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Memoirs of the late General Melville. [Feb. I, pletion, commences with the antepenul- The former of these sounds, is termed
the rising inflexion, the latie', ihe falling timate, viz.“ "ation."
inflexion; and in polite and familiar con-
It may not be improperly noted here, flexion, unaccompanied by articulation. that inflective sounds are produced in the This will be effected by observing the act of tuning musical instruments: they chirp of birds, when they are supposed are also frequently made use of by violin
“sweet”: and I flatter myself that performers, in sliding to what is termed the instinct voices of ali animals, from the shift.
mon to the meanest of the brute species, If the student be unacquainted with will be found capable of this resolution the science of music, perlaps, he will or sound.
Your's, &c. Letter understand the precise measure
JAMES WRIGHT. ment or distance of these full slides of December 27, 1809. sound, by an example, in nature, of in
MEMOIRS AND REMAINS OF EMINENT PERSONS.
ACCOUNT of the LATE
early removed to the Universities of GENERAL MELVILLE. Glasgow and Edinburgh, where he con
ENERAL Melville was descended G
tinued to apply with the happiest sucfrom the Melvilles of Carnbee, in His fortune being but moderate, Fife, a branch of the ancient and noble he, in compliance with the counsels of family of his name, of which the chietis his friends to select one of the learned the present Earl of Leven and Melville. professions, turned his vicws to the study The original stock of this family was a of medicine: but his genius strongly Norman warrior, one of the followers of prompting-him to follow a military life, William the Conqueror, who, on some and the war then carrying on in Flanders disgust he conceived at his treatment in presenting a favourable opportunity for England, withdrew into Scotland, in the gratifying his natural tendencies, young reign of Malcolm Carmore, from whom Miclville could not resist the temptation. he received lands in Lothian, about Without, therefore, the knowledge of his 1066; and branches of his family were friends, he privately withdrew to Lonafterwards established on lands in Angus, don, where, upon a statement of his and Fife.
·motives and determination, he was furGeneral Melville's parents dying when nished with the necessary means of carhe was very young, tiis guardians placed rying liis projects into eilect. He acliim at the grammar-school of Leven, cordingly repaired to the Netherlands; where he soon dist ished himself by a and early in 1744, he was appointed an quick and lively apprehension, united to ensign in the 25th regiment of foot, then å singularly capacious and retentive forming a part of the allied army. That memory. From this semivary, his rapid campaign he served under Field-Marshal progress in his studies enabled him to be Wade, and all the following, up to the
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, under constantly successful during an attack, H. R. H. the Duke' of Cumberland, after a night's march, and the surprise partly in the Netherlands, and partly in of a post very close to the French camp, Britain, whither the regiment had been the major was entering a house just drawn in 1745, on account of the po- abandoned by the enemy, when it exlitical troubles in the kingdom. In the ploded, and he was blown to a considerend of 1746, the regiment returning to able distance, and taken up for dead. the Continent, Ensign Melville, at the
From the immediate effects of this battle of Lafeldt, conduced bimself in accident he soon recovered: but to such a way, as to merit being selected by the same cause must be attributed the his colonel, (the Earl of Rothes,) to de- decay of sight, with which, in his latter liver to the Commander in Chief the years, he was afflicted, and which at last colours of a French regiment, taken by ended in total irremediable blindness, the 25th, on which occasion he was pro. I recompence for his services in Gua. moted to a lieutenancy.
daloupe, Major M. was directed by the His regiment, afier the battle of Fon- commander of the forces, (General Bartenoy, was besieged in Ath, where Lieu- rington,) to succeed Lieutenant Colonel tenant Melville narrowly escaped de- Debrisey, in the defence of Fort Royal, struction: for the enemy directing their which he held until the reduction of the fire at the fortifications alone, in order island, when, in addition to the governto spare the town, a shell from an over- ment of that fort, he was appointed lieucharged mortar passing over the ram- tenant-governor of the island of Guadaparts, fell in the middle of the night, loupe, and its dependencies, with the when he was absent on duty in one of lieutenant-colonelcy of the 63d regia the outworks, on the house where he was quartered, and, piercing the roof, actually Brigadier-general Crump, who was made its way through the bed he usually made governor of the new colony, dying occupied.
in 1760, Lieutenant-colonel M. SucOn the termination of the war, Lieu- ceeded to the government, with the comtenant M. proceeded with his regiment mand of the troops. In this situation he for the south of Ireland; and on the exerted himself to the utmost, and was passayé was shipwrecked on the coast of at very considerable expense, in order Normandy.
to impress the new French subjects with In 1751, being promoted to the com- favourable notions of the justice and mand of a company in the same regi. liberality of the British government. In ment, and employed in recruiting in Scot- this attempt he was so successful, noe land, his unexampled success drew the only in the colony immediately under his notice of the commander of the forces, command, but in Martinique, and the and he became aid-de-camp to the Earl other neighbouring French islands, that of Panmure. In 1756, he was made a secret correspondence was established soajor of the S8th regiinent, then in An- with the leading people amongst the tigua, where it had beer stationed for enemy, which in a great measure prohalf a century, since its removal from duced the speedy surrender of those Gibraltar.
islands to the British arms. Although a That island had often been made a governor in chief froin England had arreceptacle for potfenders, froin regiments rived in Guadaloupe, and Lieutenantat home; and thus its military force had colonel M. had not only received his Jong been coniposed of the most disor. Majesty's leave to repair to Europe derly troops.
By the indefatigable zeal for the benefit of his health, but was at of the new major, and from the perfect the same time promoted to the rank of conviction he was abie to inspire into the colonel in the army, still resisting very men, that lie had their welfare, and that tempting invitations to return home, he alone at heart, he at length, with the prefurred to remain even as second in assistance of most of thic other oficers, curmand, in the view of accomplishing succeeded in rendering the 38th reyin his grent object--the acquisition of the ment one of the most orieiiy in the French colonies: wbich, iroin the interservice: and detachments from it ac- course be bad now opened with them, companied him in the attack on Mars must have suffered much interruption tinique, as also on the invasion of Gua- from his absence. In pursuance of ihese daloupe, whicre Major M. coinmanded projects, Colonel M. proceeded as second the light infantry, at the advanced posts. ju command, with Brigadier-general In one of the skirmisies, which were Lord Rollo, against Dominica, which MONTHLY MAG. No. 195.
Memoirs of the late General Melville. (Feb. 1, was surprised and taken with very little whose existence little doubt was enter. loss. This expedition was conceries and talved by the French government; yee of conducted with so much skill and cau- all the
persuns suspected, and even tion, that the island had surrendered punished on the occasion, not one of before the French governor of Mar. those actually connecied with Colonel thnique was informed of the attack, al- Níelville, was even so much as hinted at. though these islands are within sighit the The conquest of the French islands, one of the other; and the importance of the great objecť of Colonel VI sville's Colonel V.'s service in the attack, as anxiety, being now accomplislied, he well as in the previous arrangements repaired to England, where he found his with certain inhabitants, were publicly services and general conduct highly acknowledged by Admiral Sir James approved ; although, in fact, the measures Douglas, and Brignier-general Loru he had privately followed to bring about Rolly, the two commanders of the ex- the splendid success already stated, pedirion.
could it, for the sake ofile, persona inIn the beginning of 1762, Colonel M. plicatert, be either publicly' know or commanded a division in the attack on- acknowledgerl: nor was the secret ever der General Monktoni, on Martinique; chivulged. Many years afterwards, when and notwithstanding serere illness, was Gineral Melville was emploved on a present in the successful assault of the mission to the court of Versailles, applia bill and battery o: Torien 5011, The cation was made to hlin from a very luch British had, however, obtained possession quarter, to learn whether certain personis, of a very small portion of the island, whose names were mentioned, were in when a small party arriving at a certain any way connected with his projects in spot in the interior, one of three agreed. Martinique, &c. anil upon his cleclaraupon in Colonel M.'s correspondence tion that they were totally unknown to with the principal inhabitants for that bid, those persons, or their surviving repurpose, a general detection with a crylations, were instantly relieved from the et capitulation took place; so that the obloguy and losses they had till that French governor us compelled to ca- time endured, from the suspicions enterpitulate at the moment, when almost the tained concerning them liy government. whole island, with St. Pierre, the ca- Such was the impression made on thie pital, and screrai important fortifications, minds of his Majesty's ministers, by the and all the fortresses in the mountains, conduct of Colonel M. in the West Inwere suill in his possession; and which, dies, that in addition to the rank of if at all reducible by the British tiorces in Brigader-general in 1753, he was, upoil the i-land, must bare been carried with the recommendation of Lord Eyreoint, a very great loss of troops. This rapidl Secretary of State for the Colonies, apo conquest was the more important as, pointed by his Majesty, on tich of within a few days after the surrender, a April, 1764, to the peculiarly arduous French squadron, with a great body of and important situation, of Captain.yefromps, appeared off Martinique; but on neral, and Governor in Chief of all the learning the fate of the colony, the cum. islands in the West Indies, ceiled by mander, without attempting its relief, France to Britain, by the creaty of 1703, inmediately returned to St. Dominya. viz. Grenada, the Grenadines, Domie
On the fall of Martinique, the remain- nica, St. Vincent, and Tobinzo: to this ing French islands, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, appointment was added that of Cone Grenada, the Grenadines, and Tobago, mander of the forces in those colonies. submitted to a summons, receiving con. In the autumn of 1701, Governor M. ditions equally liberal with those granted proceeded to his station, carrying out to Martinique
iwo large store ships, with articles neNo sooner had the conquest of Mar- cessars for fixed settlements in West tinique been cffected, than Colonel India islands. T:+39 was, at that prMelvolle returned to his post in Guada- riod, vestitute of inhabitants, and almost loupe, to avoid intercourse with the totally covered milo wood: thithier, persons by ubuse means the defection theretove, he first repaired trom Barbaof Martiaine liad been brought about: Hoes with the stores, and a few culonists and it is rearkable that, although on from that island; and employed his stay the restoration of that, and some other in preparing measures for the projected islands te France, when the inost rigid settlement of the colony. His nest ob. enquiry was instituted respecting ibe jeci was to enter on the establishment of correspondence will the British, of the British government, in all the islands
under his jurisdiction, followed by legis. make, in some of the islands under his latures formed on principles similar to command, General M. was swayed much those of the neighbouring British colo- more by considerations of public advannies.
tage than of-private emolument. For During the whole of his governmennt, Tobago, almost a desert, and Dominica, which lasted about seven years, General situated between and within view of the M. only once quitted his post, and that two great French islands, Martinique was in 1769, when he returned to Eng. and Guadaloupe, presented so few atJand, on business of the highest impor. tractions to new colonists, that unless the tance to the future security and prospé- governor, by selecting plantations in rity of the colonies entrusted to his care; ühen, had evinced his confidence in their and notwithstanding the numberless dif- security as British possessions, few or no ficulties he had to surmount, in a govern- adventurers would have hazarded their ment so extensive and so 'coinplicated, property in either of those unpromising lie had the satisfaction to see that his colonies. administration was duly appreciated, and From the period when he retired from gave very general satisfaction. Some his government, General M. adhering partial complaints by a few disappointed to his favorite maxim of taking nuching individuals, brought against him, while for doing nothing, never solicited, nor in London, but directed in fact rather eren wished, for any pension, salary, or against the King's council in Grenada other emolument whatever,' from the than against the governor himself, were public purse, although his eminent sera found to be utterly frivolous, and were vices, and his iil health, and total loss of of course deservedly disregarded by the sight, originally contracted in the disking and council at home. As tó any charge of his public duties, might well charges of peculation, the most coinmon have encouraged liin to proffer claims subject of complaint against persons in so commonly made and allowed in sinnihis situation, nothing of that sort was lar circumstances. ever even insinuated against General When, by the public recognition, on M. on the contrary, it was well known at the part of France, of the independence home, as well as abroad, that with op- of the United States of North America, portunities of amassing wealth, in the hostilities with that kingdom were decmsole settleinent and administration of so ed unavoidable, General Melville was many newly-acquired colonies, such as consulted by administration, on bad never falleu' to the lot of any foreign means to be adopted for the security of governor, General M. resisted the fre- our own West India colonies, and for quent and pressing offers made to him the conquest of those belonging to by speculators, to enter into their schemes France; and had the opinions lie offered of acquisition, in which he might, with on those subjects accorded with the views perfect propriety, have embarked; and already entertained boy, his Majesty's miihat practising an honest and honourable nisters, the country would again have abstinence, he retired from his govern- reaped the fruits of his local and military mer:t much poorer than many of the ad- knowledge, in an important command venturers in it, who bad realised their beyond the Atlantic. He was, however, acquisitions, without any original pro- too well acquainted with the nature of perty, on mere speculation and credit. the service on which he was consulted,
li is but justice to add, that although and, above all, with the talents and disa General M.'s salary from home, as go- positions of the Marquis de Bouillé, como vernor of so many islands, hardly ex- mander in chief of tlic French forces in ceeded 10001. per annum, yet he not the West Indies, and this not from reonly refused in accept of the offered, and port only, but from personal intercourse usual salaries from each colouy, but gave 'in the course of his government :- with up many oflicial fees, where he conceived the formidable qualities of that distinsuch a step might tend to the advantage guished commander, General M. was too of the new colonists. The duties of a well acquainted to undertake the sermajor-general, throughout the several vices then in agitation, vithout being jstands under his command, he also accompanied by a force, far more reo punctually discharged, without any spectable than that which it seemed to allowance or charge whatever ou the be in contemplation to place under his public on that account. Even in the command. Other ineasures were 2suall purchases of land he chose to cordingly adopted, and the result is well
Alemoirs of the late General Melville. [Feb. 1, known :: in a short tiine M. de Bouillé , the business; and Mr. Young, (the prowas in possession of the greater number sent Sir William Young,) was joined in of the British colonies in the West Indies. the mission,
The resemblance, in many important The success of the application at Verpoints, between these two commanders, sailles, exceeded the most sanguine exwas peculiarly striking; both men emi. pectations: and to the beneficent mag nently endowed with all the qualities re- naninity of the ill-tated Louis XVI.. quisite for the discharge of their several on the liberal suggestions of his truly reduties; buth men of consummate valour spectable minister for the navy and the and military, skill; both peculiarly dis- colonies, the late Marshal Duke de tinguished by a high sense of honour, and Castries, that success was by General M. actuated by motives the most disinterest- uniformly attributed. Let it however be ed, generous, aud humane; both accusa added, by one who, as secretary to the tomed to service in the probable scene of General on that occasion, had indubitable action; and both personally acquainted evulance of the fact, that the represellwith the quarters where that service tations of the minister, and the cousewould probably be required; both in- quent decisions of the sovereign, were Hamed with ardent zeal in the cause of very materially influenced by esteem for their respective countries, and each with the character of General M. and cons a deterinination to recommend himself fidence in the manly, candid, and how to his antagonist by the faithful discharge nourable conduct be displayed in every of his duties : a contest between two part of the negociation. The humanity, such commanders, on proper terms, inust, liberality, and disinterestedness, which lave furnished ample room for the in- had marked the whole of his adininistrastruction of every ipilitary man. tion in Guadaloupe, while it remained
The last service rendered to his country under the British Aay, and the whole of by General Melville, in a public capacity, his general government of the ceded related to Tobago, an island originally . French colonies, had in the persons of setiled by hiin, and long fostered with some individuals, and in the connections peculiar care. This colony, in the course of others of distinction in France, seof the conguests of M. de Bouillé, fell cured for General M., a cordial, and: into his hands, after a defence in winch confidential reception, which it may have the civil governor (George Ferguson, been the happiness of few negociators to esq.) and the inhabitants so greatly dis. possess. At his last interview with M. tinguished themselves, as to merit, and de Castries, that minister expressed his to obtain, from the captor a most liberal royal master's entire satisfaction with the capitulation. By the preliminary ar- General's manageinent of so delicate a ticles of peace, concluded in the be- negotiation; adding, that his Majesty ginning of the year 1783, Tobago was was convinced the General had, through. ceded to France, without any of those out the whole business, pe formed the stipulations for the advantage of the Bri- part of a genuine and impartial friend tish settlers, proprietors, and traders, and umpire between France and Tobago: usually granted on similar occasions.
Vous avez agi en orui tiers, was To remove as much as possible the the expression, aların excited by this circumstance, in Ex pede Herculem.--To present some the minds of all persons interested in the idea of the spirit by which General M. fate of Tubago, measures were adopted was actuated in his administration of by those in Britain, for obtaining from allairs, civil and military, in Guadaloupe, the court of France some amelioration of and its dependent islands, the following their condition. The first step was to specimen may suffice. select a proper negotiator; and for this
By the capitulation, the Erench royal purpose all eyes were turned towards council had been preserved in the full General Melville, wbo was requested to exercise of all its functions and privileges, repair to Versailes, there to solicit for and the French laws, civil and criminal, the unfortunate colonists of Tobago remained in their original force: the gothose indulgencies to which, from the vernor, who was, ex officio, president of terins of the cession, they could form no the council
, was the only British subject clain. In acceding to this request, the in that body. At a meeting of the coun. General, that the application from the cil, in the capital of the island in 1760, new subjects to their new master might while General M. was seated at the head appear the wore decorous, suggested that of the council-table, the board, being * coadjutor should be given to him in complete, and the crown-lawyers cons