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electric plants with a capacity of 789,750 kilowatts and a power transmission grid are included. The estimated annual output of the power plants would approximate 4% billion kilowatt hours. In the initial stage of the unified plan the Congress authorized the construction by the Bureau of Reclamation of 29 units and a power transmission grid. When completed, these will irrigate 2,836,000 acres, and allow for installed power capacity of 321,000 kilowatts. The Bureau has started work on the plans for the first 11 units with a view to having them ready for beginning of construction in the next fiscal year. The 29 initial Reclamation projects authorized by the Congress for construction in the Missouri River Basin are: Kansas-Nebraska: Bostwick, Cedar Bluff, Frenchman-Cambridge, Kirwin, North Republican (Wray) (Colorado-Nebraska), pumping units for underground water in Republican Basin. Montana: Canyon Ferry Reservoir, Glasgow. Bench pumping, Hardin (including Yellowtail Dam), Marias, Missouri-Souris (Montana division), South Bench, and Yellowstone River pumping units. North Dakota: Heart River, Knife River, Missouri-Souris (North Dakota division), and five Missouri River pumping units. South Dakota: Angostura, Grand River (Shadehill-Bluehorse), 0ahe (James River), and Rapid Valley (including Brennan Reservoir). Wyoming: Big Horn pumping units, Big Horn project (Boysen Dam), Glendo Reservoir, Kortes, Owl Creek, Paintrock, Riverton, and Shoshone project extensions. Transmission lines to carry energy generated by Bureau plants complete the list of initial projects. The table below summarizes by states the irrigation and power development features of proposed Bureau projects under the coordinated plan:
State New irrigated Supplemental Power Installed
- supplies plants capacity
Acres Acres Kilowatts Montana----------------------------------------- 967, 130 346,800 6 308,500 Wyoming--------------------- 281,560 167,400 8 217,000 Colorado---------------------- 101,280 1,719 ------------|-------------North Dakota----------------- 1,266,440 -------------- 3 458, 267 South Dakota-- 961,210 11,300 5 510,500 Nebraska------------------ 989,445 19,930 ------------|-------------Kansas--------------------- 193,335 155 -------------------------Total--------------------------------------- 4,760,400 547, 304 22 1,494, 267
The Flood Control Act, putting the congressional stamp of approval on the coordinated plan for Missouri Basin development, became law in December 1944. Two weeks later the Bureau called key members of its regional staffs at Billings and Denver to Washington for conferences with the Commissioner's staff to map out a program for starting work. A second conference was held at Denver in June at which further plans were made, policies formulated, and the general organizational set-up for carrying out the program agreed upon. Also selected was a group of projects, from among the 29 authorized, on which construction could be started first.
For this comprehensive development job the Bureau will have the assistance and cooperation of many Federal agencies in addition to those in the Department of the Interior, and of State and local organizations in the Missouri Basin. Interior agencies working with the Bureau include the Geological Survey, National Park Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Mines, Office of Indian Affairs, General Land Office, and the Grazing Service, working through the Water Resources Committee of the Department.
Plans for project development are also coordinated through the Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee made up of representatives of the Department of the Interior, the War Department, the Department of Agriculture, and the Federal Power Commission, In April, a special subcommittee of this latter agency was set up to deal specifically with Missouri Basin developments. Known as the Missouri Basin Inter-Agency Committee, it is made up of representatives of the 4 Federal agencies named above and 4 governors representing the 10 Missouri Basin States.
The cost of constructing the projects approved under the coordinated plan is estimated at approximately 174 billion dollars, based on 1940 prices. Many of the multiple-purpose projects to be built would be self-liquidating, and a major portion of the total investment would be returned to the Federal Treasury through payments by water users and through sales of electric power. Construction costs of flood control and navigation projects proposed under the plan would not be directly repayable but yield benefits far in excess of costs.
Construction of the initial projects in the Bureau's program for Missouri Basin development will be started as soon as the Congress makes the necessary appropriations and the manpower and materials become available.
The impact which a completed program of this magnitude will have upon the national economy can readily be imagined. It will provide thousands of jobs for returning servicemen, war workers, and others, not only at construction sites but at supply centers many miles away. The development of irrigation projects will help to stabilize the agricultural economy of a vast area periodically scourged by drought. The availability of low-cost hydroelectric power will stimulate business and industry, make possible development of untapped natural resources, and lighten the burdens of farm and city dwellers. Storage reservoirs to be constructed will minimize greatly the danger of floods in the lower reaches of the river. Approximately 53,000 new irrigated farms will be created. Population will be increased. Purchasing power in the Missouri Basin States for commodities produced in other parts of the country will be expanded by many millions of dollars annually.
FOOD FOR A FIGHTING NATION Food is as important in war as men and machines are. The men and women on the farms of America are as truly “war workers” as those employed in shops and factories to turn out planes and tanks. And wherever our fighting men have gone on all the battle fronts they have been the best fed, the best clothed, and the best equipped troops ever mobilized.
To make possible that achievement, the farm families of America have made a record in the production of food and fiber that is without parallel in the Nation's history. They have provided not only for the needs of our fighting forces but for our allies and the civilian population here at home.
The part which farmers on lands irrigated by Federal Reclamation projects have played in that record-breaking achievement is outstanding. The value of crops produced on Bureau-irrigated lands has more than doubled during the war years, partly reflected in increased market prices but also due to greatly increased production of war-essential crops and to additional acreage brought under irrigation.
CROP VALUES HIT RECORD LEVEL During the past fiscal year, more than 4 million acres of land were served with irrigation water from Bureau projects, representing an increase of 759,000 acres over 1941 and 125,000 acres more than in 1943. The value of crops produced hit an all-time high of $411,226,000, compared to $159,886,000 in the pre-war year of 1941.
In meeting wartime food needs, farmers on Reclamation lands during 1944 produced 57,122,000 bushels of potatoes, 1,941,000 tons of sugar beets, 6,495,000 bushels of onions, 3,674,000 bushels of beans, 36,672,000 bushels of grain, and 49,000,000 bushels of truck crops. To maintain production of meat and dairy products at a high level, they also produced 4,360,000 tons of forage crops, including 3,830,000 tons of alfalfa hay. Production of apples, oranges, grapefruit, peaches, and other fruits and berries totaled 729,000 tons, and crops produced for seed amounted to 4,512,000 bushels.
The average per acre value of crops on Bureau-irrigated lands in 1944 was also the highest on record, an average of $99.27 per acre, compared with a per acre average of $47.30 in 1941. The highest average crop value in 1944 was reported for the Tieton division of the Yakima project at $598.34 per acre, closely followed by the Okanogan project at $592.32 per acre. Both are apple-growing districts in the State of Washington.
PROJECTS HAVE $100-PER-ACRE RETURN Gross crop values exceeding an average of $100 per acre also were reported on the following projects: The Salt River (Arizona); Yuma (Arizona-California); Orland, Imperial Irrigation District and Central Valley (California); Fruitgrowers Dam and the Orchard Mesa division of the Grand Valley project (Colorado); Rio Grande (New Mexico-Texas); Klamath (Oregon-California); Owyhee Ditch Company (Oregon-Idaho); and Provo River and Weber River (Utah).
Tonnage of food and forage crops increased from 10,660,000 tons in 1943 to 11,369,000 tons in 1944. Of the cultivated area 26.1 percent was in alfalfa with production valued at $67,978,000, 4.9 percent in potatoes valued at $50,211,000, and 4.3 percent in seed crops with a value of $24,333,000. Gross value of other crops produced in 1944 were: cotton, $18,446,000; beans, $13,363,000; sugar beets, $20,623,000; truck crops, $59,178,000; grains, $39,610,000; and fruit, $56,140,000. Principal volume increases occurred in alfalfa hay, grains, truck crops, and fruit.
The returns cited are exclusive of the values of livestock fattened on Reclamation projects and of dairy and poultry products. These would increase quoted totals by more than 25 percent.
TABLE 1.- Reclamation areas and crop returns, calendar year 1944 1
1 A detailed table of area and returns by individual projects is available on request from the Bureau of Reclamation, Washington, D. C.
? Area for which Bureau is prepared to supply water. NOTE.-Per-acre value based on net area in cultivation.
LANDS LEASED FOR GRAZING The Bureau had under lease during the calendar year 1944 approximately 964,000 acres, of which 799,000 acres were leased for grazing purposes; 64,000 acres for agricultural use; and 101,000 acres for other special uses. The above figures include 89,195 acres of patented land which have been acquired by the Bureau in connection