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M. Chamisso, a naturalist who accompanied one month; twelve months, or three hundred Kotzebue, is of such a height that it remains al. and sixty-five days six hours, one year. most dry at low water, the corals leave off D. Who named the days? building. A continuous mass of solid stone is M. They are derived from certain Saxon ob. seen, composed of the shells of molluscs and jects of worship, as Sunday from the Sun; Monechini, with their broken-off prickles and frag. day from the Moon; Tuisco, the same with the ments of coral, united by a cement of calcareous Roman Mars, gave name to Tuesday; Wednes. sand, produced by the pulverization of shells. day from Woden, their god of battle; Thursday Fragments of coral limestone are thrown up by from Furanes, the same with the Danish Thor, the waves, until the ridge becomes so high that the god of winds and weather; Friday from it is covered only during some seasons of the Friga, otherwise called Venus, who was some. year by the high tides. The heat of the sun times worshiped as the goddess of peace and often penetrates the mass of stone when it is plenty; Saturday, either from Seator, the god dry, so that it splits in many places. The of freedom, or from the planet Saturn. force of the waves is thereby enabled to sepa. D. I will write these names down, that I rate and list blocks of coral, frequently six feet may not forget them. Will you now be so kind long and three or four in thickness, and throw as to tell me from what the months are called! them upon the reef. “ After this the calcareous M. The Romans named nearly all the months sand lies undisturbed, and offers to the seeds of from some of their divinities and emperors, viz: trees and plants cast upon it by the waves, a January from Janus, who was represented with soil, upon which they rapidly grow, to over. two faces, one looking towards the new year, shadow its dazzling white surface. Entire the other towards the old. February named by trunks of trees, which are carried by the ri. Romulus, from Februa, the mother of Mars. vers from other countries and islands, find here, March from Mars, the god of war; April from at length, a resting place after their long wan: the Latin word Aperio, signifying to open the derings ; with these come small animals, such year or blossom; May from Maia, the mother as lizards and insects, as the first inhabitants. of Mercury; June from Juno, the wife of Jupi. Even before the trees form a wood, the sea. ter; July was named by Mark Anthony, in hobirds nestle here; strayed land-birds take re. nor of Julius Cæsar, a celebrated Roman; Aufuge in the bushes; and, at a much later period, gust from Augustus Cæsar, also a Roman Emwhen the work has been long since completed, peror; September from Septem, the seventh man appears, and builds his hat on the fruitful month of the Roman year; October from Octo, soil.”—[ Kotzebue's Voyages, as quoted by Lyell. the eighth month; November from Novem, the

ninth month; December from Decem, the tenth

month of the Roman year. Youth's Miscellany.

D. I always thought till now, that December

was the twelfth month of the year. DIVISIONS OF TIME.

M. It is, according to our reckoning; but the Romans began to count their year from March,

as also did many other ancient nations; and this D. I should like to know something of the seems to be the most natural arrangement, as it divisions of time. You know when I was so is in Spring vegetation commences. very sorry that our beautiful flowers were all D. Did the Romans call the days of the withered and dead, you told me that in another week by the same names as those by which we year, the plants would again put forth leaves distinguish ours? and blossoms. I shall be very glad when an. M. No. They were called from the planets: other year comes, that I may again gather as Dies Solis, of the Sun; Luna, Moon; Martis, flowers to ornament our parlor; but I wish to Mars; Mercurii, Mercury; Jovis, Jupiter; Ve. know what is a year?

neris, Venus; and Saturni, Saturn. M. This morning you rose at six, and it is D. I very well know there are in the year, now six in the evening; tell me how many hours or in twelve months, four seasons, Spring, Sum. have passed since you rose from bed ?

mer, Autumn, and Winter; but why was the D. Twelve.

year so divided ? M. Well, twelve hours more must pass be- M. For convenience in reckoning; it is likely fore the sun will again rouse you from your the ancients, observing that the days were not slumbers; add, then, these twelve to the twelve all of a length, together with all the variations of to-day, and what will be the number? from heat to cold, were led to divide the year D. Twenty-four.

thus into four seasons. The changes of the moon M. Day and night, taken together, make a were regular, and obvious to every eye, and solar day, or the space from one sun-rising to consequently formed another division of the another; or it is that portion of time during year into moons or months. which the earth makes one revolution round its D. How did they find out the hours? axis. Most Europeans begin their day and M. It is likely various devices were adopted; hours at midnight. The Italians, however, be. but at first it was found necessary to divide the gin their day at sunset, from which to the fol. days from one sun-rising to the next. lowing evening they reckon twenty-four hours. D. And how did they measure time? The Turks begin their day at a quarter of an M. The Romans, one hundred and fifty years hour after sun-set. Most of the Italian clocks before Christ was born, measured time by means strike twenty-four hours; for instance, an hour of water; the same quantity pouring from one past twelve they strike thirteen, instead of one, vessel to another, as sand runs through an hour as do our clocks, and so on to twenty-four. In glass, which was a later invention. They also numbering, time, we say, twenty.four hours filled tall narrow-necked vials with water, on make one day; seven days one week; four weeks' the top of which floated a cork; the water 'ran out very slowly, through small holes in the bot. ed with a pleasing utterance. What is it which tom of these vials, and, as it lessened, the cork lulls the infant to repose? It is no array of mere descended, and showed by marks on the outside words. There is no charm to the untaught one how many hours had passed since it began to in letters, syllables, and sentences. It is the run. At length sun-dials came into use. The sound which strikes the little ear, that soothes first, of which we have any notice in the History and composes it to sleep. A few notes, howev. of Rome, was that erected by Papirius Cursor; er unskilfully arranged, if uttered in a soft tone, we learn from Scripture, however, that dials are found to possess a magic influence. Think were in use among the Jews, as early, if not we that this influence is confined to the cradle ? earlier, than the reign of Ahaz.

No, it is diffused over every age, and ceases not D. When were clocks invented ?

while the child remains under the paternal roof. M. Clocks and watches are of still more re. Is the boy growing rude in manner and boiste. cent date; great skill in mechanics was requi. rous in speech? I know of no instrument so site to bring them to their present degree of per. sure to control these tendencies as the gentle fection. A striking clock was unknown till the tones of a mother. She who speaks to her end of the twelfth century; and the first set up son harshly, does but give to his conduct the in England was at Westminster, in 1288. It is sanction of her own example. She pours oil said watches were first made in the city of Nu. on the already raging flame. remburg.

In the pressure of duty, we are liable to utter D. How are they set in'motion ?

ourselves hastily to our children. Perhaps a M. Watches move by an elastic steel spring, threat is expressed in a loud and irritating tone. which is coiled up in the case, and, seeking to Instead of allaying the passions of the child, uncoil itself, gives motion to a wheel which it serves directly to increase them. Every fret. turns all the others. Clocks are moved by a ful expression awakens in him the same spirit weight which turns a cylinder, and thus gives which produced it. motion to the wheels.

D. Mother, I do not exactly know what you THINGS BY THEIR RIGHT NAMES. mean, when you say in the twelfth century, and 1288.

CHARLES. Father, you grow very lazy.-M. That is, I suppose, you do not know Last winter you used to tell us stories, and now what a century is?

you never tell us any; and we are all sitting D. Not certainly.

round aite ready to hear you. Pray, dear faM. A century is a hundred years. Eighteen ther, do let us have a pretty one. centuries, and more than one-fourth of the nine

FATHER. With all my heart; what shall it teenth, have passed since the birth of Jesus be? Christ. Our years are reckoned from his birth; C. A bloody murder, father. thus, it was not till 1288 years after the coming F. A bloody murder! Well, then, once upof Christ, that striking clocks were invented. on a time, some men, dressed all alike

C. With black crapes over their faces ? POWER OF THE VOICE OVER CHILDREN. F. No, they had steel caps on. Having

crossed a heath, they wound cautiously along It is usual to attempt the management of the skirts of a deep forestchildren either by corporal punishment, or by C. They were ill looking fellows, I dare say. rewards addressed to the senses, or by words F. I cannot say so; 'on the contrary, they alone. There is one other means of govern- were tall personablemen-leaving on their right ment, the power and importance of which are hand an old ruined tower on the hillseldom regarded. I refer to the human voice. C. At midnight, just as the clock struck 12, A blow may be inflicted on a child accompanied | was it not, father ? by words so uttered, as to counteract entirely F. No, really, on a fine balmy summer's its intended effect. Or, the parent may use morning-and they moved forward, one behind language in a correction of her child, not objec. anothertionable in itself, yet spoken in a tone which C. As still as death, creeping along under more than defeats its influence.

the hedges ? We are by no means aware of the power F. On the contrary, they walked remarkably of voice in swaying the feelings of the soul. upright; and so far from endeavoring to be The anecdote of the good lady in regard to her hushed and still, they made a loud noise as they minister's sermons is to the point. She heard a came along, with several sorts of instruments. discourse from him which pleased her exceed. C. But, father, they would be found out imingly. She expressed to a friend the hope that (mediately. he would preach it again.

F. They did not seem to wish to conceal “Perhaps.” said her friend in reply," he themselves; on the contrary, they seemed to may print it.” “Ah," said she; "he could not glory in what they were about. They moved print that holy tone." There is a tone in the forward to a large plain, where stood a neat, pulpit, which, false as is the taste from which pretty village, which they set on fireit proceeds, does indeed work wonders. So is C. Set a village on fire! wicked wretches! there a tone in our intercourse with children F. And while it was burning, they murdered which may be among the most efficient aids in twenty thousand men! their right education.

C. Oh fie! father; you do not intend that I Let any one endeavor to recall the image of a should believe this!' I thought all along you fond mother long since at rest in heaven. Her were making up a tale, as you often do; but sweet smile and ever clear countenance are you shall not catch me this time. What! they brought vividly to recollection. So also is her lay still, I suppose, and let these fellows cut voice; and blessed is that parent who is endow. their throats!

F. No, truly, they resisted as long as they Byron, was early lest under the entire control could.

of an unprincipled mother, who fostered the C. How should these men kill twenty thou. pride, and cherished the selfishness of her son, sand people, pray?

while she cruelly wounded his sensibility, by F. Why not! the murderers were thirty unnatural remarks on his natural deformity of thousand!

person. This injustice of the mother, for a deC. Oh! now I have found you out; you fect beyond the power of his control, begat in mean a hatile.

his sensitive bosom the feelings of an outcast; F. Indeed I do. I do not know of any mur. he felt himself unjustly the object of contempt, ders half so bloody.

and his wounded pride arrayed itself in hostili.

ty to mankind. The more he indulged himself STORY OF WASHINGTON. in his misanthropy, the more he became ab.

sorbed in self; until his own character, sorrows MR. EDITOR-I take the liberty to send you and vices became the grand object of his the following story, though perhaps you may thoughts, the centre of his affections, and his have heard of it before. It is from the Life of only theme for song. Hence we see one after George Washington.

another of the darkest shades of his own cha. Yours, &c. P. S. racter interwoven and personified in his poems, Mrs. Washington owned a remarkably fine while the sublimity and terrific grandeur of the colt, which she valued very much. But though natural scenery, surrounding his own “New. old enough for use, as it had never been mount stead Abby," formed the back.ground of all his ed, no one would venture to ride it, or attempt poetical pencilings. to break its wild and vicious spirit. George What a responsibility rested on the mother of one day proposed to some of his young compa- such a son! And who can but deplore that his nions that they should assist him to secure the giant mind, so capable of blessing the world, colt until he could mount it, as he was deter. should be left to so wild and perilous a develop. mined to try to tame it.

ment, with the purifying influences of Christian Soon after sunrise, one morning, they drove principle, and under the contros of a pernicious the wild animal into an enclosure, and with superstition? Who can wonder at the way. great diffieully succeeded in placing a bridle on wardness of his mighty intellect, or that he has it. George then sprang upon its back, and the left behind him so many imperishable monuvexed colt bounded over the open field, prancing ments of unsanctified genius, and of the cruel and plunging to get rid of its burden. The spoilations of maternal influence,

The man bold rider kept his seat firmly, and the struggle was what his mother made him.between them became alarming to his compa- For the same reason, I perused the bio. nions, who were watching him. The speed of graphy of Napoleon Bonaparte. I very soon the colt increased, until at length in making a saw the germs of the son's character, in the furious effort to throw its conqueror, it burst a character and pursuits of the mother. She was large blood-vessel and instantly died.

a woman of great personal beauty, possessed a George was unhurt, but was much troubled vigorous mind, physical energy, and a proud by the unexpected result of his exploit. His and losty spirit ; her highest ambition was to companions soon joined him, and when they shine as a woman of chivalrous spirit—she folsaw the beautiful colt lifeless, the first words lowed her husband in his expeditions on horsethey spoke were: What will your mother say? back-sharing his perils and fatigues during Who can tell her!

the war between Corsica and France ; she ex. They were called to breakfast, and soon after pended the energies of her mind, and the vigor they were seated at table, Mrs. Washington of her body, in flying from town to town, and said : Well, young gentlemen, have you seen village to village, to avoid captivity to the ene. my fine sorrel colt in your rambles? No answer my, almost up to the period of Napoleon's was given, and the question was repeated. birth. Napoleon was her favorite son-she de. Her son Géorge then replied: Your sorrel colt sired him to be a soldier and a hero. He was is dead, mother. He then went on to give her what his mother made him. She fostered his an exact account of the event. The flush of love of power, by justifying his tyrannical displeasure which first rose on her cheek, soon treatment of his elder brother Joseph-not perpassed away, and she said calmly: While I re- mitting even a word of complaint from that gret the loss of my favorite, I rejoice in my son brother of his ill-usage. The very toys of his who always speaks the truth.

childhood were subservient to his sole object of

his education, and nursed the spirit of war, and THE MAN WAS WHAT HIS MOTHER MADE HIM. his love of conquest and sell elevation. His

mother lived to see his highest exaltation, and This rather startling remark was incidentally to lament the lowest depths of his fall, while a made in my presence some years ago. I then prisoner at St. Helena. How tremendous the demurred as to its truth and propriety, but close responsibility of that mother! observation, and the biography of distinguished But we gladly turn to brighter examples of persons has convinced me of the verity of the the same truth, and rejoice that there can be sentiment, and I use it now as a note of admo- exalted genius, without the licentiousness of By. nition to mothers, or rather as a mirror in ron, that there can be heroes without the spirit which the mother may see reflected her vast re. of self aggrandizement, tyranny, and cruelty sponsibility.

of Napoleon. We turn with pleasure to the I took up the life of Byron, to discover, if character of our own revered Washington. possible, the origin of those dark traits so pro. From all we can learn of his early history, we minent in his character-and so banefully dif- see the marks of vigilant parental influence, fused through his works.

and we have good reason to believe the mother

was a very active agent in the formation of his one of sixteen discourses read annually to the character. What a luxury would it have been people. to have learned from the lips or pen of Mrs. At the conclusion of the lecture he strikes the Washington, the entire process by which were buffalo three times with a staff, when it is im. clustered together so rich an assemblage of mediately broken in pieces by the populace, and virtues.

a number of little porcelain cows, with which In the letters of the late Mrs. Adams, we find it was filled, furnishes materials for a scramble, a happy illustration of maternal influence ; and The rest of the day is devoted to amusements. who can contemplate the character of her son, It is thus that rulers of China, both by precept John Quincy Adams, (this almost last relic of and example, stimulate their subjects to the that stern age,) standing as he does, like the pursuit of agriculture, so essential to the sup. oak, unscathed by the lightning of political port of the empire. And, as the Emperor strife, unharmed by the malignity of his foes, ploughs the ground and sows the seed, so the unbending and fearless, in what he deems to be Empress also performs her part to encourage right, and not say in the language of our caption, another most important branch of industry, by "The man was what his mother made him."- going through, (in appearance at least,) all the Mother's Journal.

labors connected with the culture of silk.

[Miss Carey's History of China. CHINESE AGRICULTURE.

BOYS AND GIRLS. The greatest annual festival on which ihe sovereign appears in his sacerdotal character, is The times have indeed sadly changed. One that of the celebration of the season of spring, entire portion of human life is struck out. It which takes place about the middle of Februa. is now babyhood or manhood. There is no con. ry, and is one of those ancient observations that servative state, (we do not speak politically.) help to preserve the primitive character of this Once there were intermediate states of boyhood nation. It is then, that the Emperor performs -a barefooted and bean porridge eating statethe part of a husbandman, by ploughing and a spelling and cyphering period—when there sowing seed in an enclosure set apart for that were boys to do the chores and go on errands, purpose near the palace. The day for the roy: when apprentices' indentures were in fashion, al plowing is fixed by the Board of Rites, and and the line between boyhood and manhood this ceremony was accompanied by many so. well defined by the " freedom suit.” But there lemnities on the part of the Emperor, and those are no such things now. The child steps out of who were to assist at the sacrifices such as his diaper and froek into a long tailed coat" fasting for three days until the evening of each, and calf-skin boots. Not one of the present and abstaining from all kinds of amusement du- generation has ever seen a real bona fide, "nine ring that period.

day old” pot of bean porridge: Noah Webster's Early on the morning of the festival, the Em- spelling book is crowded out of school by high peror, attended by the great officers of State, re- works on Philosophy and Metaphysics. There pairs to the temple of the Earth, where he are no apprentices now. Young men take a makes sacrifices and implores a blessing on the few lessons in the trade they fancy, and then labors of the spring, that they may produce a set up for themselves. plentiful harvest; and when these rites are en. But the present generation is destitute of girls ded, he descends from the temple into the field, as of boys. It is either baby or lady-nursery where all the requisite preparations have been or parlor. The mother tends her infant or waits made by forty or fifty husbandmen who are in upon her daugter. Instead of spinning flax for attendance. The Emperor ploughs a few fur father's shirts, they reel silk for the ladies' fair: rows with his own hands, and sows five sorts of and instead of knitting stockings and mending grain ; after which twelve grandees of the first trowsers for their brothers, they work lace and rank, plough and sow in turn, and then the make stays for themselves. The mother milks, work is completed by the professional husband. churns, washes and irons, and young ladies read men, each of whom receives a present of a novels, dress, and make and receive calls. They piece of Nanking cloth. The produce of this make parties instead of puddings, and cook by field is held sacred, and carefully preserved in a the book rather than from knowledge. granary by itself, to be used for ihe most solemn We should be delighted to see a generation of sacrifices.

boys and girls—in looks, actions, and dressThe ploughing by the imperial husbandmen we should then hope for health and strength, takes place only in the capital; but in every industry, frugality and economy, prosperity and large city a ceremony is performed, called happiness. We go for protection to this class of “ meeting the spring," when the Governor as our community. Every father should protect sumes the character of high priest, and goes out and enforce home industry. He and his wife in state, carried in a finely ornamented sedan and children should enter into a ' Home League" chair, preceded by banners, lighted torches and on the subject. This is the tariff that will remusic. He is followed by several mandarins in store confidence. This is the bank that will their sedans, and by a number of litters in which freely discount and never suspend. are placed children, who are fancifully dressed and crowned with flowers, representing various

District School Tonrnal. deities connected with the labors of the field. But the most prominent figure among the dra. Is published on the 1st of cach month-Office New matis persone is a huge earthen buffalo, the representative of spring, which is borne in pro. For a single copy for one year,

$0 60 cession to meet the high priest, who delivers a 12 copies to one order, for one year, each....... Jecture on the benefits of husbandry, which is 100 copies to one order, for eac year each,

State Hall


0 33 O 25




ALBANY, OCT., 1843.

No. 7.

REPORTS OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. book, he is furnished with a copy of Murray's

English Reader. The lesson commonly consists DELAWARE COUNTY.

of several pages. Due regard is sometimes paid CAUSES OF THE LOW CONDITION OF THE SCHOOLS. to pronunciation, but scarcely ever to any other

requisite of good reading, and in ninety-nine In assuming the superintendency of the schools schools out of every hundred, the sense and of Delaware county, we have felt the responsi. meaning of the author has nothing to do with bility of the task, and our own unfitness to per. the exercise. In too many schools, the dull mo. form it; and in endeavoring to discharge our du- notony of the exercise is not even enlivened by ties to the best of our ability, we have been both the teacher's example, and it is scarcely too elated and cast down; we have had frequent al. much to say, that children are often thus exer. ternations of hope and despair ; we have seen cised for years, without deriving a single new some things to applaud and many to condemn; idea. But what is infinitely worse, the evils and in some things our previous views in relation of this wretched farce are not negative only, but to the schools, have undergone an important habits of inattention, and careless, slovenly, me. change. That our schools have been grossly neg. chanical reading are contracted, which will a bide lected, and are now (as a general rule) in a degra- with the child through life, and effectually preded condition, few will risk their reputation for vent his ever making even a tolerable reader. common sense by denying Public opinion has

NORMAL SCHOOLS RECOMMENDED. long ascribed their degradation to the ignorance of our teachers, and perhaps in one sense this is instruction and modes of imparting it are not

But the common defects in the quality of the correct. Still our experience and observation have led us to the conclusion that it is not cor: and of practical application is manifest through.

confined to reading alone. A want of method rect to the extent generally believed. So far as mere literary qualifications are concerned, we

out the whole course of common school instruc. consider their acquirements very generally re.

tion, and there is good reason to apprehend that spectable-much more so indeed than we had the instruction of the school is often rendered anticipated previous to our late connexion with entirely useless from this cause; and until the the schools as county superintendents. In

formal routine which so generally obtains in the our judgment, by far the greatest and most ge judicivus modes of imparting instruction, all at,

schools shall be displaced by more rational and neral deficiency in our teachers, is a want of method in communicating instruction, and perhaps tempts to impart to them a more intellectual a want of judgment in adapting instruction to character will we fear be attended with little the capacity of their pupils; in short, a want of success. To teach successfully, a man must not that common sense which may be denominated only understand science, but how to teach it. aptness to teach. Here is the grand and almost And we cannot but consider the contemplated universal defect of our teachers. Most of them establishment of normal schools to familiarize pursue a formal course, utterly devoid of inter. our teachers with better modes and more fami. est to the scholars, and otherwise ill adapted to

liar illustrations, and, in short, to disseminate bring out and strengthen the intellectual powers. some knowledge of the science of teaching, a Indeed, the majority of our schools are conduct: step absolutely necessary to the success of the ed as if this was noi one of the objects of educa. system. The sooner such institutions are estab. tion at all. Many of our teachers seem to act lished, and the more extended their ramificaunder this mistaken view of the subject, that ed- tions, the sooner will the common schools as. ucation is not calculated to make man'an intel- sume an intellectual aspect, and the more wide lectual being, but merely to make his mind a

spread and extensive will be their blessings. kind of storehouse of facts, without the slightest regard to the application of these facts in the The enlightened policy of establishing school business of life. Defective as is this notion of district libraries has, we think, been eminently education, it is not more so than the means com successful, and done more for the dissemination monly used to carry it out. A more defective of useful knowledge, than any other step that method of learning children to read, could scarce has ever been taken by our State for promoting ly (in our opinion) be devised, than that which the great ca of public instruction. The situ. usually obtains in our schools. So soon as the ation of these institutions, so far as we have child is capable of mouthing the simple senten had opportunity of judging, does great credit to ces which are interspersed through the spelling the good sense and intelligence of the people of


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