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If any to the world indeed return,
First somewhat pausing, till the mournful words
He thus resumed : “ So may he do for thee
Thereat the trunk breathed hard, and the wind soon
Attentive yet to listen to the trunk
97. “The fierce soul” of the suicide. figures of his famous fresco in the Sistine
105. At the Last Judgment we, like all other Chapel. souls, shall receive our human forms, but shall 118. The violent against themselves, in that not be allowed to wear them. Michael Angelo they squandered the blessings God had given has made use of this idea in one of the central them.
Exclaiming, “ Lano! not so bent for speed
When o'er it he had paused, my master spake: “ Say who wast thou, that at so many points Breathest out with blood thy lamentable speech ? "
He answered : 60 ye spirits! arrived in time
122. Lano, a Sienese, who, being reduced appeased; and if some remains of his statue by prodigality to a state of extreme want, found were not still visible on the bridge over the his existence no longer supportable; and hav- Arno, she would have been already levelled to ing been sent by his countrymen on a military the ground; and thus the citizens, who raised expedition to assist the Florentines against the her again from the ashes to which Attila had Aretines, took that opportunity of exposing him- reduced her, would have labored in vain.” See self to certain death, in the engagement which Paradise, Canto xvi. 45. The relic of antiquity, took place at Toppo near Arezzo.
to which the superstition of Florence attached 123. The thicket contains the soul of Rocco so high an importance, was carried away by a de' Mozzi or Lòtto degli Agli. He tells his food, that destroyed the bridge on which it story in lines 144 ff.
stood, in the year 1337, but without the ill 133. Jacopo da Sant' Andrea, a Paduan, who, effects that were apprehended from the loss of having wasted his property in the most wanton their fancied Palladium. acts of profusion, killed himself in despair. 150. It was believed in Dante's time that
144. “I was an inhabitant of Florence, that Attila had destroyed Florence, and that the city. city which changed her first patron Mars for St. had been rebuilt by Charlemagne. This is, John the Baptist; for which reason the ven- however, only a tradition. geance of the deity thus slighted will never be
They arrive at the beginning of the third of those compartments into which this
seventh circle is divided. It is a plain of dry and hot sand, where three kinds of violence are punished; namely, against God, against Nature, and against Art; and those who have thus sinned, are tormented by flakes of fire, which are eternally showering down upon them. Among the violent against God is found Capaneus, whose blasphemies they hear. Next, turning to the left along the forest of selfslayers, and having journeyed a little onwards, they meet with a streamlet of blood that issues from the forest and traverses the sandy plain. Here Virgil speaks to our Poet of a huge ancient statue that stands within Mount Ida in Crete, from a fissure in which statue there is a dripping of tears, froin which the said streamlet, together with the three other infernal rivers, are formed.
Soon as the charity of native land
Vengeance of heaven! Oh! how shouldst thou be feared
Of naked spirits many a flock I saw,
O'er all the sand fell slowly wafting down
1. The spirit contained in the bush had said 19. The violent against God, or blasphemers, that he was a Florentine. See Canto xiii. 144. . lie supine; the violent against Art, or usurers,
15. The Libyan desert, traversed by Cato sit still; the violent against Nature, or Sodomwhen he led the remnant of Pompey's army to ites, run over the plain unceasingly. Juba, king of Numidia. Cf. Lucan, Pharsalia,
As, in the torrid Indian clime, the son
Straight he himself, who was aware I asked
Then thus my guide, in accent higher raised
28. In the pretended letter of Alexander the 53. Mongibello = Mount Ætna in Sicily, Great (" Son of Ammon”) to Aristotle, it is told where the poets place the smithy of Vulcan. how first snow, then fire, fell upon his army. “More hot than Ætn' or flaming Mongibell." He ordered his soldiers to trample down the
Spenser, F. Q. ii. 9, 29. snow as it fell in order that it might not cover 54. The original reads, – them; but he ordered them to spread out their
“Buon Vulcano, ajuta, ajuta." garments against the fire. Dante seems to have For the sake of metre Cary uses Mulciber, taken confused these two supposed facts.
from Milton, – 42. At the gate of the city of Dis.
"and in Ansonian land 43. This is Capaneus, one of the seven kings
Men called him Mulciber." who besieged Thebes. Having mounted the
Par. Lost, i. 739, 740. walls, he defied Jupiter himself to help the 55. Battle between the giants and Jupiter, in city, and was destroyed for his presumption. which the former piled one mountain on another
Statius, Theb. x. 845 ff. in order to scale the heavens. Phlegra is a val49. Vulcan, who made the thunderbolts for ley in Thessaly, where the battle took place. Jupiter.
Next turning round to me, with milder lip
“Of all that I have shown thee, since that gate
So spake my guide, and I him thence besought,
“In midst of ocean," forthwith he began,
order to prevent the child's cries from being 76. A warm medicinal spring near Viterbo, a heard commanded the Corybantes to make loud very popular resort in Dante's time. It seems noises. to have been especially frequented by women of 99. Virgil describes here the origin of the ill fame.
Infernal rivers. The statue of the old man is 81. The entrance to Hell.
taken from Nebuchadnezzar's dream in the go. Crete, an island of the Mediterranean, Book of Daniel, only its meaning is different. birthplace of Jupiter, from whom the Trojans, The latter represents the four monarchies of and hence the Romans, draw their origin. antiquity, the former the different ages of man,
91. The reign of Saturn was the golden age. the gradual deterioration of which is repreCf. Æn. viii. 319 ff.
sented by the gold, silver, brass, and iron. The 96. Rhea concealed her son Jupiter from his foot of clay represents the present age, the worst father Saturn, who devoured his children, and in of all. The back turned to Damietta and face