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that at least New Cumberland and Greenup be commenced in that year. As an absolute minimum, construction of New Cumberland which, because of its emer. gency character, has the highest priority, must be started in fiscal 1955.
The association's views on these projects, and the supporting data, are set forth in greater detail in its memorandum of February 10, 1954, which I submit herewith, and respectively ask to have included in the record.
II. NAVIGATION PROJECTS ON TRIBUTARIES OF THE OHIO
The President's budget wisely proposes that funds be made available to continue construction of the navigation projects already in progress on the tributaries of the Ohio. These include the Cheatham lock and dam on the Cumberland River, the initial step in providing modern navigation facilities on that important stream, and the Old Hickory lock and dam, also on the Cumberland, which would extend modern navigation to Carthage, Tenn. The amount provided for in the President's Budget for continued construction of these projects should be retained.
Construction of locks and dams Nos. 1 and 2 on the Green River, in Kentucky, can be commenced this year if funds are provided as proposed in the supple mental budget for 1954 and the 1955 budget. This project would provide an outlet for a tremendous outbound coal tonnage and would result in large savings to the Atomic Energy Commission and the TVA in coal transportation costs. This association fully supports the President's recommendations for $800,000 in fiscal 1954 and $5,400,000 in fiscal 1955.
Planning of projects for future construction must go forward. Orderly development requires it and it is essential that plans for sound public works projects be in readiness when required for implementing full employment policy. It is the opinion of the association that the amount provided for planning in the President's Budget should be retained for the Hildebrand lock and dam, on the Monongahela River, W. Va., and Carthage Dam, on the Cumberland River, Tenn. In addition, it is urged that planning funds in the amount of $50,000 be provided for dam No. 8, Mononga hela River, Pa. and W. Va., which is needed in order to obtain full benefit from the system of navigation structures authorized for improvement of the Upper Monongahela.
III. FLOOD CONTROL
The association is in full accord with the objectives of the flood control program for the Ohio Valley, proposed by the United States Army engineers. In view of the limited funds which will be available, however, it is believed that emphasis should be placed at this time on projects already under construction or for which planning is complete. These include flood-protection projects now under way at Covington, Maysville, and Pineville, Ky., and Vincennes, Ind., and the Dillon Reservoir, near Zanesville, Ohio, and the Sutton Reservoir on the Elk River in West Virginia, both of which are important units in coordinated reservoir systems for flood control. Construction should be initiated on a number of projects for which plannin, is complete. These include flood protection projects for Barbourville, Ky., Johnsonburg, Pa., Roseville, Ohio and WheelingBenwood, W. Va., and the Rough River Reservoir and Channel, Ky., which will be an initial step in the development of flood control in the Green River Basin.
The association also urges that adequate planning funds be made available for sound flood control projects.
On behalf of the Ohio Valley Improvement Association, Inc., I desire to thank the committee for this opportunity to present our views.
PROGRAM OF THE OHIO VALLEY IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR NAVIGATION
FACILITIES ON THE OH10 RIVER
"The greatest immediate need, insofar as waterborne commerce in the Ohio River Bilsin is concerned, is the replacement of existing locks and dams in the Ohio River which are inadequate to meet the demands of modern water transportation."
1 Vol. II, Report of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission, p. 647 (1950).
The Ohio River Basin covers approximately 204,000 square miles extending from western Pennsylvania and New York to the Mississippi River and from northern Alabama and northwestern North Carolina alınost to Lake Erie. It includes parts of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. Twenty million Americans live within its boundaries. It produces vast quantities of agricultural products and within this area more than three-fourths of the bituminous coal of the Nation is mined. It is the industrial heart of America and includes the great iron and steel producing centers, Pittsburgh, Youngstown and Wheeling, Ashland and Middletown, major concentrations of the chemical industry in the Kanawha Valley and in the Huntington-Ashland-Ironton area, as well as important manufacturing installations and oil refineries. Other important industrial and commercial centers in the valley include Charleston, W. Va.; Dayton, Columbus, Cincinnati and Portsmouth, Ohio; Owensboro, Paducah, Henderson, and Louisville, Ky.; Evansville. Lafayette and Indianapolis, Ind. ; Cairo, nl.; Nashville and Knoxville, Tenn.; and Huntsville, Ala. The entire investment of the United States Government in atomic energy installations east of the Mississippi is concentrated in the Ohio River Basin. As the President's Water Resources Policy Commission stated in its report in 1950 :
"Low cost water transportation has played an important part in establishing and maintaining the diversified economy of the basin.” 3
During the last 3 years daily averages of millions of dollars of new industrial investments have been made in the Ohio Valley-the great General Electric plant at Lonisvile, Ky.; the Atomic Energy Commission project at Portsmouth, Ohio; the expanding chemical plants near Paducah, Ky., in the HuntingtonAshland area and in the Kanawha Valley; and many other diversified developments throughout the Ohio River Basin.
Plans for further expansion and new installations recently announced justify the confident expectation of progress on an enormous scale in the industrialization of the Ohio Valley. There is annexed a schedule setting forth a summary of plans announced during the past 2 years for the important new industrial installations and expansions of existing facilities, located immediately along the navigable streams, in this area. In the plans of industry for expansion in this region, however, the prospect of low cost water transportation is a decisive factor. Thus the utter inadequacy of the present system of locks and dams to serve a continually increasing traffic on the Ohio may well discourage this anticipated growth unless a program is promptly undertaken and vigorously prosecuted looking toward the replacement of these obsolete facilities with structures adequate to the needs of modern transportation.
Canalization of the Ohio River completed in 1929 was the culmination of a projeet started before 1900 under the active civic leadership of the Ohio Valley Improvement Association. Thus, some of the dams are approximately 50 years old. They had originally been designed to take care of traffic requirements consisting very largely of the downstream movement of coal. The facilities were obsolete in relation to developments in water transportation equipment before the project was completed. Notwithstanding the outmoded character of the facilities, a tremendous increase in traffic has occurred since the canalization of the river. In 1929 the total commerce on the Ohio River was only about 22 million tons.
In his address at Louisville, Ky., on October 23, 1929 upon the occasion of the completion of the canalization of the Ohio, President Hoover said:
“It has been a gigantic task, this transformation of the Ohio. It represents an expenditure and a labor half as great as the construction of the Panama Canal. Like many current problems, the development of our rivers is never a finished accomplishment; it must march with the progress of life and invention.
“While I am proud to be the President who witnesses the apparent completion of its improvement, I have the belief that some day new inventions and new pressures of population will require its further development. In some generation to come they will perhaps look back at our triumph in building a channel 9 feet in depth in the same way that we look at the triumph of our forefathers when, having
2 Ohio River Handbook and Picture Album, edited Benjamin and Eleanor Klein (1950). 3 Vol. II, Report of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission, p. 698 (1950). • 16 Encyclopedia Britannica, 1952 ed., p. 736.
cleared the snags and bars, they announced that a boat drawing 2 feet of water could pass safely from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. Yet for their times and means they, too, accomplished a great task. It is the river that is permanent; it is one of God's gifts to man, and with each succeeding generation we will advance in our appreciation and our use of it. And with each generation it will grow in the history and tradition of our Nation.”
This prophecy has been fulfilled. In 1952 Ohio River tonnage approximated 56 million, which was almost twice the amount of the paid tonnage moved through the Panama Canal in the same year, while in terms of ton-miles, the increase over the period since 1929 was from about 112 billion to more than 10 billion, approximately 7-fold. In 1952 total freight moved on the Mississippi River equalled 77,584,556 tons. Of this amount, however, 24,450,659 tons represented foreign and coastwise ocean traffic, principally on the portion of the river from Baton Rouge to its mouth. Thus, the quantity of inland freight–53,133,897 tons-moved on the 1,800-mile reach of the Mississippi from Minneapolis, Minn., to the Gulf of Mexico, was some 3 million tons less than the 56 million tons of comparable freight concentrated on the 981-mile stretch of the Ohio during the same year. It is of interest to note also that the Ohio River improvements were authorized on the basis of an estimated traffic of 13 million tons. In 1952 this estimate was exceeded by nearly 300 percent. While the official report for 1953 is not yet released, a survey of the volume of lockages through the various locks indicates that there has been an increase of 15 percent for 1953 over 1952, bringing the 1953 tonnage to 64 million tons.
The existing facilities are totally inadequate under modern traffic conditions. These heavy burdens, far exceeding those for which the structures were designed, have accelerated the rate of deterioration and have greatly increased the costs of maintenance. The locks were designed for tows of 600 feet or less in length. A single modern tow generally exceeds 1,000 feet in length and often carries a cargo in excess of 20,000 tons, equivalent in terms of coal to 400 carloads, or in terms of oil to 620 railroad tank cars. Existing lock chambers of only 600 feet in length necessitate division of these large tows and separate lockage of each part. Of the 46 locks and dams on the main stream of the Ohio, only 2 are less than 25 years old, 21 range from 25 to 35 years in age, and 23 are from 3.1 to 50 years old. This multiplicity of overage structures necessitates unduly frequent lockage. These combined conditions seriously delay movement of important cargoes, diminish efficiency of operations, and increase costs of transportation.
Because of their advanced age and heavy traffic burden, operational breakdowns of these facilities are becoming increasingly frequent. Such breakdowns necessitate large emergency expenditures by the Government in addition to the already excessive maintenance costs, with serious loss to the entire economy of the area resulting from interruptions in movement of oil, coal, chemicals, steel, and other products vital to the needs of national defense and the civilian economy. The vast atomic energy installations now being completed in the Ohio Valley demand an uninterrupted flow of raw materials moving to such installations and their supporting industries by low-cost water-transportation means.
WHAT TO DO
The Army engineers' long-term program for the improvement of the Ohio River would deal with these problems by replacing the present obsolete locks and dams with a system of higher, long pool dams and locks consisting of parallel chambers, the larger with dimensions of 110 by 1,200 feet and the auxiliary chambers with dimensions of 110 by 600 feet. The total number of locks and dams on the Ohio would be reduced from 46 to 21. Each of the new facilities of this type now authorized on the main stream of the Ohio would replace a number of old locks and dams. The locks would be adequate to handle modern, large tows at a single locking and would provide deeper, more stable pools. This would permit more efficient operation of modern towing equipment, major savings in time now consumed in lockage and further important savings in time as a result of elimination of delays occasioned by traffic congestion at the locks. Moreover, the replacement facilities are so designed that with a small expenditure for dredring in the upper ends of the long pools, a channel depth of 12 feet can be provided when authorized by the Congress. The deeper channel would permit heavier loading of tows and would greatly facilitate navigation, thus reducing transportation costs and increasing efficiency of operation. It is conservatively estimated that upon completion of the long-range replacement program, transportation costs on the Ohio would be reduced by up to 50 percent, bringing Pittsburgh and Cairo at the extremes, of the 981-inile stretch of the Ohio River as close together (from the standpoint of transportation of bulk commodities) as if they were only 25 miles apart by rail or truck. This comparison is based on a specific analysis of the actual current transportation costs and an estimate of the time savings which would result from the proposed improvements.
5 Some Economic Aspects of Waterway. Projects, by Haywood R. Faison, M. ASCE, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, October 1953, table, p. 318-7.
The new facilities would, of course, greatly reduce the costs now being incurred by the Federal Government in maintaining the present overage facilities. They would also eliminate the grave risks of breakdown which presently constitute so serious a hazard to the economic welfare of the Ohio Valley and to the interests of national defense. The imminent danger of breakdown of these overage facilities is illustrated by the collapse of lock No. 15 on the upper Mononga hela River (a structure 50 years old) which occurred 2 years ago. As a result, the river was closed to navigation at that point for more than 1 month and an emergency expenditure of more than $100,000 was incurred by the Federal Government. Losses many times that amount were suffered by industry dependent on that facility for the movement of coal, steel, and other commodities.
As an important incidental benefit, the higher dams contemplated in the improvement program would result in a substantial increase in greatly needed supplies of water for industrial use and public consumption, and would provide improved recreation facilities.
The interests of national defense urgently require improvement of the navigation facilities on the Ohio. The Ohio Valley is a primary source of materials basic to the economy of the Nation and to the national security. These include coal, oil, steel, and many others. During World War II these vital commodities were moved in enormous quantities on the Ohio and traffic reached 7 billion tonmiles in 1944, a record to that date. Shipyards and drydocks on the Ohio completed nearly 900 war vessels of many types which were moved over inland waterways to deep water. But this great effort was severely handicapped by the inadequacy of the navigation facilities. Modern structures would have added immeasurably to the Ohio River's contribution to final victory. Now, however, the traffic burden on these obsolete facilities has increased more than 40 percent over the record established in 1944 and the structures are already 10 years older. Vo navigation improvement whatever has been made on the main stream of the Obio since the Gallipolis Dam was completed in 1937. It is evident that the demands of atomic war would impose a burden vastly greater than ever before upon the industrial and transportation facilities of the interior of the Nation. Common prudence dictates that work proceed immediately to make the improvements needed to maximize the contribution of the Ohio to the national security,
THE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
The advance engineering and design work on three major projects which are included in the long-term Ohio River betterment program authorized by the Congress, have progressed sufficiently to permit commencement of construction in the near future. These are the New Cumberland locks and dam, the Greenup locks and dam and the Markland locks and dam. Work on the New Cumberland locks and dam can start as soon as construction funds are made available. If funds were made available for commencement of construction of the Greenup locks and dam, contracts for the building of the locks could be let during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1955, but some $50,000 is required for additional planning work during that fiscal year. Based upon available planning funds, construction of the Markland locks and dam can be initiated in fiscal 1955 provided an additional $274,000 is made available to complete planning of the locks. The nature and significance of each of these projects is discussed in more detail below, followed by this association's recommendations as to the amounts which should be appropriated for each of them in fiscal 1955.
"The growing demand for water for industrial and domestic use in the face of increasing pollution is a major problem affecting such industrial centers as Pittsburgh, Charleston, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. Increases in population and new domestic uses are creating municipal shortages where existing facilities are outgrown. ... The lack of water suitable for manufacturing is restricting industrial expansion in some areas." Vol. II, Report of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission, p. 636 (1950).
NFW CUMBERLAND LOCKS AND DAM This project is planned for construction on the Ohio River 54.4 miles below Pittsburgh, Pa., near Strattonville, Ohio. The dam will be nonnavigable gated structure with a lift of 22.6 feet between pools. The locks will consist of two parallel chambers, a main lock chamber with clear dimensions 110 by 1,200 feet and an auxiliary chamber with clear dimensions 110 by 600 feet. The facilities would replace existing locks and dams Nos. 7, 8, and 9 on the Ohio River and would provide a pool extending about 23 miles upstream to the existing Montgomery Island Dam. In 1952 more than 12 million tons of traffic moved through lock No. 7 and more than 10 million tons moved through locks 8 and 9. It is of vital importance that these obsolete facilities be replaced at the earliest possible date. All of them will be approaching 50 years in age by the time the project could be completed. Maintenance costs are excessive and breakdowns are frequent. It is expected that the new facilities will result in savings to the Federal Government on account of maintenance, operation, and dredging, of an amount in excess of $300,000 annually. The Corps of Engineers has assigned a benefit-cost ratio of 1.23 to this project. This estimate, however, is based upon 1950 tonnages adjusted by an "assured growth” factor which has already been exceeded. Based upon a growth factor of 3 percent in line with accepted esti. mates of increase in gross national product,' the present volume of traffic through the proposed New Cumberland pool will have more than doubled by the anticipated mid-life of the facilities in 1985, giving rise to a benefit-cost ratio of at least 2.46. Even with the existing obsolete facilities, traffic on the Ohio in tonmiles has increased more than 700 percent during the past 25 years and it is obvious that proposed industrial expansion in the New Cumberland pool area stimulated by the improved facilities, would result in an even greater return on the investment.
Moreover, a lateral movement of the hill and esplanade adjoining the locks is pushing lock No. 7 into the river and has placed locks 8 and 9 in grave peril. The entire structure may collapse overnight. If and when this occurs, move ment of all traffic through these facilities would be blocked for many months with incalculable loss to manufacturers, transporters, and consumers dependent upon the uninterrupted movement of steel, chemicals, petroleum products, coal, sand and gravel, and many other items which make up this stream of commerce.
This situation was well summarized by Mr. Henry R. DeBardelben, president and chairman of the board of the Mississippi Valley Association as follows:
"Over on the Ohio River, where the vast output of the Pittsburgh steel area flows along the Ohio River, are obsolete locks waiting to be replaced by the long-promised but never delivered New Cumberland lock and dam. If work here is deferred there is a strong possibility that these obsolete locks may collapse to create a national disaster, crippling the whole output of this No. 1 steel. producing area of the Nation."
The total cost of the New Cumberland locks and dam is estimated at $17 million, of which $244,000 has been made available to date for planning.
GREEN UP LOCKS AND DAM
This project, planned for construction on the Ohio River near Greenup, Ky.. 340.5 miles below Pittsburgh, calls for construction of a nonnavigable gated dam with a normal lift of 32 feet between pools. The locks will consist of 2 parallel chambers, the main chamber having clear dimensions of 110 by 1.200 feet and the auxiliary chamber with clear dimensions of 110 by 600 feet. The pool will ex. tend 62 miles upstream to the existing Gallipolis locks and dam. This project would replace existing locks and dams Nos. 27, 28, 29, and 30 on the Ohio River and lock and dam No. 1 on the Big Sandy. On the scheduled completion of the Greenup project in 1961, lock and dam No. 1 on the Big Sandy will be over 60 years old and the structures to be replaced on the main stream of the Ohio will range in age from 46 to 38 years. The old structures are in an advanced state of deterioration. Costs of maintenance, operation, and dredsing are currently at the rate of $690,000 a year. It is expected that the new facilities would result
? Vol. I, Report of the President's Materials Policy Commission, p. 6 (1952). 8 Marine News Reprint. The Inland Waterways, Our Greatest National Asset, p. 10 (1953).