Carteret, June 24, 1664.

Concession and agreement of the lords proprietors of the Province Nova Casearea or New Jersey to and with all and every the adventurers and all such as shall settle or plant there, February 10, 1664.

New York.— Liberties or privileges granted by the Assembly of Nineteen of the authorized West India Company to all such as shall or may settle or plant any colony in New Netherlands, 1629.

Grant of New Netherlands to the Duke of York by Charles II, March 12, 1664, in the eighteenth year of his reign.

Pennsylvania.- Charter granted by Charles II to William Penn for the colony of Pennsylvania, February 28, 1661, in the fifteenth year of his reign.

The charter of privileges granted by William Penn, Esq., to the inhabitants of Pennsylvania and territories, October 28, 1701.

Rhode Island. - Charter granted by Charles II to the colony of Rhode Island and Providence plantations, July 8, 1663, in the seventeenth year of his reign. Retained until 1842.

Virginia. - Charter granted by James I to Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers and others for the several colonies and plantations to be made in Virginia and other parts and territories in America, April 10, 1606, in the fourth year of his reign.

Charter granted by James I to the treasurer and company for Virginia, erecting them into a corporation and body politic and for the further enlargement and explanation of the privileges of the said company and first colony of Virginia, March 23, 1609, in the seventh year of his reign.

The charter granted by James I to the treasurer and company of Virginia, March 12, 161 1-2.


JULY 4, 1776.



Thirteen United States of America. .

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their Creator, with certain unalienable rights, and among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate, that governments long established, should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath aon, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide

new guards for their future security. Such has been the sufferance of these Colonies, and such is now the necessity constrains them to alter their former systems of gover The history of the present King of Great Britain is a his repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these Sta prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholeso necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immed pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommod large districts of people, unless those people would r the right of representation in the Legislature, a right in to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places uncomfortable and distant from the depository of the records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into co with his measures.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, ing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of t

He has refused, for a long time, after such dissol cause others to be elected; whereby the legislativ incapable of annihilation, have returned to the peopl for their exercise; the State remaining, in the exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without vulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of the for that purpose obstructing the laws for natura foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriatio

He has obstructed the administration of justice his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for of their offices, and the amount and payment of thei

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat ou stance.

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