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such a commemoration should be a national, not a private, concern. It should, indeed, be international, not national.

I would suggest, Mr. President, that the National Educational Association proceed at once to the election of a delegate who shall represent the association at the King Alfred memorial celebration in Winchester, in October, 1901. This delegate should be chosen now, that he may have leisure to prepare himself properly to present the history of the association in written form, and to make the other arrangements necessary for the occasion. I would suggest, also, that the Secretary and the Treasurer of the association be appointed to act with the delegate as a committee of three to confer with the proper authorities in charge of the anniversary, to report methods and means to the National Educational Association at its next annual convention, and to take charge of the representation of the association until occasion for its continuance shall have ceased.

Yours, very respectfully,


Professor of the English Language and Literature, University of California.

Director White, of Ohio, introduced a resolution to amend the action taken last year in regard to the amended spelling by adding "except when the author of a paper formally requests the use of the standard spelling therein."

Director Gove expressed himself as in favor of standing by the reform spelling.

Director White questioned the authority of the board to adopt this spelling for the association.

In the vote upon this amendment a division of the house was called for, and the resolution was adopted by a vote of 25 to 13.

Director Taylor, of Kansas, presented a communication from the Council asking for an appropriation of $1,200 as prizes for essays upon school architecture and hygiene.


The following resolution by Dr. White, of Ohio, was carried:

"Resolved, That this Council hereby approves of the thoro investigation of the subject of school hygiene as proposed by the report of the Department of Superintendence submitted by its committee, and it is recommended to the Board of Directors that an appropriation not exceeding $1,200 be made for this purpose, for the expenses of a special report or for prize essays, as may be hereinafter determined."

Dr. Harris offered the following resolution, which was also carried :

"Resolved, That in case of the appropriation by the Board of Directors of the sum of $1,200 for the purposes named in this report, two prizes be offered for essays on each of two topics named, to-wit: a first prize of $200 and a second prize of $100."

Resolution of George P. Brown, of Illinois :

“Resolved, That a committee of five, of which the president of the Council shall be one, be appointed to present this matter to the Board of Directors, and to arrange for the securing of the prize essays referred to in the above resolutions, provided the Board of Directors grants the appropriation."

The committee was appointed as follows: President A. R. Taylor, Dr. W. T. Harris, George P. Brown, Dr. William F. King, Superintendent Aaron Gove.

After discussion, Director Carr, of Indiana, moved that an appropriation of $1,200 be made for this purpose, in accordance with the plans outlined by the National Council. Seconded and carried.

The Secretary reported the result of the vote on place of meeting in 1900 as follows: Charleston...

Asbury Park.








Director Dougherty moved that, when the board adjourn, it adjourn to meet Friday afternoon at 4: 30 o'clock in the same place. Seconded and carried.

On motion, the Board of Directors adjourned.



The meeting of the Board of Directors was called to order by President-elect Oscar T. Corson.

The following directors were present:

O. T. Corson, Ohio; C. G. Pearse, Nebraska; Nicholas Murray Butler, New York; Newton C. Dougherty, Illinois; A. R. Taylor, Kansas; E. E. White, Ohio; John S. Locke, Maine; A. S. Downing, New York; W. N. Sheats, Florida; McHenry Rhoads, Kentucky; J. A. Shawan, Ohio; D. W. Springer, Michigan; W. G. Carrington, Missouri; O. C. Whitney, Washington; John Swett, California; Irwin Shepard, Minnesota.

By consent, the reading of the minutes of the last meeting was dispensed with, and the Secretary and President were authorized to approve the same for publication. The Secretary read the following communication from the Council:

To the Board of Directors of the National Educational Association:

In accordance with a provision of the constitution, the Council directs me to submit to you the following report:

One year ago a committee of fifteen, with President W. R. Harper, of Chicago, as chairman, was appointed by the Council to investigate and report on the subject of a national university. Said committee found it impossible to present even a preliminary report at this meeting, but will probably be able to report at the meeting in 1900.

Several members of the Council and of the Library Department insisted that the minutes of the Council did not show the exact nature of the motion providing for the appointment of the committee to report on the relation of libraries to the public schools, the preliminary report having already been made after a year's investigation. After some correspondence, it was finally agreed by the Executive Committee of the Council, in accordance with the plan suggested by President Lyte, that the Library Committee should proceed with its investigations and make its final report at this meeting, using the funds appropriated for that purpose by the Board of Directors. The report was presented to the Council thru the chairman of the committee, Librarian J. C. Dana, of Springfield, Mass., at its meeting on Tuesday morning. It is regarded as one of the most valuable reports ever submitted to the Council, and it is hoped that the Executive Committee of the association will provide for its liberal distribution and sale.

The Committee on Normal Schools appointed by the Normal Department four years since, thru its chairman, President Z. X. Snyder, also presented an exhaustive report on the functions and organization of normal schools. It is agreed that nothing else in our literature so completely and so clearly covers these problems, and its circulation in pamphlet form will undoubtedly be provided for by the Executive Committee.

The preliminary report of the Committee of the Department of Superintendence on School Hygiene was presented thru its chairman, Hon. W. T. Harris. It recommends an appropriation of $1,200 for securing prize essays on the four phases of the subject, as already outlined to you and approved at your meeting yesterday.

You are referred to the minutes of the Council for information concerning the other papers presented. Special attention is called to the report of Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler on "The Educational Progress of the Year." It will be found invaluable for reference and suggestions.

The paper on "Do We Need a University Trust?" was referred to the Committee on the National University.

The petition of the Art Department for an appropriation of $600 for completing the report of its special committee on a basis for a course of study in elementary art education, referred to the Council yesterday, was referred to a special committee, with Principal A. S. Downing, of New York, as chairman, to report at the next meeting of the Council.

The Executive Committee of the Council was allowed $250 for expenses for the year. The total expenses were $14.69, which have been properly certified. I offer the suggestion that the balance of the $250 be placed at the disposal of the Executive Committee of the Council for the coming year.

Respectfully submitted,

Director Dougherty moved that the communication be received and the recommendations be concurred in. Seconded and carried.

Secretary Shepard read a communication from the Department of Manual and Industral Education:

LOS ANGELES, CAL., July 13, 1899.

To the Board of Directors of the National Educational Association: GENTLEMEN: The Department of Manual and Industrial Training has voted to request your honorable body to change the name "Manual and Industrial Department" to "Manual Training Department." The secretary of the department was instructed to communicate this action to you.

Very respectfully yours,


Director Butler explained that this communication covered the same ground as the matter which he had presented at the first meeting of the board this year, and moved that the Department of Manual and Industrial Education be hereafter known as the Manual Training Department. Seconded and carried.

The following communication from the director from Pennsylvania was read:


To the Board of Directors of the National Educational Association:

GENTLEMEN: Last year the National Educational Association allowed Professor Skidmore, director for the state of Pennsylvania, $50 for advertising the Washington meeting. The number of teachers at Washington from Pennsylvania did not exceed 250. The number of teachers at Los Angeles will at least reach 400. I think we can safely say that we have twice as many people from the state of Pennsylvania at Los Angeles as Professor Skidmore took to Washington. I well know that the law allows us only $25 for expenses, but if you can see your way clear to approve of the bill which we have presented, state director and district managers of Pennsylvania will appreciate your kindness.

Large states like New York and Pennsylvania should receive a larger donation than the smaller states. Postage alone will amount to $50. Hoping you can approve the bill presented, in order that Secretary Shepard may audit it, I am, Yours truly, GEORGE HOWELL, Director for Pennsylvania for 1898-99.

Director Downing, of New York, moved that the matter be referred to the Executive Committee with power to act. Seconded and carried.

By consent of the board, Dr. S. P. Robbins, of Montreal, explained the reason for the absence from the meeting yesterday of the Montreal delegation, and presented an invitation for the association to meet in Montreal in 1900. Questions were asked of Mr. Robbins by Directors White, Pearse, and Downing. Dr. Robbins' invitation was seconded by other gentlemen of the Montreal delegation.

Director Downing asked that an amount equal to that of former years be set aside for the Department of Superintendence.

Director Pearse moved that an appropriation be made for this purpose, not to exceed $300. Seconded and carried.

On motion, the Board of Directors adjourned sine die. IRWIN SHEPARD,







Mr. Chairman, Members of the National Educational Association, Ladies and Gentlemen:

We should never forget the great debt of gratitude which we owe to the memory of the sturdy pioneers of the East, West, North, and South, whose heroism, industry, and perseverance hewed, in the primeval forest, blockhouses and established villages, forming the barriers against savage attacks, and there created the nucleus of American civilization. The ax, the shovel, the pick, and the plow, in the hands of this vanguard of progress, removed the cumbersome obstacles left by nature, put fertile fields and fruitful orchards in the dark recesses of the backwoods, and by their rugged trails prepared easy routes for the railway engineer, whose works now attract the wonder and admiration of the modern traveler. These achievements, tho under the direction of high intelligence, nevertheless represent in the history of our American people the era of matter -the era of physical strife.

But man's needs are mental as well as physical. Shelter, food, raiment, and rest constitute a portion only of our desires. The great Creative Power which spoke amid the darkness and solitude at the world's birth,. saying, "Let there be light!" likewise spoke into the senseless clay the mightier words: "Let there be mind!" And, thus inspired by that divine injunction, man, since that first electric current of thought sped thru his brain, finds daily need of intellectual development.

Therefore, in the track of the hardy pioneer followed the teacher and the scholar. The blazed forest trees and monuments of rock marked the pathway of the frontiersman; the book, the tablet, and the pen showed the teacher's line of march. While the ground was plowed, the minds of the man, the woman, and the child were taught to reason and to know. The blockhouses were transformed by the wizards of education into schoolhouses. The humble house of worship, formed of unshapely timber, was changed into the pretentious church, with its chaste tapering spire piercing the sunlight in its heavenward course, and attesting the marvelous growth of mind and morals. The log cabin of the forester became the elegant villa of the merchant. The scholar, statesman, artist, sculptor, and mechanic-all better housed and better fed-sprang up

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