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Permanent Fund shall be used only to meet the cost of maintaining the organization of the Association and of publishing its annual volume of Proceedings, unless the terms of the donation, bequest, or devise shall otherwise specify, or the Board of Directors shall otherwise order. It shall also be the duty of the Board of Trustees to issue orders on the Treasurer for the payment of all bills approved by the Board of Directors, or by the President and Secretary of the Association acting under the authority of the Board of Directors. When practicable, the Board of Trustees shall invest, as part of the Permanent Fund, all surplus funds exceeding five hundred dollars that shall remain in the hands of the Treasurer after paying the expenses of the Association for the previous year, and providing for the fixed expenses and for all appropriations made by the Board of Directors for the ensuing year.

The Board of Trustees shall elect the Secretary of the Association, who shall also be secretary of the Executive Committee, and shall fix the compensation and the term of his office for a period not to exceed four years.

Sec. 8. That the principal office of the said corporation shall be in the city of Washington, District of Columbia; provided, That the meetings of the corporation, its officers, committees, and departments, may be held, and that its business may be transacted, and an office or offices may be maintained, elsewhere, within the United States, as may be determined, by the Board of Directors, or otherwise in accordance with the by-laws.

Sec. 9. That the charter, constitution, and by-laws of the National Educational Association shall continue in full force and effect until the charter granted by this act shall be accepted by such Association at the next annual meeting of the Association, and until new by-laws shall be adopted; and that the present officers, directors, and trustees of said Association shall continue to hold office and perform their respective duties as such until the expiration of terms for which they were severally elected or appointed, and until their successors are elected. That at such annual meeting the active members of the National Educational Association, then present, may organize and proceed to accept the charter granted by this act and adopt by-laws, to elect officers to succeed those whose terms have expired or are about to expire, and generally to organize the “National Education Association of the United States”; and that the Board of Trustees of the corporation hereby incorporated shall thereupon, if the charter granted by this act be accepted, receive, take over, and enter into possession, custody, and management of all property, real and personal, of the corporation heretofore known as the National Educational Association, incorporated as aforesaid, under the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia and all its rights, contracts, claims, and property of every kind and nature whatsoever, and the several officers, directors, and trustees of such last-named Association, or any other person having charge of any of the securities, funds, books, or property thereof, real or personal, shall on demand deliver the same to the proper officers, directors, or trustees of the corporation hereby created. Provided, That a verified certificate executed by the presiding officer and secretary of such annual meeting, showing the acceptance of the charter granted by this act by the National Educational Association, shall be legal evidence of the fact, when filed with the Recorder of Deeds of the District of Columbia; and, provided further, That in the event of the failure of the Association to accept the charter granted by this act at said annual meeting then the charter of the National Educational Association and its corporate existence shall be and are hereby extended until the thirtyfirst day of July, nineteen hundred and eight, and at any time before said date its charter may be extended in the manner and form provided by the general corporation law of the District of Columbia.

SEC. 10. That the rights of creditors of the said existing corporation, known as the National Educational Association, shall not in any manner be impaired by the passage of this act, or the transfer of the property heretofore mentioned, nor shall any liability or obligation, or the payment of any sum due or to become due, or any claim or demand, in any manner, or for any cause existing against the said existing corporation, be released or impaired; and the corporation hereby incorporated is declared to succeed to the obli

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gations and liabilities, and to be held liable to pay and discharge all of the debts, liabilities, and contracts of the said corporation so existing, to the same effect as if such new corporation had itself incurred the obligation or liability to pay such debt or damages, and no action or proceeding before any court or tribunal shall be deemed to have abated or been discontinued by reason of this act. SEC. 11.

That Congress may from time to time alter, repeal, or modify this act of incorporation, but no contract or individual right made or acquired shall thereby be divested or impaired.

Approved June 30, 1906.

Accepted and adopted as the constitution of the National Education Association of the United States by the active members of the National Educational Association in annual session at Los Angeles, California, July 10, 1907.

BY-LAWS

(Amended at meeting of active members held in New York City, July 7, 1916)

ARTICLE I-MEMBERSHIP

Sec. 2.

SECTION 1. Teachers, others actively engaged in educational work, and educational institutions as defined in Section 2, may become active members of the National Education Association of the United States upon the payment of an enrolment fee of two dollars and the annual dues for the current year.

Educational institutions shall include schools, school boards, library boards, educational publishers, and such clubs and similar organizations as are distinctly educational or have educational departments properly organized with a definite membership.

SEC. 3. Educational institutions as defined in Section 2 may be enroled as active members and represented by any person regularly connected with or a member of the institution, and such representative may exercise all the rights and enjoy all the privileges of active membership, including the right to vote at business meetings; provided, That such representative presents a certificate showing that the person named therein has been regularly elected as such representative of the faculty or membership of such institution; but no person shall under any circumstances have the right to,cast more than one vote.

SEC. 4. The annual dues of active members are two dollars, which shall be paid at the time of the annual meeting of the Association, or shall be sent to the Secretary before November 1 of each year. An active member may discontinue his membership by giving written notice to the Secretary before November 1. An active member forfeits his membership by being two years in arrears. Those who have forfeited or discontinued their membership may exercise the option of renewing the same by paying all arrears and getting the publisht Proceedings of the intervening years, or of becoming members on the same terms as new members. Active members shall be entitled to the publisht Proceedings without coupon or other conditions.

Sec. 5. All life-members and life-directors shall be denominated active members, and shall have all the rights and privileges of such members without the payment of the annual dues.

Sec. 6. The right to vote and to hold office in the Association or the departments is open to all active members whose dues are paid; the right to vote and hold office in the Council is open to members of the Council whose dues are paid.

SEC. 7. Any person may become an associate member for one year by paying á membership fee of two dollars.

Sec. 8. Eminent educators not residing in America may be elected, by the Board of Directors, corresponding members. The number of corresponding members shall at no time exceed fifty. They shall not pay any dues.

Sec. 9. The names of active and corresponding members shall be printed in the publisht Proceedings, or the Yearbook of the Association, with their respective educational titles, offices, and addresses.

ARTICLE II-ELECTION OF OFFICERS SECTION 1. The President, Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, and Directors of the National Education Association of the United States shall be chosen by the active members of the Association by ballot, at their annual business meeting, a majority of the votes cast being necessary for a choice. They shall continue in office until the close of the annual meeting subsequent to their election, and until their successors are chosen, except as herein provided. The Secretary and the Treasurer shall enter upon their duties at a date which shall be determined by the Board of Trustees and which shall not be later than the first of October and shall continue in office during the terms for which they are separately chosen and until their successors are duly elected.

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ARTICLE III-DUTIES OF OFFICERS

SECTION 1. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Association, and shall perform the duties usually devolving upon the chief executive of such an association. In his absence, the ranking Vice-President who is present shall preside; and in the absence of all Vice-Presidents a chairman pro tempore shall be elected. The President shall prepare the program for the general sessions of the annual meeting of the Association, and, with the approval of the Executive Committee, shall determine the time and place of the general meeting of the Association and of the various departments not definitely fixt by these by-laws, and shall have the power to require such changes to be made in the programs of the Council and the departments as will promote the interest of the annual meeting. The President shall be a member ex officio of the Board of Trustees and chairman of the Board of Directors and of the Executive Committee. He shall sign all bills approved for payment by the Board of Directors, and all bills approved or authorized by the Executive Committee between the meetings of the Board of Directors. On the expiration of his term of office as President, he shall become first Vice-President for the ensuing year, and shall be chairman ex officio of the Committee on Publication. SEC. 2.

The Secretary shall keep a full and accurate record of the proceedings of the general meetings of the Association and all meetings of the Board of Directors and of the Executive Committee, shall conduct the business of the Association as provided in the articles of incorporation and the by-laws, and, in all matters not definitely prescribed therein, shall be under the direction of the Executive Committee, and, in the absence of direction by the Executive Committee, shall be under the direction of the President, and shall receive or collect all moneys due the Association and pay the same each month to the Treasurer, shall countersign all bills approved for payment by the Board of Directors, or by the Executive Committee in the interval between the meetings of the Board of Directors, or on the approval of the President acting under authority of the Board of Directors, or Executive Committee. The Secretary shall have his records present at all meetings of the active members of the Association, of the Board of Directors, and of the Executive Committee. He shall keep a list of members as required by Section 9 of Article I of these by-laws and shall revise said list annually. He shall be secretary of the Board of Directors, and a member of the Committee on Publication. He shall be the custodian of all the property of the Association not in charge of the Treasurer and the Board of Trustees. He shall give such bond for the faithful performance of his duties as may be required by the Board of Trustees. He shall submit his annual report

to the Executive Committee not later than July 1 prior to the annual meeting of the Association, which report shall be transmitted to the Board of Directors at its annual meeting. At the expiration of his term of office, he shall transfer to his successor all money, books, and other property in his possession belonging to the Association. The Secretary shall not print, publish, nor distribute any official report or other document without the approval of the publication committee.

SEC. 3. The Treasurer shall receive from the Secretary and under the direction of the Board of Trustees shall hold in safekeeping all moneys paid to the Association; shall pay the same only upon the order of the Board of Trustees; shall notify the President of the Association and the Chairman of the Board of Trustees whenever the surplus funds in his possession exceed five hundred dollars; shall keep an exact account of his receipts and expenditures, with vouchers for the latter; and said accounts, ending on the thirty-first day of May of each year, he shall render to the Executive Committee not later than July 1, and when approved by said committee they shall be transmitted by the committee to the Board of Directors at the first regular meeting of the board held during the week of the annual meeting and to the active members at their annual business meeting. The Treasurer shall give such bond for the faithful performance of his duties as may be required by the Board of Trustees. At the expiration of his term of office, he shall transfer to his successor all moneys, books, and other property in his possession belonging to the Association.

Sec. 4. The Board of Directors shall elect corresponding members as prescribed by Section 8 of Article I of these by-laws, shall elect members of the National Council of Education as provided in Section 3 of Article IV of these by-laws, shall have power to fill all vacancies in its own body and in the Board of Trustees; shall recommend to the Executive Committee the place for holding the annual meeting of the Association, the Council of Education, and the departments. The Board of Directors shall approve all bills incurred under authority of the Board of Directors, the Executive Committee, or the President and Secretary acting under the authority of the Board of Directors or Executive Committee, shall appropriate from the current funds of the year the amounts of money ordered by the active members at their annual business meeting for the work of all special committees of research and investigation authorized and provided for by such active members at their annual business meeting, shall make a full report of the financial condition of the Association (including the reports of the Secretary, the Treasurer, and the Board of Trustees) to the active members at their annual business meeting, and shall do all in its power to make the Association a useful and honorable institution.

Sec. 5. The Executive Committee shall assist the presiding officer in arranging for the time and place of the annual meeting of the Association, of the National Council of Education, and of the various departments.

The Executive Committee shall recommend to active members at their annual business meeting the appointment of special committees for investigation or research, the subjects for which may have been suggested by the National Council or by the active membership of the National Education Association or by any of its departments; it shall recommend the amount of money to be appropriated for such investigations. When such special committees are provided for and duly authorized by the active members at their annual business meeting, the Executive Committee shall have general supervision of them, shall receive and consider all reports made by them, and shall print such reports, and present the same, together with the reports received from the Secretary, the Treasurer, and the Board of Trustees and the recommendations of the Executive Committee thereon, to the active members at their annual business meeting. All such special committees shall be appointed by the President of the National Education Association.

The Executive Committee shall fill all vacancies occurring in the body of officers of the Association except vacancies in the Board of Directors, Board of Trustees, and the office of Secretary.

Sec. 6. The Board of Trustees shall require of the Secretary and Treasurer bonds of such amount as may be determined by said board for the faithful performance of their duties, shall make a full report of the finances of the Association to the Executive Committee not later than July 1 prior to the annual meeting of the Association, which report shall be transmitted by the Executive Committee to the Board of Directors at the first regular meeting of the board held during the week of the annual meeting of the Association. It shall choose annually its own chairman and secretary.

ARTICLE IV–THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION SECTION 1. The National Council of Education shall discuss educational questions of public and professional interest; propose to the Executive Committee, from time to time, suitable subjects for investigation and research; have a report made at its annual meeting on “Educational Progress during the Past Year”; and in other ways use its best efforts to further the objects of the Association and to promote the cause of education in general. SEC. 2.

The National Council of Education shall consist of one hundred and twenty regular members, selected from the active membership of the National Education Association. Any active member of the Association is eligible to membership in the Council, and each member shall be elected for six years and until his successor is elected.

SEC. 3. The annual election of members of the Council shall be held at the time of the annual meeting of the Association. The Board of Directors of the Association shall annually elect ten members and the Council ten members, and each body shall fill all vacancies in its quota of members. No state, territory, nor district in the United States shall have at one time more than seven regular members in the Council.

SEC. 4. The annual meeting of the Council shall be held during the week of the annual meeting of the Association.

SEC. 5. The absence of a regular member from two successive annual meetings of the Council shall be considered equivalent to his resignation of membership. Persons whose regular membership in the Council has expired shall be denominated honorary members of the Council during the time of their active membership in the Association with the privilege of attending the regular sessions of the Council and participating in its discussions. A member who discontinues or forfeits his active membership in the Association forfeits his membership in the Council.

Sec. 6. The officers of the Council shall consist of a president, a vice-president, a secretary, and such standing committees as may be prescribed by its by-laws, all of whom shall be regular members of the Council. The Secretary of the Council shall, in addition to performing the duties pertaining to his office, furnish the Secretary of the Association a copy of the proceedings of the Council for publication.

SEC. 7. The National Council of Education is hereby authorized to adopt by-laws for its government not inconsistent with the act of incorporation or the by-laws of the Association; provided, That such by-laws be submitted to, and approved by, the Board of Directors of the Association before they shall become operative.

Sec. 8. The powers and duties of the Council may be changed or the Council abolisht upon a two-thirds vote of the Association taken at the annual business meeting of the Association; provided, That notice of the proposed action has been given at the preceding annual business meeting of the Association.

ARTICLE V-DEPARTMENTS SECTION I. The following departments are now (1914) in existence, to wit: The departments, first, of Superintendence; second, of Normal Schools; third, of Elementary Education; fourth, of Higher Education; fifth, of Vocational Education and Practical Arts; sixth, of Kindergarten Education; seventh, of Music Education; eighth, of

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