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which was sown with this grass ai»d white clover, the other half with meadow foxtail and red clover. The sheep would not touch the sweet scented vernal and white clover, but kept constantly on the fox-tail grass, though the dwarfish nature of the sweet-scented vernal bad occasioned an unusual degree of luxuriance of the white clover, with which it was combined. This would indicate that it is not, when single, or when combined with but two or three different species, very grateful to cattle. The chemical examination of its nutritive matter, shews that it does not abound in saccharine matter, but chiefly in mucilage; and the insoluble extract is in a greater proportion than in many other grasses. Its merits, however, in respect to early growth, continuing to vegetate and throw up flowering stalks till the end of autumn, and its hardy and permanent nature, sufficiently uphold its claim to a place in the composition of all permanent pastures. The superior nutritive qualities of its latter-math are a great recommendation for the purpose of grazing, the stalks being of but little utility, as they are generally left untouched by the cattle, provided there is a sufficiency of herbage.
"It is said to give to new-mown hay that delightful smell which is peculiar to it; if it is not the sole cause of that pleasant smell, it is certainly more powerful when combined with the grasses which compose hay. About the middle of April it comes into flower, and the seed is ripe generally about the first or second week of June."
This grass has become extensively naturalized in the United States; but, it is believed, has been rarely, if at all, cultivated. It is to this plant that the following lines in Darwin's Botanic Garden, have reference:
"■Two gentle shepherds, and their sister-wives,
With thee, \nthoxa! lead ambrosial lives;
Where the wide heath in purple pride extends,
And scatter'd furze its golden lustre blends,
Closed in a green recess, ur.envy'd lot!
The blue smoke rises from their turf-built cot;
Bosom'd in fragrance blush their infant train,
Eye the warm sun, or drink the silver rain"
Loves of the Plants, canto 1, I. 35.
NOTICES OF PERNICIOUS AND UNPRO FITABLE PLANTS,
Which infest the Farms in Chester county, Penn. (Continued from page 27.)
No 8. Stncenesia.—Slperflua. Gnaphalium polycephalum. Life everlasting. Cudweed.
This plant is very abundant in many of our fields, and is of no value to the farmer, but it has not been deemed of sufficient importance to require any efforts to get rid of it. In truth, the greater portion of merely worthless weeds are generally expelled by judicious culture, and the introduction of valuable plants.
Qnaphalium planlaginum. Plantain-leaved cudweed.
This worthless plant is almost constantly limited to sterile knolls, or cold clayey banks; and can always be banished by improving the soil.
Chrysanthemum leucanlhemum. Ox-eye daisy. White weed.
This foreigner is, perhaps, the vilest weed which has yet invaded our farms: and it is spreading itself in a manner calculated to excite the serious concern of reflecting agriculturists. It is a plant which is generally refused by all kinds of stock; it takes almost exclusive possession of the soil, is extremely difficult to subdue, and produces seeds in great abundance. Although there are some neighbourhoods which are yet pretty clear of it, there can be little doubt that it will ere long pervade the entire country, unless resitted by the vigilant and active
co-operation of the whole agricultural community. It is in vain for one, or a few, to contend against such a pest, whilst others supinely or negligently permit it to flourish on their premises. The seeds are constantly distributed in hay, or borne by rivulets and freshets, to every farm which lies in their course. Where the plant is not too generally extonded over the farm, the best, and indeed the only effectual plan, hitherto ascertained for destroying it, is to keep the soil under constant culture for several years. This method, however, is obviously adapted to those cases only in which the evil is circumscribed within moderate limits.
Senecio hieradfolius. Fire-weed. Groundsel.
A worthless weed, very common in new clearings, and in and around spots which have been recently fired; whence one of its common names. It is not a difficult plant to keep under. The S. balsamitce, another species, is frequent in moist meadows, and equally valueless, but not troublesome.
Erigeron strigosum. Flea-bane. Daisy.
A very common, worthless weed in pastures and upland meadows. It is not, however, deemed so important an evil as to attract much attention; and it is a fortunate circumstance, for it would probably be extremely difficult to extirpate.
Erigeron canadense. Canadian flea-bane. Horseweed. Hog-weed.
Another worthless and abundant weed, which, it is said, has been carried from this country and has disseminated itself all over Europe—thus partially repaying the old world, for the numerous vegetable pests which it has transmitted to the new. No other means are used, or can probably be used with advantage, to keep down this weed, except the judicious practice of alternate husbandry, and clothing the soil with plants of value.
Solidago. Golden rod.
A few worthless species of this family of plants are abundant in many old fields; but they are chiefly confined to such as are sterile, and are easily expelled by improving the quality of the soil.
Several species of this genus abound in our fields, so much so as to be a good deal of a nuisance.— They are utterly destitute of value, in an agricul tural view; but how to get entirely rid of them, seems not to be well understood.
Anthemis cotula. May-weed. Dog's fennel. Stinking chamomile.
This is a vile, fetid little foreign weed, of no sort of value, and a good deal troublesome in yards, lanes, grass lots, &c. Considerable attention and perseverance are requisite to keep it in proper subjection. The A. aivcnsis, or field chamomile, another worthless foreigner, occurs occasionally; but it is by no means so annoying as the foregoing.
MR. JEFFERSON.—SHEEP. • The following letter from Mr. Jefferson has been placed in our bands by one of our old citizens, to whom it was addressed, and we agree with him in the opinion, that although Mr. J. in his life time re fused his permission to publish it, yet that it is due to his memory it should now be made public, as adding one more to the many proofs that the good of his country was his constant study.
Monticello, May 24, 1810. Dear Joseph—I have duly received your two letters, of the 5th and 14th, and am thankful for your aid in the safe delivery of our merinos. The President, on their arrival, had notified me of it, and that he would receive and forward mine to Orange with his own; from thence I can get them here in a day. As soon as I heard of their arrival, 1 made up my mind, instead of receiving thousands of dollars a piece for their offspring, to lay myself out for furnishing my whole state gratis, by giving a full-blooded ram to every county, as fast as they
can be raised. Besides raising from the imported ewe, I shall put as many of my own as the ram is competent to; and as four crossings give the pure breed, when that comes in, I shall make quick work of furnishing one to every county. By those means I hope to see my own state entirely covered with this valuable race, at no expense to the farmers, and the moderate one to me of maintaining the flock while doing it. In the mean time I shall have half-blood rams the first year, three-fourth bloods the second, and seven-eighths the third, to give to my friends. Any of these which would be acceptable to you, you shall be welcome to. I shall keep my flock under my own eye; I have been obliged to do this for some time with my present race, keeping a person constantly following them, attended by the Shepherd's dog 1 received from France, perfectly trained to the business. They have now the benefit of fine pastures as can be, the dog keeping them from injuring the grain in the same enclosure. As Dr. T. had asked one of those dogs as well as
Jrourself a pair of the first litter, I have been constant y on the watch for an opportunity of sending them to you, but 1 had none.
I salute you affectionately,
DISORDER IN SHEEP.
[The following was written by a respectable member of the New York Legislature.]
(From the Albany Daily Advertiser.) Messrs. Editors—I observed in your paper of Tuesday, of last week, that a strange disease had broken out among the sheep, in one of the towns of Oneida county. As the subject is one in which the farmers of our country are deeply interested, and as a cure and preventative are both familiar to me, I beg leave to suggest the following facts obtained from experience in raising sheep. It is well known to every farmer, that in the heat of summer, sheep are troubled with a fly, of which they are very fearful, and on its approach will start and run, and at the same time keep their heads near the ground. This fly, known by the name of the brown grub fly, alights upon the end of the animal's nose, penetrates the nostrils and deposits the eggs in the membranes of the head, which forms the grubs, and usually bv the first of April, or between that and the first of June, these grubs are large enough to destroy the sheep; and frequently several dozen of these grubs are to be found in the head of the sheep, of the size and length mentioned. This accounts for the origin of the grub. The first expedient which I adopt for a preventative, is to keep my sheep on dry and elevated pasture land in summer, and by all means let them range where they can have access to du.-t, like that of a dry road. Every farmer has observed that sheep, when these flies are about them, will keep a continual stamping with the feet, with their heads near the ground, especially where it is dusty. This dust is inhaled at the nostrils, and produces a sneezing, by which the fly or eggs are thrown out. It is a common remark, and experience has demonstrated to every farmer, that low moist land does not answer the purpose for rearing sheep, and the reason is obvious. As a cure for this disease, let every farmer in the fall, before winter sets in, look to his flock, and he will discover that those sheep which are likely to be affected by the grub, are discharging a water-like substance at the nose; let him take a goose-quill, or any other similar tube, or a common hand bellows, and blow dry Scotch snuff, or dry pulverized salt up the nostrils of the sheep, and it will destroy the grub or eggs, and render the sheep sound and healthy. Tar mixed with the salt when fed to the sheep, has performed the same cure. The facility with which these expedients may be used, renders it worthy of a trial.
ON PLUM TREES, PRUNES, AND NECTA RINES.
There have recently been a number of gentlemen asking me the cause why I have fine plums, prunes, &c. in succession, the season through, and their's drop off, or do not arrive to perfection; therefore I have thought proper to give a brief sketch of my practice and knowledge of those fruits for more than twenty years, in your valuable work, which appears to raise agriculture and horticulture more in the United States than any other work I have seen.
The best of our plums, prunes, Sic. appear to have come from the east, and a little north, and on a fair trial 1 find some of them do not suit our cli mate as well as others; therefore I have discarded several sorts of them.
When a plum tree bears fine fruit a few years and fails, I examine the tree well, and try to find out the cause. If the tree is of considerable size and will not hold its fruit, but drop it when small, and is getting mossy, the remedy is to head it down in May, and apply a hot composition where you cut, made of turpentine, tallow and bees -wax, melted together. The tree will make a fine growth the same year, and appear to renew its age, and bear more and finer fruit for many years than before. If I find the fruit on a tree grow large and fine at first, and, instead of ripening, rot on the tree, then the tree has too great an overflow of gum, which is sometimes caused by insects, not always; rich soil and other things will do it. I bore holes i or 1 inch in diameter, through the trunk of the tree, and plug tbem with seasoned wood; this should be done in April. If it has no good effect the first season, 1 take up the tree by the roots in November, and transplant it in a soil (if convenient,) not quite so rich; and the next spring, when it begins to bud out, (as I know there must be a deficiency of roots from digging up,) I lop off some of its branches, taking care to cut near an eye, or thriving branch, and put composition hot, as above stated, and the tree is almost certain to be crowned with the greatest success. When I find the fruit much punctured by the circulio and drop off full ol worms, I wash the trunk and large limbs with my composition, prepared to resist frost and insects, (see vol. —. p. —, Am. Farmer,) and pour hot ley or hot soap suds of the soft soap, round the trees on the earth, as those insects are there concealed; salt is also good against them If the trees are not very young, I pour the boiling ley or soap suds on and round the roots and trunk. If it is very small, i would not recommend the scalding so much, for fear of damage; but if three or four inches diameter in the trunk, it will help it as a fine manure. When chickens go amongst the trees, they often eat the circulio and other insects that spoil the fruit; but they do not half so much good as the toad frogs— these prey on those small bugs of every sort both night and day, and should not be destroyed or drove out of a fruit garden. I have made many experi ments with mercury, prepared in different ways, which had good effect, but it is expensive. The late Col Robert Lloyd Nicols, a very respectable gentleman in this county, of high standing, raised line fruit; he left a recipe in bis own manuscript, (which I have now,) it was told him by a French gentleman, who destroyed the circulio by spreading white linen cloths under the trees before sun-rise, and then struck the trunk of the tree hard with the pole of an axe or a maul, which caused the insects to drop off. and he could then destroy them with ease; but it is apt to damage the tree. 1 do not recommend it often. Some gentlemen, that have but few trees, pave the earth with brick under them,
which succeeds. As those insects, or at least the most of them, can fly at times, they are hard to destroy entirely; the smooth flies damage the young growth of plum trees, &c. which hurts the next year's crop. They may be destroyed with salt water, or driven from the tree; though I often take off the twig and make short work of them.
Little time ought now to be lost in preparing new and old gardens for early spring crops. See tbat the fences are in good order. Hogs and cattle soon find out a faulty pannel, and will not fail to take ad vantage of it; and a whole season's work may be destroyed for want of a few hours' work at the fence.
Next to a good fence it is indispensibly necessary to have a sufficiency of a suitable manure; without this, in the soils of this country especially, labuur is vain. Without a portion of well rotted stable dung, lime is the most powerful and most suitable fertilizer of our soils, with which we are acquainted. If the soil be moderately deep, a half bushel of slack ed lime may be evenly spread over every 20 feet square. If the soil be sodden and clayey, a mode rate coat of coal ashes, sand or the black coal dirt, well known here, will be of signal benefit. The liming must not be repeated for several years. The file and soil of a garden, after it is well manured, is to have it well worked. If it is a new lot, let it be ploughed and cross ploughed, and well harrowed; if an old one, it ought to be dug at least two spades deep, if the soil will admit of it, and be well turned up and pulverised in the digging. It is an injurious and slovenly practice, too common here, to scratch over the surface of the earth a few inches deep. The consequence is, plants put forth their roots and very soon meet a hard unfertilized stratum, wbich they cannot penetrate, and quickly become puny and sickly from want of room and nourishment; and being so near the surface of the earth, the least drought kills them out-right It is then a subject of wonder and surprise, what can be the matter,—and the poor soil or climate, or both, has to bear all the blame of the laziness or inattention of the gardener.
It is all important to have the best seeds. The fruits will assuredly partake of the nature of the seeds. If you sow seeds of poor unprofitable kinds, your produce will be of the same description.
As we are writing for the information of new beginners, we shall be excused, enumerating some of the plants and herbs which ought to find a place in every kitchen garden.
Esculents,—Beans, Peas, Cabbage, Carrots, Po tatoes, Beets, Turnips, Indian Corn, Tomatos, Squashes, Spinach, Parsnips, Onions, Leeks, Cucumbers, Nasturtion, Okra, Egg Plant, Cauliflow er, Asparagus, Artichokes, Peppers, Horse Kadish, Scorz>>nera, &c.
Salads —Celery, Chives, Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Mustard, Parsley, Radish, Shallot, &c.
Herbs.—Anise, Basil, Coriander, Caraway, Chammomile, Lavender, Marigold, Marjoram, Mint, Sage, Savory, rhyme, &c.
In addition to the ordinary garden fruits of Apples, Peaches, Plums, Gooseberries, Currants, Sic. &c. we would especially recommend the cultivation of the Grape. The vine will form a beautiful and highly ornamented shade, and the fruit a delicious dessert. Or if you have space and time to cultivate it to a greater extent, you may save, besides abundance of fruit for the table, a glass of good wine for yourself and a friend.
It is too generally supposed tbat the Grape is difficult to raise, and laborious to cultivate; neither of these suppositions are well founded. It may be raised and cultivated almost with as little expense of
money and labour as any other fruit. After selecting suitable kinds, but little skill and attention are required. Our soil and climate is well adapted to the purpose; in proof of this we need but remark the abundance of wild grapes which flourish and bear luxuriously in all quarters around us.—And here.we would observe tbat several kinds of these are well worth cultivation. The large white fox grape, so common here, is little inferior in sweetness and flavour to some of the foreign cultivated grapes, and has the advantage of being a native, and congenial to the soil and climate. The small chicken or winter grape is another kind which makes a most delicious preserve.
Gardening is too much neglected in this state. It is considered, in the country, a petty concern, and abandoned to the care of women and children. We desire, if possible, to claim for this subject, suitable attention. The produce, of a garden will afford a family many comforts and luxuries; and what contributes mure to the value and beauty of a house, than a neat and productive garden? Cultivating a garden is a healthy exercise for the sedentary, and a pleasing recreation for the labourer. It leads to industry, neatness, economy and good order. If every dwelling house had a good garden attached to it; it would, at least in our estimation, raise the value of the state twenty-five per cent.
ROSA GREVILLII, OR GREVILLE'S CHINA ROSE.
[The enterprise and perseverance displayed by Mr. Prince, is almost incredible. His establishment does, in its way, much credit to our country.]
Roses.—Perhaps among all the astonishing productions of the vegetable kingdom, there is not one more remarkable than a rose recently introduced into Kurope and this country from China, and thus described in Loudon's Gardener's Magazine, published at London:
"Rosa Grevillii, or Greville's China Rose The
shoot of this rose grew eighteen feet in a few weeks, and is the most singular of the rose tribe tbat ever came under my observation. It now covers about one hundred feet square, with more than a hundred trusses of flowers—some of these have more than fifty buds in a cluster, and the whole will average about thirty in a truss; so that the amount of flower buds is little less than three thousand But the most astonishing curiosity is the variety of colours produced on the buds at first opening—white, lightblush, deeper blush, light red, darker-red, scarlet and purple, all on the same clusters. This rose Crows in the manner of the Multiflnra, but is easily known by the leaf, which is much larger and more rugose than the common Multiflora."
This rose has been uiliouuced into the United States, and we are informed that about fifty plants are now in the possession of Mr. Prince, of Long island. Among other roses peculiarly beautiful and of recent introduction, is the single white Multiflora, the double white evergreen Multiflora, or Banksian rose. The number of China roses at present cultivated in the collections at Long island, exceed ninety varieties; and of roses of all the different species, the number of varieties exceed six hundred, ryy. Y. paper.
DOMESTIC WINE. A farmer near Dayton, Ohio, made last fall thirty barrels of wine from the wild grape; one living near Germantown made 100 barrels. Most of this was made of middle sized blue grape, less than the Cape. Here is a field of enterprise the most unbounded and sure in profitable result. The native vine, when cultivated, produces in increased abundance and improves in flavour; market price, $15 per barrel. [CincmnaUi Wttttrn TUttr
ON SEASONING TIMBER.
(From Silliman's Journal of Science and Arts.) Mr. Webster's notice of the seasoning of Timber, and of the acceleration of Water wheels during the night. To The Editor,
In November, 1825, I weighed a cleft of green oak wood, and laid it in my garret. At the end of it year I weighed it again. The weight was as fol lows:
When green, 61b. 10oz.=oz. 106
Difference, 1 14 oz. 30
Then, to ascertain what a ton would lose of weight in the same time and under like circumstances: 106 oz. : 90 oz. : : 3-2,000 oz. : 8056 oz.=666 lbs
loss of a ton. 2000 lbs.—566=1434 lbs...-- the weight of a ton of green wood alter a year's seasoning.
I need not observe that wood will not season well until it is split. It is almost in vain to attempt to season round wood covered with bark.
In the year 1799, I spent a night in making observations to ascertain whether the popular opinion that mill wheels, driven by water, have an accelerated velocity, with the same head of water, during the night, is well founded. By an article in a late number of the American Journal,' observe that Professor Cleaveland has made observations with a similar view, which seem to disprove the results of my observations. But I am not satisfied with his experiment and observations. I question whether the experiment can be fairly made, except on a small stream, in the calm night, when no wind or moving object disturbs the water; at the same time great care must be taken to keep the water at the same altitude, and the wheel with uniform friction. But there is an important circumstance in his case, which must have rendered his experiment incomplete. This is, that he discontinued his observations at twelve o'clock. But the greatest acceleration of the wheel is not till the break of day. My observations, made in 1799, were conducted with great care, from sun set to sunrise, and these gave an acceleration of one-ninth—the wheel making 16 revolutions at sun-set, and 18 at day-break. See my History of Pestilential Diseases, vol. 2, p 298, Am edit. N. WEBSTER.
JVetc Haven, JVoe. 1826.
<ame specific gravity as the Saratoga water, and holds in combination, soda, magnesia and lime. A correct analysis cannot be obtained until the tubes are inserted, and the water obtained pure, which will probably be in a few days, though the boring is yet continued. The hydrogen still continues to issue from the aperture, and on covering it for a few moments with a cloth, and applying a flame, it burns brilliantly.
As I have introduced you to a Brewery, I hope it may not be deemed obtrusive to state, that there is more ale brewed in Albany, than in any one, and probably more than in any two towns, on the continent. There are five extensive establishments; one of which is aided by a twenty horse steam power, and is capable of turning off 240 barrels of beer a day. Others are but little inferior in extent. Two years ago, there were 220,000 bushels of barley malted in this city, during the malting season, and the quantity this year probably exceeds 300,000. Albany ale has a high reputation, and I understand the immense quantity furnished at these establishments has a ready sale in the domestic and foreign market. The barley is furnished by the farmers of this county, and of a few counties west of it; and the hops come principally from Madison and Onei da. Both these articles are becoming important staples; and, in these hard times, contribute essentially to the agricultural profits of the country.
I am fearful the season is. and will be, unpropitious to our winter grain. The great body of snow which continues to cover the ground, has taken out the frost pretty generally; and there is reason to fear has smothered much of the grain. Should the snow soon melt, and expose the crops, rendered tender by the ample covering which has protected them, to the searching influence of March winds; and to the alternations of freezing and thawing—there is reason to apprehend serious injury.
I continue the cultivation of the ruta baga with unabated success. My crop of three acres last year gave me from 15 to 1800 bushels. They grew on my lightest sand, and depreciated in quality as the soil became moist or stiff. They were drilled on a clover ley, and were of course a second crop. Respectfully,
Your ob't. serve. J. S. Skinner, Esq. J. BUEL.
BORING FOR WATER.
Extensive breweries in Albany—barley and hops consumed therein—cultivation of Ruta Baga. Sec. About the middle of May last, Messrs. Boyd and M'Cullock, commenced boring for water, in their extensive Brewery, in the south part of this city. "When they had proceeded 70 or 80 feet, they came to a slate rock, similar to that found at Saratoga and Ballston, and they have now reached the depth of 500 feet, and are still in this rock. When the auger had penetrated 130 feet, a current of hydrogen gas (inflammable air) was found to issue at the sur face, which readily ignited and burnt on applying a flame to the orifice But what is most remarkable, within a few days .the water has risen within two feet of the surface, and on tasting it, it is found very similar to that of the Congress Spring, at Saratoga. I examined it to-day. As it had been in a wooden cask some hours, the carbonic acid gas, or fixed air, had mostly escaped. It had the flavour of Congress water exposed for some time in a glass, and possessed, I think, a stronger saline flavour. It has been so far analyzed as to ascertain that it is of about the
BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAIL-ROAD.
[Though we shall not have room to record in extenso, all the documents which will he put forth in the progress of the investigation which has been commenced in regard to this great project; we hold it to be our duty to give, from time to time, a sketch of the measures which may be taken in relation to it, to serve as a history of the undertaking, whether it be destined to succeed, or to miscarry. We commence accordingly, now, with the meeting of the citizens of Baltimore, on the 12th February, 1827; and we set apart a few columns for this sketch the more cheerfully, as we hope the facts and illustrations adduced by the committee, independently of their application to this particular work, will throw light upon the general subject that will be acceptable to the general reader, and useful to those who may be charged with enterprizes of a similar character, on whatever scale, in other parts of our widely extended country.
The meeting was convened to consider of the best means of "restoring to the city of Baltimore the portion of the western trade which has lately been diverted from it by the introduction of steam navigation, and by other causes."
William Patterson, Esq. one of our oldest mer chants, of great probity and large fortune, and a whig of the revolution, was appointed chairman
of the meeting, and David Winchester, Esq secretary. Many documents and statements were produced at the meeting, to shew the advantage of R.mlRoads over turnpike roads or canals, for transportation of heavy articles of carriage. These documents were referred by the meeting to a committee, with instructions to examine and report thereon to a subsequent meeting.
The committee so appointed consisted of—P. E. Thomas, Benjamin C. Howard, George Brown, Talbot Jones, Joseph W. Patterson, Evan Thomas, and John V. L. McMahon.
A resolution was then proposed by the meeting to contribute each ten dollars, to be placed at the disposal of the committee, who were invested with power to receive subscriptions from others. The meeting then adjourned to convene again on the 19th of February, 1827. A meeting was accordingly held pursuant to said adjournment, when the committee appointed at the previous meeting present- d their Report. Of this Report, we must content ourselves with giving a brief outline. The prominent points are these:
That if Baltimore remain longer inactive, she must yield to the more efficient exertions of New York and Philadelphia the little that remains to her of the western trade. In regard to the Susquehanna, the committee despatch it by remarking, that "The effort now making to connect the tide water of the Susquehanna by means of a canal navigation with the eastern extremity of the Pennsylvania State Canal, it is confidently hoped, by the friends of that measure, will secure to us the ascending and descending trade of this noble river, and perhaps will lead hereafter to a direct water communication with the great northern lakes, with whose tributary streams the Susquehanna interlocks. In completing this measure, we. shall therefore do all that we are now called upon to execute in reference to the river Susquehanna."
After setting out the fact that Baltimore is nearer than New York by 200 miles, and nearer than Philadelphia by 100 miles, to the navigable waters of the west, the committee proceed to speak of the various modes which have been devised for intercommunication between distant points.
"When Turnpike roads," say they, "were first attempted in England, they were almost universally opposed by .the great body of the people, a few enterprising citizens however succeeded after a severe struggle, in constructing them. The amount of travelling was then so limited, that this means of transportation was found abundantly sufficient for all the exigencies of the then trade of that country; in a little time however, so great was the increase of commerce there, (and which increase in a great measure resulted from the advantages these roads afforded) that even the turnpikes in a short time were found insufficient to accommodate the growing trade of the country, and the substitution of canals in the place of roads was the consequence, in every situation where the construction of them was practicable.
"It was soon ascertained, that in proportion to the increased facilities afforded to trade by the canals in England, was the increase of trade itself, until even this means of communication was actually, in many of the. more commercial parts of the country, found insufficient for the transportation required.
"Rail roads had, upon a limited scale, been used in several places in England and Wales for a number of years, and had, in every instance, been found fully to answer the purposes required, as far as the experiment had been made. The idea of applying them upon a more extended scale, appears however only recently to have been suggested in that country; but notwithstanding so little time has elapsed since the attempt was first made, yet we find that so decided have been their advantages over turnpike roads, and even over canals, that already 2000 miles of them are actually completed or in a train of rapid progress, in Great Britain, and that the experiment of their construction has not in one case failed, nor has there been one instance in which they have not fully answered the most sanguine expectations of their projectors. Indeed, so completely has this improvement succeeded in England, that it is the opinion of many judicious and practical men, there, that these roads will, for heavy transportation, supersede canals as effectually as canals have superseded turnpike roads.
"We would just here remark, that the canal system has many advantages in England which it does not possess in this country.
"1st. The climate in England is so much milder in winter than ours, that their canals, even as far north as Liverpool, are seldom frozen, and then only about a week in any winter, whereas they would be often frozen up here for many weeks, and sometimes for several months.
"2dly. From that country having been long opened and cleared, the people there now know the minimum volume of their streams, and of course can calculate exactly how far they can depend upon these streams for a supply of water for their canals: whereas, with us it is known, that as the country is cleared, our- streams are every year diminishing, and no one can now pretend to say to what point of declension they may yet go; but it has already been ascertained that 30 or 40 years back, many of them contained double the quantity of water they now do, in the latter part of summer.
"Thirdly, the climate of England being above the fiftieth degree of latitude, the people there have nothing to fear from the stagnation of water in their canals, whereas our climate is at least four months in the year a tropical one; and it is found by universal experience, that the exhalations from a common mill race, renders the air unwholesome for a considerable distance on both sides of it. There is reason then to fear, that the same objection would apply to the navigating a canal below the fortieth degree of latitude, during the hot season of the year, that is found to exist against navigating the river Mississippi to New Orleans. We say then, if England, with these decided advantages, which she undoubtedly possesses over us in favour of canal navigation, is about to supersede her canals by the construction of rail-roads, will it be wise in us to exhaust our resources upon a system which is now about to be. abandoned in a country where the experiment of the two plans has been fairly and fully made? There has yet in this country, been but one rail-road constructed and fully tested, and this is only about three miles long; it cost $11,000 per mile; but il is alleged that, with the experience now gained, a similar one could be constructed for about one third less. We here refer to the Quincy railroad near Boston. It was erected as an experiment, and as far as it has been tried, has fully answered the expectations of the parties for whose use it was made; not having been the least injured by the severe frosts during the late winter.
"The stock of information upon the general subject of rail-roads, now in possession of this com mittce, is admitted not to be very extensive, bul they have gleaned fr"m the several publications and reports which they have examined upon this interesting subject, enough to leave no doubt upon their minds, that these roads are far belter adapted to our situation and circumstances, than a canal across the mountains would be: they therefore recommend that measures be taken to construct a double rail-road between the city of Baltimore and some suitable point on the Ohio river, by the most eligi ble and direct route, and that a charter to incorporate a company to execute this work be obtained as early as possible; and in support of this opinion they submit the following views and statements." (To be contitmtd.)
(From Hints for the Improvement of Early Education and Nursery Discipline.) Fearfulness And Fortitude. In various characters fear assumes various forms. Some children who can brave an external danger will sink depressed at a reproof or sneer. It is our business to guard against the inroads of fear under every shape; for it is an infirmity, if suffered to gain the ascendancy, most enslaving to the mind, and destructive of its strength and capability of enjoyment. At the same time, it is an infirmity so difficult to be overcome, and to which children are so excessively prone, that it may be doubted whether, in any branch of education, more discretion or more skill is required.
We have two objects to keep in view; the one, to secure our children from all unnecessary and imaginary fears—the other, to inspire them with that strength of mind which may enable them to meet, with patience and courage, the real and unavoidable evils of life.
For the first, there is no one who has contemplated the suffering occasioned, through life, by the prevalence of needless fears, imaginary terrors, and diseased nerves, but would most earnestly desire to preserve their children from these evils. To this end, they should be, as far as possible, guarded against every thing likely to excite sudden alarm, or to terrify the imagination. In very early childhood, they ought not to be startled, even at play, by sudden noises or strange appearances. Ghost stories, extraordinary dreams, and all other gloomy and mysterious tales, must on no account be named in their presence: nor must they hear histories of murders, robberies, sudden deaths, mad dogs, or terrible diseases. If any such occurrences are the subjects of general conversation, let them at least be prohibited in the nursery. Nor is it of less importance that we should be cautious of betraying alarm at storms, a dread of the dark, or a fear and disgust at animals. The stricter vigilance in these respects is required, because, by a casual indiscretion on our part, by leaving about an injudicious book, by one alarming story, by once yielding our selves to an emotion of groundless terror, an im pression may be made on the mind of a child that will continue for years, and materially counteract the effect of habitual watchfulness. How cruel, then, purposely lo excite false terrors in those under our care: as by threatening them with "the black man who comes for naughty children," with "gipsies," the "snake in the well," &c! Not that children will be long deceived; but when the black man and dreadful monster shall have lost their power, the effect on the imagination—a liability to nervous and undefined terrors will continue; and thus, for the trifling consideration of sparing ourselves a little present trouble, we entail upon those entrusted to us, suffering, and an imbecility of mind, which no subsequent efforts of their own may be able w holly to overcome. We have reason to hope, that the particular expedients here referred to are, in the present day, excluded fr"m most nurseries; but we may, perhaps, fall into similar errors, under a more refined form—by exciting, for instance, an apprehension of immediate judgments from heaven, as the consequences of ill conduct. But it is to be remembered, that the attempt to touch the conscience, or to enforce obedience, by terrifying the imagination, is, under every form, to be reprobated, as altogether erroneous and highly injurious. This mode of proceeding is, commonly, the resort of weakness and inexperience; for authority establish ed on right principles, needs no such supports. Superstitious fears of every kind are the more to be dreaded, and earnestly guarded against, because so peculiarly apt to mingle themselves with religion.
to discolour, that which in its mature is full of attraction, and which, if not disguised or distorted by the imagination, would appear, as it is in truth, a reasonable and joyful service.
Great care is required that children do not imbibe terrific and gloomy ideas of death; nor should they incautiously be taken to funerals, or allowed to see a corpse. It is desirable to dwell on the joys of the righteous in the presence of their heavenly Father, freed from every pain and sorrow, rather than on the state and burial of the body, a subject very likely painfully to affect the imagination. On this point, books are often injudicious. It may be well to mention as an instance, the Lines on a Snow-drop,in that useful and pleasing little work, entitled, "Original Poems." Here the poor little babe, doomed forever to the pit hole, would leave a gloomy impression on the mind of any child of quick feeling and imagination: it is therefore better to make a point of cutting out such passages from a nursery library.
If children are naturally of a timid, nervous constitution, or if, unfortunately, they have imbibed those fears from what we should most wish to guard them, much may be done ^towards restoring them to a healthful tone of mind; but it must be effected by more than common skill, and by measures the most gentle and unperceived. Direct opposition, upbraiding a child for his cowardice, accusing him of fearing the dark, believing in ghosts, &c. will but establish, or perhaps create, the very evils we desire to counteract. If a child dread the dark, he must on no account be forced into it, or left in bed against his will without a candle. We had better appear neither to see his weakness, or consider it of importance, and for a time silently to yield to it, rather than to notice or oppose it; at the same time losing no opportunity of infusing a counteracting
fprinciple. He may very soon be tempted to join lis bolder companions in a dark room at a game of play, or to hunt for sugar plums, especially if his mother or nurse will join in the sport, till he become accustomed to it. Well chosen stories, without any apparent reference to himself, may be related to him, displaying the good effects of courage, as opposed to the folly and ill consequence of cowardice. As he advances in age and strength of mind, he will be able to profit by some reasoning on the subject. Wc may animate him to overcome his fears by an exertion of his own, encouraging him by rewards and approbation; but let the efforts which he makes be wholly voluntary, and not by constraint.
It is not uncommon, with the idea of removing the groundless fears of children, to give them histories of strange, terrific, or perhaps, ghost-like appearances, to be in the sequel cleared up and explained away. But experience will convince us, that this is a very mistaken system; for, in childhood, the imagination is quick and retentive, but the reasoning powers slow and weak. ■ The alarming image and nervous impression may continue, whilst the subsequent explanation and practical inference will most likely be forgotten.
There are few more fruitful sources of Tearfulness than mystery: it is therefore a mistake to assume an air of concealment toward children—to speak in their presence by hints, or in a suppressed voice, on subjects unsuited to them. We are apt, also, to forget how many things are to them fearful and mysterious, which experience has rendered to us familiar and simple. In the course of conversation, and amidst the common occurrences of life, many things will strike the mind, and even the senses of a child as strange and alarming, merely because he understands them but by halves; and this not unfrequently arises from the thoughtless manner in which we are apt to speak before children of distressing circumstances, as of terrible diseases and other calamities. Such impressions, when perceived, ought neither to be ridiculed, nor carelessly overlooked. We should endeavour to ascertain from what they proceed, and to state the subject in question in so simple and familiar a manner as may strip it of its alarming character. T.> succeed in this, it will be necessary to cultivate that quick penetration which readily understands the looks and manners of children, a language which often conveys more than their words I had, a few weeks since, an example of this with a little boy of my own, about five years old. He was walk ing with me in the dusk of the evening; as we passed one corner of the garden, I found my hand squeezed more tightly, and an inclination to cling to my side, but nothing was said; in returning to the same spot, this was again and again repeated. I was certain it must arise from an emotion of fear, though I could perceive nothing likely to produce it. I would not, however, pass it over, and at length induced my little companion to confess,—"Mamma! I think I see under that bush an animal with very great ears!" I immediately approached the object, gently persuading him to follow me, when we found to our amusement a large tin watering pot, and "the. very great ears" converted into the spout and handle. Had the squeeze of the hand been unheeded, a fearful association with the dark, and with that spot in the garden, would, there is little doubt, have long continued. (To be continued.)
Description Of Bull-baiting on The Sabbath, In
Cadiz—By An Immortal Poet. The lists are oped, the spacious area clear'd, Thousands on thousands piled are seated round; Long ere the first loud trumpet's note is heard, No vacant space for lated wight is found: Here dons, grandees, but chiefly dames abound, Skill'd in the ogle of a roguish eye, Yet ever well inclin'd to heal the wound; None through their cold disdain are doom'd to die, As moon-struck bards complain, by Love's sad 'archery.
Hush'd is the din of tongues—on gallant steeds, With milk-white crest, gold spur, and light-poised
lance, Four cavaliers prepare for venturous deeds, And lowly bending to the lists advance; Rich are their scarfs, their chargers featly prance: If in the dangerous game they shine to-day, The crowd's loud shout and ladies' lovely glance. Best prize of better acts, they bear away, And all that kings or chiefs e'er gain their toils repay.
In costly sheen and gaudy cloak arr.iy'd,
But all afoot, the light limb'd Matadore
Stands in the centre, eager to invade
The lord of lowing herds; but not before
The ground, with cautious tread, is travers'd o'er,
Lest aught unseen should lurk to thwart his speed:
His arms a dart, he fights aloof, nor more
Can man achieve without the friendly steed,
Alas! too oft condemn'd for him to bear and bleed.
Thrice sounds the clarion; lo! the signal falls,
The den expands, and expectation mute
Gapes round the silent circle's peopled walls.
Bounds with one lashing spring the mighty brute,
And, wildly staring, spurns, with sounding foot,
The sand, nor blindly rushes on his foe:
Here, there, he points his threatening front to suit
His first attack, wide waving to and fro
His angry tail; red rolls his eye's dilated glow.
Sudden he stops; his eye is fix'd: away,
Streams from his flank the. crimson torrent clear:
Again he comes; nor dart nor lance avail,
Foil'd, bleeding, breathless, furious to the last,
Full in the centre stands the bull at bay,
'Mid wounds, and clinging darts, and lances brast,
And foes disabled in the brutal fray:
And now the Matadores around him play,
Shake the red cloak, and poise the ready brand:
Once more through all he bursts his thundering
wayVain rage! the mantle quits the conynge hand, Wraps his fierce eye—'tis past—he sinks upon the
Where his vast neck just mingles with the spine, Sheathed in his form the deadly weapon lies.
He stops—he starts—disdaining to decline:
Slowly he falls, amidst triumphant cries.
Without a groan, without a struggle, dies.
The decorated car appears—on high
The corse is piled—sweet sight for vulgar eyes—
Four steeds that spurn the rein, as swift as shy,
Hurl the dark bulk along, scarce seen in dashing
Trotting. In consequence of the performance of the horse, owned by Mr. Randolph, over the Charleston Race Course, (50 miles in five hours) a sportsman of N. York, named Jackson, pledges himself in the Evening Post, to produce a horse in all the month of April next, as may hereafter be agreed on, to trot in harness, on the Petersburg course, over the same distance, in less time, for the sum of ten thousand dollars; or will trot his horse in harness, against the horse of Mr. Randolph, the same distance for the like sum—each horse to carry weight to the amount of one hundred and forty pounds, giving or taking ten pounds.
Old Florizel. $#-To the Editor,—Will you be so good as to inform me (if you can ascertain,) the time of the death of old Florizel, who was sired by Diomed?
Mean of the observations at sun-rise, 39" 8.
Do. do. in the afternoon, .... ... 53 7.
Do. do. at one hour past sunset, .... 48 0.
Average of the three numbers, 47° 2; the mean temperature of the month of March. The preceding observations have been taken with care and precision; the thermometer used is a correct one, having been subjected to proof. It hangs constantly in the open air, free from contact of any substance, and exposed to every blast it is also protected from the direct and reflected rays of the sun. The bulb is sheltered from the wet, because the subsequent evaporation would cause it to experience a degree of cold, lower than the surrounding atmosphere. The4 observations are taken in the city, but such an allowance has been made as experiment has proved necessary, to render them similar to those taken in the adjoining open country. RICHARD SEXTON.