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become considerable, that means will be verted to the result of their proceedings afforded of giving rewards and premiums to in the islands, and in Ireland. In the teachers of distinguished merit and ability; to Isle of Man alone, fourteen schools, comwhich ushers, as chiefly holding the laboure prehending a total of 1030 scholars, are ing oar, will most likely succeed. What an

now established; and at Dublin a Sunday expansive field is here before us! If encou.

School society bias recently been formed ragement be given to good teachers, we may

with the promise of speedy and extenreasonably hope that they will exert them. selves to obtain the rewards, which will be sive operation both honourable and profitable; for the enlightened committee of this society, who

M. Parmentier has published some know how to estimate the feelings as well as

reflections on the hypnum crispum, a spethe wants of their brethren, will, no doubt, cies of moss, proposed, on account of the suggest various ways to gratify the objects of dearness of wool, as a substitutt for stufe their attention, and spur them on to laudable fing mattresses and furniture. The moss, industry and emulation. Thus the country which is of a rnoderate length, and has a may expect, by degrees, that an improved somewhat fragrant smell, grows upon set of teachers will arise; and from improved trees, particularly beech, is gathered in teachers we shall find better scholars : the

Angust and September, and when beaten mind will be opened and meliorated, and

like flocks, does not retain moisture or sound principles inculcated. But the more

form into lumps like them. It is little immediate purpose of this institution is to

liable to decay, and it is only necessary relieve and protect the aged, the helpless, and the unfortunate : and it is not a little

to dry it in the shade to preserve its fra. remarkable, that while almost every other

grance. Neither sweat nor urine proprofession is provided with asylums, either duces any fermentation in this inoss, as it by institutions of national munificence, or by does in wool; but lest moisture should endowments of private bounty, schoolmasters cause it to gernsinate, it may be steeped alone have yet made no appeal to the gene- in lime-water, which destroys its power rosity of the public,' although no class of of vegetation. It is said to be free from men have a stronger claim on public grati. the property of imbibing and commutude; nor is there any occupa ion that has a

nicating contagion, which animal submore rapid tendency to exhaust the powers,

stances possess. both of body and mind, than the labours of a

M. Gauss, a correspondent of the schoul when conscientiously discharred. As

National Iustitute, has this year obtained humble instruments have been, not unfrequerily, the means, in the hands of Provi. the prize-medal, founded by the celedence, to work great ends, so I have already

brated Lalawde, for the author of the had much satisfaction in seeing very liberal

best astronomical meiroir. encouragement given to this institution, Arrording to a calculation by M. Comerely on my stating its object and plan; QUEBERT MONTBRET, the French em. and the approbation which has been thus pire at present contains the following manifested by many wise, good, and exalted populaton : inhabitants who speak the persons, gives me confident hopes that the French language, 28 126,000; the Ger. society will in tinic be greatly patronized, and

man, 2,705 000; the Flemish, 2,277,000; produce extensive benefit to the country." the Breton,967,000; the Basque, 108,000:

At the general half-yearly meeting of forming a total 438,262,000. the society for the support and encourage- The Ionian Academy, instituted at ment of Sunday Schools in England, Corfu, the ancient Corcyra, has anWales, Ireland, and the adjacent islands, nounced, that, after the example of anheld on the 11th of April, the committee cient Greece, it will every four years reported, that within the last half year decree various Olympic prizes for the seventy-eight schools had been added to promotion of the arts and sciences. At those which were previously upon the these Olympic festivals, the prize will be society's list. Since the commencement adjudged to him who, during the precedof this institution, the society has distri. ing tour years, has written the best buted 285,672 spelling books, 62,166 work in iht modern Greek la iguage, testaments, and 1714 bibles, to 3548 and producci !he best modern Greek schools, containing upwards of 270,000 translation from a foreign language, para scholars; in addition to which the sum ticularly the French. The olive wreath of 41761 has been given for the payment with which the victor is to be publicly of such teachers as could not be procured crowned, will be hung up in the acawithout pecuniary reward. Among the demy, with an inscription recording his details which mark the progress of the name, work, and country. The first society, the committee particularly ade distribution of prizes is tised for the 15th 1


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Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. [June 1, of August, 1812; which is the first year tivation. Though this wonl is not a comof the 618th olympiad, according to the plete substitute for foreign cotton, it calculation of ancient Greece. Tlre

however produces a stronger thread, prize is to consist of a medal, with a bust which is particularly fine and fit for any of Bonaparte, and the inscription: Na. kind of woven stuff. The experiments of poleon, benefactor and protector. On M. Angelo having been tried and apthe reverse is the legend: To genius the proved of by a committee of select, grateful acudemy. The inscription round learned, and skilful, workmen, his it will contain the name of the successful Austrian majesty was pleased to enable candidate, the title of his work, and the him to prosecute his invention on a number of the olympiad. This medal larger scale; binding him, at the same will be of iron.

time, to publish the manipulation of the The Society of Emulation, or Colmar, properties of the plants, and of the whole has been for several years successfully previous process of this new materialf or engaged on projects of important agri- spinning. The emperor therefore come cultural improvements, to be introduced manded that a large house at Tula into the department of the Upper Rhine; should be appropriaied to this ingenious and its views in this respect are power- gentleman, for the establishment of a fully seconded by baron Desportes, the manufactory of stutt's from this wool, and prefect of that departinent. Among these that a capital of 20,000 florins should be ameliorations may be instanced the plan advanced to him out of the public funds, for an extended cultivation of the mula with the promise that after the lapse of berry-tree, in order to form establish- three years, if the manufactory attained ments for breeding silk-worms: a culture such a degree of perfection as to produce which will be the more desirable, as from in the first year 300cwt, of goods, in local circumstances, which are not likely the second 1,000cwt. ard the third to be removed, the vineyards in this de- 1,500cwt. the 20,000 forins should be partment are much on the decline.

come his own property, and that he There have been already formed very should reccive for each of the two years, considerable nurseries for this tree, which 25,000 norins more, as the reward of his will soon afford materials for numerous industry, in addition to the premises beplantations; and in addition to these, longing to the manufactory. He has the society have lately acquired three however been obliged to make known the hundred trees of the growth of five years, secret of his invention, and the whole which will enable them to begin their course of his proceedings, and to give observations and experiments with silke instruction to any of his majesty's sube worms immediately. In the first place, jects wishing to forin a like establishhowever, they found it necessary to procure a good elementary treatise on the M. Ebel, of Bavaria, bas recently cultivation of the mulberry-tree. In published a geological work on the strucconsequence of an application which they ture of the Alps, which is reported to made to such of their own members as contain much nevelty, and to coincide possessed any experience on this sub- entirely with the experiments made by ject, M. Calyel, who was before known llumboldt. According to their system, as the author of some excellent works it is not true that granite is the nucleus on plantations of this kind, as well as on of the surface of the earth; on the congeneral subjects of agriculture, undertook trary, we find as many strata of granite to supply this desideratum; and his com- as of any of the other integral substances position has given so much satisfaction of mountains. These strata of stones in to the society, that they have resolved to the mountains were formed by crystalliprint it in the French and German lan. zation in the sea of Chaos, and are found guages, and to present the author with a

in a great measure on the same line gold medal of the value of three hundred from Savoy to Hungary. - The earth, francs (121. 105.)

according to these ideas, resembles a GERMANY.

prism of crystal, the eriges of which have Nr. JAMES ANGELO, a native of the been worn away by the fux and reflux frontiers of Austrin, has succeeded in

of the waters, without the ruins of these preparing flax-wool from various plants, points having entirely filled up the canover before used for that purpose, and vities. This view of the subject is ei. of which a considerable number grow pected to lead to important results; but spontaneously without the slightest cul- it will at the same time discourage those



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who still hope to find the solid nucleus taste, representing fishes, birds, and game of the earth. It begins to be embraced of all kinds. Here are three couches of by the geologists of the continent, in masonry, in perfect preservation, upon preference to the systems which they which the ancients reclined during their had before adopted:

meals; and near thein is still to be seen

a marble foot, which must have served to In the month of October last, a fresh support the table. search was made for antiquities in the ruins of the ancient Pompeii, by order The celebrated traveller, M. Henderof their Neapolitan majesties. On this strom, has paid a second visit in the occasion, the CHEVALIER ARDITI, su- countries discovered to the north of perintendant of the Royal Museum, pre- Siberia, which are denominated in the sented several pieces of ancient piich, best maps, the country of Listickof, or a vessel full of wheat, a piece of coral, Sannikof. He has found them to be several beautiful paintings, and a lamp of only an island; but larther to the north, baked earth in the form of a leaf, and

this traveller discovered a country wabearing a Latin inscription. This lamp tered by considerable streams, which he was covered with a very fine varnish, or thought formed part of the continent, vitrification, which gave it a silvery or

He examined the coasts to the extent of pearly appearance. It seems therefore one hundred and seventy wersts, and ihat those authors are mistaken, who found them covered with great trees assert that this vitrification was not in, petrified, and lying in heaps one upon vented till the fifteenth century, by a

another. The hills are formed of scarcely Florentine sculptor. Their majesties any thing but slates, petrified wood, and having expressed a desire to have some coal. This country he bas named New of the ruins dug up under their own in- Siberia. In his researches there, M. spection, the workmen had the good Hendenstrom has found the claws of a fortune to find several pieces of money gigantic bird, which seems to have beof various denominations; a number of longed to a species at present unknown. bronzes, among which was a very fine These claws are described as being each vase, and an urn for wine; some articles a yard in length. The Yakuts have asformed of bones; a great quantity of sured him, that in their hunting excur. glasses, of various shapes and sizes; and sions, they have frequently met with in particular, several vases improperly skeletons, and even feathers, of the bird, denominated Etruscan, with Latin in. This discorery cannot fail of proving in, scriptions. They also discovered various teresting to naturalists, since it strengili. works in marble, some comic masks, a ens the probability that, together with few small bur elegant altars, adorned with the Mammotbs, Mastodontes, and other basso relievos and weights, marked on gigantic quadrupeds, now extinct, there the upper side with cyphers. Hitherto existed both in the animal and vegetable only a single subterraneous habitation, kingdom, species of corresponding di. erroneously called a cantino, but which mensions, and in all probability a world ought rather to have been named crypto- quite different from our own. portico, had been found at Pompeii. In M. Karamsin, historiographer to the the recent excavations, another, consist- emperor, is diligently employed upon a ing of several stories, was discovered. It History of the Russian Empire. He has is remarkable, for having in one corner, already brought it down to the time of a pipe or tube of stucco, intended for the Dinitrji Donskoi; but does not intend conveyance of smoke. This discovery to give the result of his labours to the seems to set at rest a question long agi- public, till he has arrived at the epoch tated by the learned, whether the an- of the elevation of the Czar Michali cients were acquainted with the use of Fedorowitsch to the throne. It is said vents or chimnies for carrying off smoke. that M. laramsin has received cone In the same apartments were found siderable assistance from the Wolhynian several pieces of marble and alabaster, Annals, discovered by him, together valuable on account of the basso-relievos with the ecclesiastical ordinances of and inscriptions with which they are John, metropolitan of Kiow, cotcmpo. adorned, Their majesties then pro. rary with Nestor, and the code of ceeded to a triclinium, or dining-apart- Prince Swatoslaw Olgowitsch, who ment, recently discovered. The walls lived in the 12th century; as also from are covered with paintings in the best the Russian Chronicles of the fourteenth


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Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. [June 1, century, transmitted to him from Mol- twenty inches high. Another has two has davia,

dles fastened on at its neck, whicb is only Count SANTI, the Russian envoy at a third part narrower than the lower part: the court of Stockholm, has just pub- the bottom is Bac, and the vase itself is two Jished á Statistical and Topographical

feet high." Tableau of the Grand Duchy of Finland. This work displays the industry and

Few parts of North America bare been knowledge of the author, as much as his the subjects of mineralayical research in translation in French verse of the mas.

so great a degree as this country. The ter-pieces of the Swedish poet Kel- mines with which it abounds, have been GREN, announces his talents and refined explored by the Spaniards with much

care: the governinent has encouraged

scientific chemists to analyse the ores, M. Fauvel, a correspondent of the and has established a serinary of mine. French National Instižute, and resident ralogy at Mexico. The Mineralog:cal

Tables of M. KARSTEN, superintendant at Athens, bas addressed a letter from

of mines to the king of Prussia, hare that place to M. Mongez, froin which the following is an extract:

been translated into Spanish by don « I have already informed you of a disco.

AndroS MANUEL DEL R10, and printed very that has been made here, on the subject at Mexico, with an addition of peculiar of the ancient Athenian festival called Hyo value, adapting them to the state of the dropboriæ, concerning which our knowledge science in that country. The first four before was very imperfect. This was a ceremony columns of the tables contain the classes, in memory of Deucalion's flood, and its cele. orders, genera, and species, of the mic bration consisted partly in casting vessels into nerals; and the sixtli, the ingredients of wells and streams of water. On the 10:h which they are composed, according to of July, 1808, M. Roque, a French mer.

the latest investigations. In the sfth chant residing here, having employed some workmen to clean out his well, which is column, don Andros has given a capital situated near the entrance of the agora (the by indicating the particula places in

example of mineralogical topography, market,) they found several remains of anti- the district of Mexco, in which the quity, which have served to throw a light on this point. The first objects of their disco- minerals described by European writers very were a quantity of common earthenware have been discovered; leaving blank vases, unvarnished, of different forms and those articles which have not come withsizes. Fifteen feet below these, were about in his observation, to give an opportutwenty Athenian medals of bronze, repre- nity to students and others of supplying senting incidents in the story of Theseus, these deficiencies. By these means we and bearing the legend AOHNAINN. There may venture to hope that in the course was also a handsome marble figure of a philo- of a few years we shall possess a know. sopher, with scrolls bound together lying at ledge not only of all the minerals of his feet: this piece was only eight inches in Mexico, but likewise of the spots in Jength, and of capital workmanship ; but the which they are found. Don Andros bas head was wanting. With these were several besides given, in his edition of these pipes, spatulas, ear-pickers, and dice; the tables, many original particulars conlast much resembling those used at present: cerning the four classes of earthis, stones, all these articles had become of an emerald salıs, and metals: he has also added to colour, through the operation of the water, the value of his work, which is printed in which appeared of a vitriolic quality. There small folio, by an account of the fossils were, besides, artificial pine apples and peach that have been lately described by M, stones, very little injured by time. The Hauy in his Mineralogy; and has made well in question is of the depth of a hundred use of information which he bas derived feet: at the bottom were found some thin from M. HUMBOLDT, the celebrated leaves of lead, which I unfolded, but they traveller. bore no marks of having been used for writing On some of the vases are written the lished at Mexico, the second part of

Don ANDROS DEL Rio has also pube following names, with a pen and ink :

the Elements of Oryctology, arranged ΧαΜΟΦΟΙΤΟΥ, and CΝ ΜΙΤΡΟΔωΡα ΑΝΑ : and on a piece of lead, with a hole in it for according to the systein of M. WERNER. the purpose of putting a string through, is This work, which was coinposed expressly written EjCiawpor. One of the vases is for the use of the royal school of minera still covered with bitumen, and was cer- logy, is embellished with three geological Lainly used for keeping wine: it has no engravings, designed from the opinions of handles, and is pointed at the bottom, and Humboldt on the structure of the earth.


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rock, and other component parts of Professor GEORGE Müller, of Schaff- mountains in the Grisons, have sughausen, announces the speedy appear- gested to the government the propriety ance of the posthumous works of his late of employing M. Escher, a geologist of brother, the historian of Switzerland. Zurich, to survey that country. He has They wilt torin eighteen volumes. His accordingly published the result of his Universal History, in twenty-four books, enquiries, from which it appears that the will be published in the course of the valley of Nolla, behind the village of present year.

This work is founded Thusis, and the valley of Plesner, wear upon extracts made by the deceased Coire, are threatened with the visitation from 1833 historical works, ancient and of avalanches, unless measures of premodern.

caution be speedily adopted. A society for the education of the blind, has latrly been established at The Royal Society of the Friends of Zurich. The present number of pupils the Sciences at Warsaw, has published is fifty; and what is singular, the head an address to the Polish nation, the obe' inaster, M. FUNKE, is blind. lle is de- ject of which is to procure contributions scribed as an excellent teacher, and an for the purpose of defraying the expenses ingenious mecharuc.

of a splendid monument, intended to be The calamities experienced at different erected to the immortal astronomer and times in Switzerland, from the sudden mathematician, Copernicus, in Thorn, rolling down of prodigious inasses of his native city.

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The Use of all New Prints, Communication of Articles of Intelligence, gc, ure

requested under cover to the Cure of the Publisher.
OF THE ROYAL ACA. cal pictures, 36 fancy subjects, 220

portraits, (exclusive of about 210 miniaSupe destin d'ágerà méyti ávægão, nai jára avyo tures,) 50 landscapes, 20 subjects of still gav.

life and Aowers, 140 architectural drawNão de xai x' ảyaboron émiotaiuto la páxeseas. ings and designs, 50 pieces of sculpture, Homeri kiad. lib. xiii.

of which 34 are busts. VHE above is the motto which the aca

The following inembers of the academy deiny of the British School of Painters

are among the exbibitors : have chosen for their catalogue of this

exhibits year, and which the learned Dr. Clarke Beechey, sir William

.8 thus renders :

Bourgeois, sir Francis.

.4 « Utilis-certe-in-unum-collata virtus Copley, John Singleton

est virorum, etiam valde imbellium : Callcoit, Augustus Wall
Nos autem et cum fortibus novimus pug. Daniell, Thomas

Fuseli, henry
Pope, in the following couplet :

Flaxman, John..
“Not vain the weakest, if their force unite; Howard, Henry
But our's, the bravest have confess'd in Lawrence, Thomas

De Loutherbourg, P. J.
And Cowper, in the following energetic Marchant, Nathaniel

1 lines:

Nollekens, Joseph “ The feeblest and the worst Northcote, James

.8 Find strength in union; and our force in arms Owen, William

-8 Has foil'd, ere now, the bravest and the best.” Phillips, Thomas.

.5 Some wicked wits might apply the Rigaud, J. F. above quotation 10 a resignation of the

Rossi, Charies

.1 presidency, the encouragement of archi

Stothard, Thomas

.3 tecture, architectural lectures, &c. but

Shee, M. A.
perbum sat.
Suane, John.

.7 Turner, J. M. W..

.3 On Monday, April 30, the forty.second

Thomson, Henry exhibition of the Works of British artists West, Benjamin was opened to the public. The works Woodford, S. exhibited amount to 905, and are in the

ASSOCIATES. following proportion ;-About 15 historic Bigg, W. R,




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