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It was erected by Henry, and was mentioned in means, ' which,' says he, will render our counthe royal almanack as a monument of his royal try the most beautiful, populous, and tourishing, munificence and piety. The archbishop, whom and its inhabitants, herrtofore so unfortunate, the pope has hitherto refused to consecrate, has the happiest people in the world.' a chapter, a seminary, and a college attached to In July 1816, after Louis XVIII. was restored the metropolitan see, all well endowed. lle has to the throne, commissioners were sent from also three archi-episcopal palaces assigned to France to St. Domingo, entrusted with the adhim; and the bishops have each a chapter and a ministration of all the affairs of the island, both seminary, endowed with considerable revenues. civil and military, but all their overtures were
The armies of the two governments, in 1820, firınly rejected in both parts of the island. His were composed of about 24,000 regular troops majesty Charles X. has been more successful in each; but not more than 5000 or 6000 were on asserting the claims of France to this island. He duty at one time. They were relieved alternately has procured that kind of recognition of the inevery three months; and received pay while on terest of the former planters, which has resulted actual service. During the remaining nine months in a treaty of indemnity in regard to them, of the year, they were quartered upon the whereby the French government stipulates to great provision-grounds of the two governments. acknowledge the independence of Hayli, which Since the revolution, commerce is said to have is on the other hand to pay a sum of money to greatly declined. From 1804 to 1808, accord- France, and give certain advantages to the ing to Waiton, only about seventy-five vessels French commerce above that of other nations. arrived annually, with cargoes amounting to We conclude with the excellent reflections of a about £150,000 sterling.
modern periodical publication. The establishThe Haytians express themselves with greatment of a black empire in the midst of the energy and propriety, on moral and political British West Indies,' observes this writer, subjects. Some of the state-papers of the late excited the most fearful apprehensions in the king might vie with those of far more advanced minds of the planters. Subsequent events have communities. Five-and-twenty years ago,' shown that, however well founded those appresays the black baron de Vastey, in his Po- hensions might seem, they have little to fear, so litical Reflections, printed at the press of Sans long as their slaves are treated with kindness and Souci, . we were plunged in the most complete humanity. The abolition of the nefarious traffic ignorance; we had no notion of human society, in slaves, and other wise measures of the British no idea of happiness, no powerful feeling; our legislature, have already contributed to ameliorate faculties, both physical and moral, were so over the condition of the slaves; aad we may reasonwhelmed under the load of slavery, that I ably expect that, in proportion as these measures myself, who am writing this, I thought that the have their full effect, the condition of the negroes world finished at the spot which bounded my in our West-India colonies will be progressively sight; my ideas were so limited, that things the improved. In their present state entire freedom most simple were to me incomprehensible, and would be no boon to them. Nothing indeed can all my countrymen were as ignorant, and even prepare their minds for its reception and enjoymore so than myself, if that were possible. I ment but the introduction of Christianity, and have knowr, many of us,' he continues, "who the diffusion of moral and religious education. have learned to read and write of themselves We have no data by which we can compute the without the help of a master; I have known actual number of Christian slaves in the West them walking with their books in their hands, Indies; but we know generally that, in almost enquiring of the passengers, and praying them all the larger islands, there are active and zealous to explain to them the signification of such a missionaries, who devote themselves to the pious character or such a word, and in this manner and benevolent task of imparting religious inmany, already advanced in years, became able struction to those neglected outcasts. In Antigua, to read and write without the benefit of educa- especially, this greatest of blessings has been tion. Such men,' he adds, have become nota- imparted to many thousands of slaves, who bear ries, attornies, advocates, judges, administrators, the yoke of bondage with patience, cheered by and have astonished the world by the sagacity of the hope which the Gospel reveals, as the end their judgment; others have become painters and compensation of all their sufferings. In and sculptors from their own exertions, and have many other islands, the prejudice of planters astonished strangers by their works; others again against the tuition of their slaves is silently have succeeded as architects, mechanics, wea- wearing away; while the number of those, who, vers; in short, others have worked mines of from various causes, are favorable to their insulphur, fabricated saltpetre, and made excellent struction, is gradually increasing; and a convicgunpowder, in mills and establishments similar tion is gaining ground, most advantageous to the to those of Europe, with no other guides than interests of all parties, of the inefficacy of human books of chemistry and mineralogy. And yet,' restraints and punishments to produce that unihe continues, "the Haytians pretend not to be a form obedience, which is seen in well instructed manufacturing and commercial people'— like and religious slaves. These are truly encourathe Romans, we go from arms to the plough, ging signs of the times; and when we add to and from the plough to arms.' But he contem- them the increasing liberality of British Christians plates the time when they shall call to their as- in this country, we may reasonably indulge the sistance the mechanical arts, the employment of hope that the period is not far distant. when the machines, of animals, and of the natural agents, entire black population in the West Indies shall air, fire, and water, and put in practice those hail with devout gratitude the day, that trans
dorted them from their native deserts, to make being vain, the only thing the garrison couid lo, ihem free men in the noble sense suggested by the was to procure as favorable terms as possible. New Testament.
These were granted with such readiness as did DOMINICA, the last of the Leeward or great honor to the character of this officer; the Caribbee islands, taking them from north-west to inhabitants experiencing no kind of change exsouth-east; so named by Christopher Columbus, cept that of transferring their obedience from from his having discovered it on Sunday, Nov. Britain to France. A large quantity of military 3d, 1493. It is situated about half way betwixt stores, with 164 pieces of cannon, and twentyGuadaloupe on the north-west, and Martinico on four brass mortars, were found in the place; so the south-east, fifteen leagues from each, between that the French themselves expressed their sur15° 20' and 15° 44' 30' N. lat., and between 61° prise at finding so few hands to make use of 17' and 61° 30' W. long. It is twenty-nine them. It was restored to Britain at the conclumiles long from Crab-Point on the south, to the sion of the peace in 1783; and, in 1795, the north-west cape of Agusha Bay on the north; French attempted to take it again, but were unand nearly sixteen broad from Raymond Bay successful; all the Frenchmen who landed being east, to Coulihaut on the west. It contains either killed or taken prisoners. The position of 186,436 acres of land, and is divided into ten Dominica renders it of great consequence to parishes, viz. St. John, St. Andrew, St. Peter, England in war with France; for a squadron, St. Joseph, St. Paul, St. David, St. George, St. stationed at Prince Rupert's Bay, may effectually Patrick, St. Luke, and St. Martin. It has many cut off the communication between Martinique high and rugged mountains, interspersed with and Guadaloupe. fertile valleys, and is watered by upwards of thirty Dominica, or HEEVAROA, is the largest of the rivers, besides a number of rivulets. Several of Marquesas islands, called by the natives Hiwaoa. the mountains contain unextinguished volcanoes, and Ohiwana, extending east and west eighteen which often discharge vast quantities of sulphur. miles. It is about forty-eight miles in circumHere are also several hot springs, esteemed effi- ference; full of rugged hills, and of a barren surcacious in removing tropical disorders. Some of face, but is, however, inhabited. Long. 139° 3' W., the waters are said to be hot enough to coagulate lat. 9° 44' N. an egg. Vast swarms of bees produce a great
DOMINICAL, adj. Lat. dominicalis. Requantity of wax and honey: they hive in the lating to the Lord's day, or Sunday. trees, and are thought to have been transported from Europe ; the native bee of the West Indies and that of the sun the dominical letter, throughout all
The cycle of the moon serves to shew the epacts, being a smaller species, unprovided with a sting, their variations.
Holder un Time. and very different in its manners from the European. The forests afford an inexhaustible quan
DOMINICAL LETTER, or SUNDAY Letter, tity of rose wood. The fruits and other produc- See Curonology. The dominical letters were tions are similar to those in the neighbouring introduced into the kaleudar by the primitive islands ; but the soil, being generally thin, is more
Christians, instead of the nundinal letters in the adapted to the rearing of cotton than sugar. The Roman kalendar. best eye-stones that are known, are found on the DOMINICANS, an order of religious, so shores of this island. They are shaped like a
named from their founder Dominic de Guzman, lentil, smooth and sleek, but much smaller, and who preached with great zeal against the Albiof a gray color. The anchorage is good all round genses in Languedoc, where he laid the first the coast of Dominica ; but it has no port or bay foundation of this order. See Guzman. It was for retiring into ; but the vessels have the advan- approved of in 1215, by Innocent III., and contage of shelter behind many of its capes. Char-firmed in 1216, by a bull of Honorius III, lotte town (Roseau of the French), the chief under the title of St. Augustin ; to which Domiplace, is on a point of land between two bays on
nic added several austere precepts and obserthe south-west side of the island. It has 500 vances, obliging the brethren to take a vow of houses. Portsmouth, or Prince Rupert's Bay, absolute poverty; to abandon entirely all their on the north-west side of the island, is the only revenues and possessions; and to take the title other town.
of Preaching Friars, because the public instrucThe imports from the island to England, and tion was the main end of their institution. The the exports from the latter were,
first convent was founded at Thoulouse by the
bishop thereof and Simon de Montfort. Two Imports.
years afterwards they had another at Paris, near In 1809 £315,584 £161,291
the bishop's house; and some time after a third 1810 282,002
in the rue St. Jacques, whence the denomination The principal imports were,
of Jacobins. Just before his death, Dominic
sent Gilbert de Fresney, with twelve of the Coffee. Sugar. Rum. Cotton.
brethren, into England, where they founded
lbs. 3,254 41,990
their first monastery at Oxford, in 1221, and 56,356 75,425.
soon after another at London. In 1276 the 1810 27,185 61,522 39,397 59,742.
mayor and aldermen of the city of London gave This island was reduced in 1778 by the French, them two whole streets by the river Thames, under the marquis de Bouille, governor of Marti- where they erected a very commodious .convent, nico; who made a descent with 2000 men, and whence that place is still called Black Friars, found only 100 regulars, and a few companies of from the name by which the Dominicans were militia, to oppose him. Resistance therefore called in England. Dominic, at first, only took
the habit of the regular canons ; that is, a black sador, into the hopes of procuring a cardinal's cassock and rochet : but this he quitted in 1219, hat, by which he fancied he should prove an infor that which they now wear, which it is pre- strument of great reformation in the church. tended was shown by the blessed Virgin herself Accordingly he returned to Rome in 1622, reto the beatified Renaud of Orleans. This order canted his errors, and was at first well received ; has been spread throughout the whole known but be afterwards wrote letters to England, reworld. Before the revolutionary wars, it had penting his recantation ; which being intercepted, forty-five provinces under the general, who re- he was imprisoned by pope Urban VIII., and sided at Rome; and twelve particular congrega- died in 1625. He was the author of the first tions, governed by vicars general. There have philosophical explanation of the rainbow. been three popes of this order, above sixty cardi DOMINIUM Directum, in Scotch law, the nals, several patriarchs, 150 archbishops, and right which a superior retains in his lands, notabout 800 bishops; besides masters of the sacred withstanding the feudal grant to the vassal. See palace, whose office has been constantly dis- Law. charged by a religious of this order, ever since DOMINIUM EMINENS, in Scotch law, that St. Dominic, who held it under Honorius III. in power which the state or sovereign has over pri1213. Of all the monastic orders, none enjoyed vate property, hy which the proprietor may be a higher degree of power and authority than the compelled to sell it for an adequate price where Dominicans. Their credit was great, and their public utility requires. influence universal." But the measures they DOMINIUM UTILE, in Scotch law, the right used to maintain and extend their authority were which the vassal acquires in the lands by the so perfidious, and cruel, that their influence be- feudal grant from his superior. gan to decline towards the beginning of the six DOMINUS, a title anciently prefixed to a teenth century. The tragic story of Jetzer, con name, usually to denote the person either a ducted at Bern in 1509, for determining an knight or a clergyman. The title was soinetimes uninteresting dispute between them and the also given to a gentleman not dubbed; especially Franciscans, relating to the inmaculate concep- if he were lord of a manor. In Holland, ine tion, reflects indelible infamy on this order. See title dominus distinguished a minister of the re an account of it in Mosheim's Eccl. Hist, vol. ii. formed church. p. 294, 8vo. They were indeed perpetually DOMUS, in antiquity, is soinetimes used for employed in stigmatising with the opprobrious all sorts of houses, either magnificent or ordiname of heresy numbers of learned and pious nary; but it is often taken hy writers to intimate men; in encroaching upon the rights and proper- a mansion of some lord, or palace of some ties of others, to augment their possessions; and prince, as in Virgil, speaking of the palace of in laying the most iniquitous snares and strata- Dido. gems for the destruction of their adversaries.
• At domus interior regali splendida luxu.' They were the principal counsellors, hy whose
These houses were built with much magnifiinstigation and advice Leo X. was determined to the public condemnation of Luther
. The papal cence, and were of a vast extent; for they had see never had more active and useful abettors many courts, apartments, wings, cabinets, bagthan this order, and that of the Jesuits. The their owners at table, or for transacting matters
nios, stoves, and halls, either to accommodate dogmata of the Dominicans are opposite to those of consequence. Before these houses was geof the Franciscans. There are nuns of this order, nerally a large place or porch, where clients and called in some places Preaching Sisters. These are even more ancient than the friars ; St. Domi- persons giving attendance to great men waited to
make their court. nic having founded a society of religious maids covered, for the conveniency of persons, who
It is supposed that this was at Proilles in 1206. There is also a third order
were sometimes waiting very long before they of Dominicans, both for men and women.
were admitted. DOMINIS (Mark Anthony de), archbishop of Spalatro in Dalmatia at the close of the fil- cavum-adium, or cavædium: it was a spacious
. There was a second part to these houses, called teenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries. enclosed court. Becoming acquainted with bishop Bedell, while
The third part was called atrium interius, i. e. chaplain to Sir Henry Wotton, ambassador from in general the whole inside of the house. Virgil James I. at Venice, he became resolved to aban- used this word in this sense, when he said, don the Roman Catholic religion, concerning the authority of which he had long had his doubts.
Apparet domus intus, et atria longa patescunt;' He had written De Republicâ Ecclesiasticâ, but for it is plain that Virgil means by the word atria, had hitherto dreaded to publish his work; he now that all may be seen in the inside of a house when therefore committed them to Bedell, and they the doors are opened. There was a porter waitwere afterwards published at London, with his ing at the atrium, called servus atriensis. Within corrections. He came to England with Bedell; this there were many figures; for the Romans where he was received with great respect, and raised every where trophies and statues, to leave preached and wrote against the Romish religion. monuments of their great actions to posterity, He had a principal share in publishing father not only in the provinces, which they subdued Paul's History of the Council of Trent, which to the empire, but also in public places, and was inscribed to king James in 1619. But on their own palaces at Rome. the promotion of pope Gregory XIV., who had Here were therefore painted or engraven been his school-fellow and old acquaintance, he battles, axes, bundles of rods, and the other was deluded by Gondomar, the Spanish ainbas- badges of the offices that their ancestors or them.
selves had obtained: and statues of wax or melal, of Sylla, who had one made at Præneste, in the representing their fathers in basso relievo, were temple of Fortune. This pavement was not only set up in niches of precious wood or rare marble. used for paving the courts of houses and the On the days of their solemn feasts, or triumphal halls, but also in chambers, and wainscotting pomp, these niches were opened, and the figures, the walls, and called musæa, musia, and mucrowned with festoons and garlands, carried siva, because ingenious works were ascribed to about the town. When any of the family died, the muses, and the muses and sciences were these statues accompanied the funeral parade; thereby represented. wherefore Pliny says, that the whole family was DON, v.a. (To do on.] To put on; to invest there present from the first to the last. There with ; the contrary to doff. Obsolete. were also large galleries in these bouses, adorned
The purple morning left her crimson bed, with pillars and other works of architecture.
And donned her robes of pure vermilion hue. The halls were built after the Corinthian or
Fairfax. Egyptian order. The first had only a row of ler helm the virgin donned.
1, pillars set upon a pedestal, or on the pavement, What! should I don this robe, and trouble you? and supported nothing but the architrave, and
Shakspeure. cornish of joiners' work or stud, over which was
Don, n. s.
Lat. dominus. The Spanish the ceiling in form of a vault; but the later halls
Don'ship, n. s. ) title for a gentleman; as, Don
} had architraves upon pillars, and the architraves Quixote. It is with us used ludicrously: donof the ceilings made of pieces joined together, ship is the rank of a don or gentleman. which make an opened circular terrace. These houses had many apartments, some for men, and
To the great dons of wit,
Phobus gives them full privilege along others for women ; some for dining-rooms called
To damn all others, and cry up their own. triclinia, others for bed-chambers named dormi
Dryden. toria; and some others to lodge strangers. So I'm none of those, large was ancient Rome, that there were 48,000 Your bosom-friends, as you suppose houses standing by themselves, or being so many But Ralph himself, your trusty squire, insulæ, and having a light on every side.
Wh' has dragged your donship out o'the mire. The Greeks built in a different manner from
Hudilrar. the Romans; for they had no porch, but from the Here dons, grandees, but chiefly dames abound, first door they entered into a narrow passage;
Skilled in the ogle of a roguish eye, on one side of it there were stables, and on the
Yet ever well inclined to heal the wound.
Byron. other was the porter's lodge; at the end of this passage there was another door, to enter into a Don, a river of Russia, anciently called Tagallery supported with pillars, and this gallery nais, which takes its rise from the small lake of had piazzas on three sides.
St. John, near Tula, in the government of MosWithin the Greek houses there were halls, for cow, and passing through part of the province the mistresses of the family, and their servant of Voronetz, a small portion of the Ukraina Slomaids to spin in; in the entry both on the right bodskaia, and the whole province of Azof, divides and left hand there were chambers; one called itself near Tcherkask into three streams, and falls thalamus, and the other antithalamus. Round in these separate branches into the sea of Azof. the piazzas there were dining-rooms, chambers, The river nas so many windings, is in many and wardrobes. To this part of the house was parts so shallow, and abounds with such numejoined another which was considerably larger. rous shoals, as to be scarcely navigable, exceptThe finest entries and most magnificent doors ing in the spring, upon the melting of the snows; were at this part of the house. There were and its mouth is also so choked up with sand, sometimes four square halls, so large and spa- that only flat-bottomed vessels can pass into the cious, that they would easily hold four tables, sea of Azof, at any other season. The banks of with three seats in form of beds, and leave room the Don, and the rivulets which fall into it, are enough for the servants and gamesters. They clothed with large tracts of forest, whose timber entertained their friends in these halls, for it was iz floated down the stream to Si. Demetri and not the custom for women to sit amongst men. Rostof, where the frigates for the sea of Azof are On the right and the left of these buildings were chiefly constructed. The navigation of the Don, small apartments, and convenient rooms to re- Mr. Coxe observes, may possibly hereafter be ceive the guests; and among the Greeks wealthy rendered highly valuable, by conveying to the and magnificent men kept apartments, with all Black Sea the iron of Siberia, the Chinese goods, their conveniencies, to receive any persons who and the Persian merchandise : which latter comcame to lodge at their houses. The custom was, modities, as well as the products of India, forthat after they had given them an entertainment merly found their way into Europe through this the first day, they sent them afterwards every same channel. day some present, as chickens, eggs, pulse, and Don, a river of Scotland, in Aberdeenshire, fruits; so that travellers were lodged as they had which rises about four miles north of the castle been at their own houses, and might live in these of Brae-Mar, runs through the district of Alapartments privately.
ford; so named from the river being almost All The apartments were paved with mosaic or ford, or every where fordable, in that part of its inlaid work. Pliny tells us, that the pavements course; afterwards joins the Ury at Inverury, that were painted and wrought with art came and falls into the British Ocean'at New Aberfrom the Greeks, who called them delospwra. deen, within two miles of the mouth of the Dee. These were in fashion at Rome during the time It has been long famous for its salmon fishery.
A space of within 500 yards of this river has in donative they received wearing garlands upon their one year produced fish to the amount of £2000. heads.
Hooker. DONAGHADEE, a post, market, and port
Howsoever the letter of that dona'ion may be unretown in the barony of Ardes, and county of Down, garded by men, yet the sense thereof is so imprinted twer.ty-seven miles and a half distant from Port in their hearts, as if every one laid claim for himself Patrick in Scotland, the corresponding packet
unto that which was conferred upon all. station. Lat. 54° 45' N., long. 5° 40'W. The
Raleigh's Essays. ancient quay, in form of a crescent, was built by
He gave us only over beast, fish, fowl, lord Montgomery, and accommodated from
Dominion absolute; that right we hold twelve to fourteen sail. The present pier was
By Lis donation. Milton's Paradise Lost. built at the expense of government, and is in
After donation there is an absolute change and alientended to enclose a surface of 100 fathoms square, ation made of the property of the thing given : which accessible at low water for vessels of fifteen feet being so alienated, a man has no more to do with it draft. The south pier is completed, but shelter than with a thing bought with another's money. is much wanted on the north. Port Patrick lies N. E. by E. & N., or nearly north-east by com
Litters thick besiege the donor's gate,
And begging lords and teeming ladies wait pass from Donaghadee. It has been suggested that the execution of this harbour, according to
The promised dole.
Dryden's Juvenal. the original design, i. e. with a funnel-shaped
It is a mighty check to beneficent tempers to consimouth, might possibly cause vessels to steer
der how often good designs are frustrated and perwildly when entering in a heavy swell.
verted to purposes, which, could the donors themselves DONALDSON (John), a painter and
have foreseen, they would have been very loth 10 engraver promote.
Atterbury. of some reputc, was born at Edinburgh in 1737. He painted portraits in miniature, and was dis
Never did steeple carry double truer;
His is the donative, and mine the cure. Cleveland. tinguished also for his skilful imitations of the old engravers, which he executed so correctly as
DONATISTS, ancient schismatics in Africa, to deceive even connoisseurs. He published a
so denominated from their leader Donatus. They volume of poems, and an Essay on the Elements had their origin A. D. 311, when, in the room of Beauty. He also cultivated chemistry, and of Mensurius, who died in that year on his return discovered a method of preserving meat and ve
to Rome, Cæcilian was elected bishop of Cargetables during long voyages. He died in 1801. thage, and consecrated without the concurrence
DONARIA, among the ancients, in its pri- of the Numidian bishops, by those of Africa mary signification, was taken for the places where alone; whom the people refused to acknowledge, the oblations offered to the gods were kept; but and to whom they opposed Majorinus ; who, afterwards was used to denote the offerings them- accordingly, was ordained by Donatus bishop of selves; and sometimes, improperly, the temples. Casæ Nigræ. They were repeatedly condemned,
DONATIA, in botany, a genus of the trigynia in different councils held at Rome and Arles: order and triandria class of plants : cal. triphyl- and particularly in one at Milan, in 316, before lous perianth, with short subulated leaves stand- Constantine the Great, who deprived them of ing at a distance from one another: cor. petals their churches, banished their bishops, and pufrom eight to ten, of an oblong linear shape, nished some of them with death. Their cause twice as long as the calyx : stam. three subu- was espoused by another Donatus, called the lated filaments, the length of the calyx; the an. Great, the principal bishop of that sect, who, theræ roundish, didymous, and two-lobed at the with numbers of his followers, was exiled by Conbase. Species, one only, a native of Terra del stans. Many of them were punished with great Fuego.
severity. See CIRCONCELLIONES. However, DONATIO Mortis Causa, in law, a dispo- after the accession of Julian, in 362, they were sition of property made by a person in his last restored to their former liberty. Gratian, in 377, sickness, who, apprehending his dissolution near, deprived them of their churches, and prohibited delivers or causes to be delivered to another the their assemblies. But, notwithstanding these possession of any personal goods, to keep in case severities, they had a very considerable number of his decease. If the donor dies, this gift needs of churches towards the close of the fourth cennot the consent of his executor; but it shall not tury; till they began to decline, on account of a prevail against creditors; and it is accompanied schism among themselves, occasioned by the with this implied trust, that, if the donor lives, election of two bishops, in the room of Parmethe property shall revert to himself, being only nian, the successor of Donatus. given in prospect of death, or mortis causâ. This elected Primian, and were called Primianists, method of donation seems to have been conveyed and another Maximian, and were called Maxito us from the civil lawyers, who borrowed it mianists. Their decline was also precipitated from the Greeks.
by the zealous opposition of St. Augustine, and DONATION, n. s.
Fr. donation ; Span. by the violent measures pursued against them Don'ative, n. s.
donacion ; Ital. and Lat. by Honorins, at the solicitation of two councils Do'nor, n. s. S donatio. from dono, ex
held at Carthage; the one in 404, and the other pletive or do, to give. A donation is a grant ; in 411. Many of them were fined, their bisheps the act of giving; and a gift: for donative see the
were banished, and some put to death. This following article. A donor is a giver or bestower. of the Vandals, who invaded Africa in 427, and
sect revived and multiplied under the protection The Roman emperor's custom was, at certain solemn took possession of this province; but it sunk Limes, to bestow' on his soldiers a donative ; which again under new severities, when their empire