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they had done the military power and za, who was still before Sheesha. The talent of Russia. But the delay of the Persian army, thus reinforced, amount. Prince before Sheesha had not only ed to about twenty thousand infantry, given time for the retreat of the ads and ten thousand cavalry, with twena vanced corps, the organisation of a ty pieces of artillery; but the Prince field force at Tiflis, and the arrival of was nevertheless desirous not to hareinforcements, as well as of several zard a general action. The Russians officers of distinction, who hurried had occupied Ganja, from whence he from St Petersburgh to take a part in could not hope to drive them ; and the the war ; but it had also permitted the garrison of Sheesha, now closely pressinhabitants of the country to recovered, might probably be reduced before from the consternation into which the Russians could force him to raise they had been thrown, to balance the the siege. Were he to advance and advantages of resistance against those bring the enemy to an action near of submission, which in their first pa. Ganja, they could at all times retire nic they had considered inevitable; upon the fort, even if defeated. The and, finally, when re-assured by the country afforded no provisions, as all presence of a considerable force, to it could supply had been consumed come forward in support of the go- by the Persian army; and if the Rusvernment, and contribute everything sians should advance, they would, in in their power to the defence of the consequence of this deficiency, soon country.
be forced to retire, when they might Encouraged by this injudicious de- be advantageously attacked in their lay on the part of the Prince, and by retreat. These considerations were, the reviving spirits of their Georgian however, over-ruled by the minister, subjects, the Russians prepared to as- whose confidence was greater than his sume the offensive, and a corps, con- judgment. The siege of Sheesha was sisting of four thousand infantry, with hastily raised-sufficient time was not a proportion of cavalry and artillery, even allowed to collect and call in the was pushed on to the vicinity of Shamá foraging parties which had gone out koor, a village not far from Ganja, on the day before. A mine, which had the road to řidis, while another corps been carried under one of the towers of three thousand men followed up to of the fort, and had now been come support the preceding.
pleted, was not sprung, and the adMabommed Meerza, who command- vance was effected with
all the tumul. ed in Ganja, having heard of the ad- tuous confusion of a retreat. vance of the first of these forces, mo- The two Russian corps had, in the ved out to attack it; and an action was meantime, formed a junction, and some fought early in September at Shame reinforcements had come up from the koor, in which the Persians were to- rear. After leaving a sufficient gar. tally defeated, with the loss of their rison in Ganja, and throwing into it artillery and baggage, and the greater their heavy baggage and stores, the part of their infantry. Almeer Khan, army, under the command of General Sirdar, was killed, and the young Prince Paskevitch, advanced to the distance. narrowly escaped being taken prison of five miles from Ganja, and having er. The fugitives from the field of there taken up a position, waited the battle, Aying to Ganja, created a panic approach of Abbas Meerza. The force in the garrison; and the Persian offi, here collected might amount to about ver who had been left to defend the seven thousand infantry, three thouplace evacuated it the same evening, sand cavalry, and twenty guns. without even attempting to carry off On the evening of the Septeme or destroy his stores or ammunition, ber, the Persians came in sight of the of wbich last there was a considerable enemy, and it was determined to ate quantity.
tack him next morning ; but fearing · The Shah had, in the meantime, lest the Russians should make a night moved from Ardebil to Aher, in Kara- attack, the Persian commanders kept baugh, and on receiving intelligence their men in motion almost the whole of the advance of the Russians, de- night, and in the morning drew them tached a considerable body of men un, up in order of battle, fatigued with der the command of the Ausef ud the continued exertion, and exhausted Dowleh, (prime minister,) to rein, by want of sleep and of food; for the force his Royal Highness, Abbas Meer, confusion had been so great during VOL. XXIII.
the night march, that the men were however, a great number dispersed on separated from their baggage, and had the retreat, and returned to their not been able to procure provisions. houses, and by the loss of its baggage,
It was intended that the Prince ammunition, and stores, and by the with his own troops should attack the feeling wbich had been excited, the Russians in front, while the Ausef ud army was completely disorganized. Dowleh should make a detour to the A few days after this defeat, the left, and follow their right flank; at Prince Royal joined the Shah's camp the same time a body of cavalry was at Aher, and arrangements were made to get into their rear, and cut off their to form a corps of observation on the communication with the fort of Ganja. banks of the Arras, which should also The Persian army was, however, by serve to protect the Mahommedan some misunderstanding, drawn up in tribes of Karabaugh, who had taken one line, extending several miles, by a part against Russia in the war, and which arrangement, nearly one-half now sought refuge in the Persian ter. of the troops never came into action. ritory. The battle commenced with a cannon- The Russians showed no disposie ade on both sides. The Persian line of tion to follow up this victory by any infantry marched steadily up to with- decided movement, and as the season in musket range, and kept up a smart was too far advanced to admit of the fire for a considerable time. The formation of a fresh army, the Shah Russian artillery was rapidly but bad- moved before the end of September to ly served, and did litile execution, Tabreez, preparatory to his return to while the fire from the Persian guns Tehran for the winter, and Abbas was much more destructive. The Meerza proceeded, in command of the Russian troops were becoming un- corps of observation, to the banks of the steady, and had even abandoned some Arras. About the middle of October : of their guns, when a disorderly and a body of Russians crossed the river, unauthorized charge made by some of and succeeded in carrying off some. the Persian infantry was repelled, and families of the Karabaugh tribes, who the whole of the Prince's troops gave had expressed a desire to return to way. The division commanded by the their own country. The troops under Ausef ud Dowleh, seeing the right of Abbas Meerza made an unsuccessful the line in confusion, and the men attempt to recover the families which dispersing, fled in disorder. Five hun- were ihus carried off, and some indred of them, whose retreat was cut effective skirmishing took place. This off, after making a gallant resistance, may be considered the close of the surrendered to the enemy. The main first campaign. In the beginning of body of the Persian army retreated to November, the Prince, finding the a fortified camp, some miles in the season too far advanced for active rear, in which its baggage was depo- operations, and having learnt that the sited, and the troops which first reache Russian army was preparing to go ined it, plundered everything they could to winter cantonments at Akoglan, find, even to the Prince's baggage, near the banks of the Arras, made arand again fled with their booty. The rangements for the defence of the Russian cavalry followed the fugitives frontier during the winter, and then for some miles, but was kept in check returned to Tabreez. by two guns of the Prince's artillery, The army, which had till now oce and some men of his regiment of cupied Sheerwan, retired for the wina guards, who covered the flight of the ter, and while recrossing the Koor, army. The panic was, however, go was attacked by a small party of Rusa great, that all attempts to arrest the sians, which had followed its move retreat of the troops before they cross ments; the Erivan force fell back from ed the Arras, were ineffectual, and it Loree, within the Persian frontier ; was not until the Prince arrived at and thus, at the close of the campaign, Oslandooz, that he was able to cola Russia had recovered all her provinces lect together any considerable number except Talish and Moghan. of the fugitives. In this action the The approach of winter having proPersians lost about 1200 men, most of duced a suspension of active operawhom were made prisoners; and the tions, it was hoped that before the Russians 700, all of whom were either return of spring should enable either killed or wounded. Of the Persians, party to open another campaign, some arrangement towards an accommoda- Tabreez us the object of its destination of the differences between Persia tion. No attempt of this nature had and Russia might be effected, and the been anticipated by the
Prince Royal ; British Envoy, who had remained and as the inclemency of the season during the autumn at Tabreez, with appeared to preclude all idea of pura view to avail himself of any oppor. suing active military operations, the tunity which might present itself to greater part of the Persian infantry lead the Persian frontier authorities and all the cavalry bad been dismissed to open a negotiation, repaired to to their homes. A force sufficient to Tehran, for the purpose of inducing oppose the enemy could not therefore the Shah to consult his true interests, be collected before several days. Ta. rather than yield to the dictates of breez was imperfectly supplied with his pride, and to send a mission to St provisions; and the inhabitants, unPetersburgh, with proposals for peace. aided by a military garrison, were The Shah could not reconcile his feel scarcely
prepared to undertake the deings to the propriety of adopting any fence of the town. The sudden and measure which might, as he thought, unexpected approach of danger prohave the appearance of humbling himé duced the alarm and confusion which self before Russia, but determined to usually occur in such cases, and these Bend Meerza Mahommed Allee, a ne were augmented by a belief, that unphew of his Excellency Meerza Abul less invited by a disaffected party, the Hassan Khan, to Tiflis, to ascertain Russian general would scarcely have the views of the Russian govern. ventured with so small a force do atment, and to announce the Shah's in- tack Tabreez, because it was obvious tention to send his Excellency as am- that, if he failed in taking it, his whole bassador to the court of the Emperor, army must be destroyed. The powershould he find the Russian authorities ful tribe of Shaksevuud occupied the disposed to treat. Letters, expressing province of Miskkeen, which the Rusa desire to restore the pacific and sians had entered ; and their chief,
friendly relations which had so long Atta Khan, who had been blinded by - subsisted between the countries, were order of the Prince, and who could at the same time addressed to Count influence his tribe to take part with Nesserode by the Persian ministers, the enemy, were he disposed so to do, and in testimony of the sincerity of had waited on the Russian general, the Shah's desire to terminate the war, and was said to have collected troops two or three hundred Russian prison- to co-operate with him. A considerers, (all who were then at the capital,) able magazine of wheat and rice had were directed to accompany Meerza been captured by the Russians on first Mahommed Allee, and to be deliver- entering the province; and the pea*ed to the Russian commander on the sants, having received assurances of
frontier of Erivan, as a gift from the protection, were neither inclined to Shah to the Emperor-a gift, too, incur the resentment of the invaders, which it was not doubted but his Im- by opposing them, nor to abandon perial Majesty's love for his people their homes in the severity of winter, would induce him to appreciate more
and destroy or relinquish a great prohighly than costly presents.
portion of their property, which they The Meerza left Tehran in Decem- had not the means of transporting. ber, and on his arrival in the vicinity If, therefore, the Russian commander of Tabreez, was detained for some had pushed on rapidly to Tabreez, time, in consequence of the invasion and taken advantage of the confusion of the Persian territories by a Russian produced by the first alarm, it is very army.
possible, that, by risking much, he The advance of a body of six thou. might have effected something bril. sand infantry, with a proportion of liant. But, in a few days, troops becavalry and artillery, and a long train gan to arrive from every part of the of waggons, in the depth of winter, province. The delay of the Russians seemed to imply, that some enterprise gave the inhabitants time to recover of importance was in contemplation. their confidence, and they now became The point at which it had crossed the desirous that the enemy should make Arras, afforded very practicable routes an attempt tocarry the city, which they both to Tabreez and to Ardebil; and felt could not fail to be disastrous to its first movements scemed to indicate him.
Had the Russian force directed its vernor General of Georgia had receie march upon Ardebil, there is reason ved instructions which would enable to believe, from what has since tran- him to treat with her. In regard to spired, that the fort might not have the release of the captives, H. E. was, been defended. The same feelings we are told, informed, that if Russia prevailed there as at Tabreez, and the had not been attacked while unprepameans of resistance were much smaller. red, Persia would not have had any But the Russian commander, having prisoners to return. It was, therefore, exposed his troops to the greatest harde obvious that Pussia had no desire to ships, and lost a considerable propor- renew amicable relations with Persia; tion of his cattle, retired, as he had ade and it was concluded, that she intendvanced, without any apparent cause, ed to put forth her strength in the enleaving the object of this extraordina- suing campaign. In the following ry movement a matter of speculation, month, (April,) General Yermoloft, which, so far as we are aware, it still and the greater number of the officers continues to be.
who had been employed under him in As soon as the Russians had re-cross- Georgia, were recalled, and the conduct ed the Arras, and set themselves quietly of the military operations devolved on down in their winter quarters, to heal General Paskeviich, who succeeded to their frost-bitten feet and shake off the chief command. Large reinforcem their agues, Meerza Mahommed Allee ments had arrived from beyond the proceeded with the liberated prisoners Caucasus-provisions had been thrown towards Tiflis. On his arrival in the into the country from the ports of the capital of Georgia, he communicated Caspian and of the Black sea; and it with General Yermoloff, who trans- was understood that Russia would mitted to St Petersburgh the letters open the campaign with an overfor the Russian minister, of which the whelming force. In the course of Meerza was the bearer; and after the same month, General Benkendorff much conversation, which led to no moved towards Erivan, with an army result, referred him to General De consisting of about 7000 infantry, bytch, who had lately arrived on a 3000 cavalry, and 18 guns, besides special commission from the capital, mortars and howitzers. He crossed for information regarding the senti- the frontier at Bashaberan, without ments of the Emperor. It appeared having been perceived by the Persian that Persia was expected to cede Eri- picquets, and advanced almost unopvan and Nukhshivan, and to indemni. posed to Eutchkeleeseah, (the three fy Russia for the expenses of the war. churches,) where he arrived before Meerza Mahommed was requested to the end of April. return to Persia, and told that Count On the 2d of May, the army of Nesserode's replies to the letters which Karabaugh, which had left its winter had been forwarded, should be trans- quarters a short time before, made an mitted to Persia on their arrival ; attempt to cross the Arras into Karaand that until permission to that effect baugh, by the bridge called Pool i was received from the capital, no mis- khoda afereen, of which some of the sion would be permitted to proceed arches had fallen, and, after several thither. It was farther hinted, that fruitless endeavours to render it passaunless Persia was prepared to accede ble, were at length driven from it by to the terms alluded to by General the fire of the Persians, who occupied Debytch, the mission of an ambassa- the opposite bank of the river. Having dor would be unavailing; and finally, been repulsed from the bridge, the a promise was made, (which, however, Russian commander made an attempt has not been performed,) that a num- to throw some men across on a raft or ber of Persian prisoners, at least equal floating-bridge, but was again repulto that released by his Majesty the sed with some loss, and fell back from Shah, should be set at liberty.
the banks of the river. The Meerza returned to Tabreez in General Benkendorff, on his arrithe month of March ; and not long val at the three churches, put the after, a letter from Count Nesserode place in a condition to be defended; to Meerza Abul Hassan Khan, couche pushed a reconnoissance as far as Sir. ed, it is said, in terms by no means dar Abad (a fort not far from Eutch. conciliatory, intimated that, if Persia keleeseah), and had some trifling afwas inclined to sue for peace, the Go« fairs of cavalry with the Persian horse
under Hassan Khan. On the 5th choice body of his best troops, had May, having established his maga- marched some days before towards the zines and hospitals in the convent, he frontier, and was now encamped midmoved towards Erivan, and on the way between Khoé and Abbas Abad, following day, after some skirmishing, at a place called Choors. took ground before the Fort of Erivan. In the last days of June, his Mae On the 7th, he proceeded with the in- jesty moved from Oojan towards Khoé, vestment, when the skirmishing was with the intention of endeavouring to renewed ; and on the 8th, the investe relieve Erivan ; but he had not yet ment was completed, and some round made many marches, when, on the 6th shot and shells thrown into the fort, July, intelligence was received that but without doing much injury. In General Paskevitch had arrived from the meantime, Hassan Khan conti. Tiflis, and put himself at the head of nued to hover about the Russian the army; that after keeping a smart camp with a body of horse, and en- fire from their batteries for some deavoured to cut off their communi- hours, the Russians had suddenly cations, and any convoys which might raised the siege, and were now marcha be on the route to join them. He was, ing towards Nukhshivan. Before his however, attacked and defeated by á Majesty had arrived at Khoé, the Ruse Russian detachment, and obliged to sian General had invested Abbas retire beyond the Arras. The siege Abad ; and when the Prince Royal of Erivan was therefore pursued with joined his Majesty's camp at the for. out interruption, but without much mer place, to concert measures for the progress being made.
prosecution of the campaign, the reEarly in June, a detachment from lief of the besieged fortress became the besieging army crossed the Arras the first object to which their efforts and attacked Hassan Khan, who, ha- were directed. ving received intimation of its ad- His Royal Highness Allee Nuckee vance, had taken up a position on the Meerza, governor of Casveen, had rising grounds between that river and been detached on the 8th July from the foot of Mount Ararat. The Rus- the royal camp, with about 12,000 sian cavalry, led by a party of lan- men, to reinforce the army of Abbas cers, charged the Persians, but having Meerza, which lay at Choors. The failed in driving them from the ground Ausef ud Dowleh, with a large body of they occupied, were in their turn chosen troops, followed in a few days charged in flank, and driven down the from Khoé. Hassán Kban, who had slope, where they broke, and fled to continued to follow and watch the the protection of a body of infantry movements of the Russian force after and some guns, which had been kept the siege of Erivan was raised, crossed in reserve. In this affair, the Russians the Arras, and formed a junction with lost a considerable number of men, the forces of the Prince and Prime and retired to their camp before Eri- Minister. The Persian army, thus van, without seeking to renew the ac- collected in advance, amounted to tion.
twenty-five thousand men; and it was When the Shah was informed that determined to offer the Russians bat. the Russian forces had crossed the tle. The Persian force advanced to frontier, he prepared to move from the bank of the Arras immediately opTehran, and directed the troops des- posite to Abbas Abad, which occupies tined to accompany him to rendezvous the left bank, and Hassan Khan lost at Sooltaneeah ; but a general scarcity no time in attacking a body of Rusof provisions, more particularly in the sian cavalry, which was posted on the districts lying between Tehran and right bank, and drove them across the Tabreez, and an unusual deficiency river to their camp, which was situof pasture and forage, made it difficult ated not far from the fortress, but a to bring any considerable body of men little further up the stream. together. Great delay in consequence
The Russian general, perceiving that occurred in collecting a sufficient army, large bodies of the enemy were collectand it was not until about the 20th ing in the ravines beyond the river, June that his Majesty arrived at crossed a body of cavalry and infantOojan, an extensive meadow about 35 ry, with two light guns, under cover miles from Tabreez. His Royal High- of his artillery. Having thus secured ness Abbas Mcerza, having collected a the passage of the river, over which he