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in the beginning relating to the time of king by the clerks in the Record Office of the Chapter Edward the Confessor, this led some to a false house, under the superintendence of the late opinion that domesday-book was composed in the Right Hon. George Rose, the principal keeper reign of king Edward.
of that repository of our national muniments: In 1767, in consequence of an address from and to them is prefixed a very elaborate Introthe House of Lords, his late Majesty gave direc- duction to Domesday, by Mr. Ellis, one of the tions for the publication of domesday-book, librarians of the British Museum, containing disamong other records. An engraved fac-simile sertations on the formation and execution of the was at first contemplated; but the great expense Record, the principal matters therein contained, of such an undertaking caused it to be laid aside: its original uses, conservation, and authority in and a tolerably exact fac-simile metal type having courts of law. From these disquisitions, which at length been obtained, the editing of the work are comprised in eighty-eight well-filled folio was confided to Mr. Abraham Farley, Deputy pages, the preceding particulars have been chietly Keeper of the Records in the Chapter-house, at abridged. ' In further illustration of this ancient Westminster, a gentleman of singular learning and important record, the Commissioners have and experience in this department of literature, thought it their duty to print a supplemental who had had almost daily recourse to the book volume of similar surveys, of nearly coeval date, for more than forty years. The work was cēm- for Exeter, Ely, and 'Winton or Winchester, menced in 1770, and was completed early in which appear to have been the original inquisi1783, at the press of Mr. John Nichols—the 'tions whence the general survey was compiled, type with which it was executed, was destroyed so far as relates to those districts : and, as the in the fire which consumed his printing-office in county palatine of Durham was not comprised February, 1808. Accurately as Mr. Farley ac- within the Conqueror's survey, they have deemed complished the task which had been assigned to it expedient to add the contents of a similar surhim, the printed Domesday was coinparatively vey for that county, denominated the Boldon of little value for want of minute indexes. This Book, though its date is somewhat later. This deficiency has been supplied under the direction supplement to Domesday forms a large volume of the Record Commission, in a folio volume, in folio, and is enriched with a critical and hiscontaining indexes of names of persons, of places, torical dissertation on the records there printed, and things, so minute, (and from frequent re- together with appropriate indexes, by its editor, ference, we can state, so accurate,) that the ob- Mr. Ellis. ject of enquiry, if in the work, may be readily The following extract will give our readers an ascertained. These indexes have been compiled idea of the nature of this venerable Record :
IN BRIXISTAN Hund'.
Rex ten BERMUNDESYE. heraldo tenuit. Tč se defd
xii. hid. fra, ē. viii. car. In dñio. ē una
Rex tenet BERMUNDESYE. Heraldus comes tenuit. Tunc se defendebat pro xiii hidis, modo pro xii hidis. Terra est viii carrucatarum. In dominio est una carrucata et xxv villani et xxxiii bordarü cum una carrucata. Ibi nova et pulchra ecclesia, et xx acræ prati. Silva y porcis de pasnagio. lo Lundonia xiii burgenses de xlii denariis. Tempore Regis Edwardi et modo valet xv libras et vicecomes habet xx solidos. Comes Moritoniensis tenet i hidam quae Tempore Regis Edwardi et post fuit in hoc Manerio. In English thus :
In Brixistan Hundred. • The king holds BERMUNDESYE. Earl Herald held it [before]. At that time it was rated at thirteen hides; now, at twelve. The arable land is eight carrucates for plough-lands). There is one carrucate in demesne; and twenty-five villans, and thirty-three bordars, with one carrucate. There is a new and handsome church, with twenty acres of meadow, and woodland for five bogs in pasnage (pasturage) time. In London are thirteen burgesses at forty-four pence. In the time of king Edward it was valued, as it now is, at fifteen pounds; and the sheriff has twenty shillings. The Earl of Morilon holds one hide, which, in the time of King Edward, and afterwards, was in this manor.'
Independently of the immediate uses of this In both senses it is explained by Rousseau as survey to the Conqueror, it is to this day a record follows :of no smali importance to the historian and to DOMINANT, adj. The dominant or sensible the antiquary, for the light it throws on the dif- chord, is that which is practised upon the domiferent classes of persons into which the English nant of the tone, and which introduces a perfect people were divided—the different denominations cadence. Every perfect major chord becomes a of lands, their culture and measurement-the doniinant chord, as soon as the seventh minor is different denominations of money, and the per- added to it. sons and places that enjoyed the liberty of coin DOMINANT, n. s. Of the three notes essential age-territorial jurisdictions and franchises— to the tone, it is that which is a fifth from the tenures and services--criminal and civil juris- tonic. The tonic and the dominant fix the dictions-ecclesiastical and historical matters tone; ia it they are each of them the fundamentherein noticed, besides many curious illustrations tal sound of a particular chord: whereas the of ancient manners, which we have not room to mediant, which constitutes the mode, has no chord detail.
peculiar to itself, and only makes a part of the DOMESTIC, n. s. & adj.) Fr. domestique; chord of the tonic. Rameau gives the name of DUMES'licat, adj. Span. Poriug. dominant in general to every note which carries DOMESTICALLY, udv. and Ital. domes- a chord of the seventh, and distinguishes that
Domes'TICATE, v. a. tico; Lat. do- which carries the sensibie chord by the name of mesticus, from domus, a house. See Dominion. a tonic dominant; but on account of the length Perhaps the adjective domestic, of or belonging of the word, this addition to the name has not to the house, is here the root; it means also been adopted by artists : they continue simply to privale, and tame. To domesticate is to make call that note a dominant which is a fifth' from as a domestic, to familiarize.
the tonic; and they do not call the other notes,
which carry a chord of the seventh, dominants, Domestical evils, for that we think we can master but fundamentals; which is sufficient to render them at all times, are often permitted to run on for- their meaning plain, and prevents confusion. wird, till it be too late to recall them,
A DOMINANT, in that species of church music
which is called plain chant, is that note which is Equality of two domestic
most frequently repeated or beaten, in whatever Breeds scrupulous faction. Shakspeare. Antony and Cleopatra.
degree it may be from the tonic. In this species
of music there are dominants and tonics, but no Next to the sin of those who began that rebellion, mediant. th irs must needs be, who hindered the speedy sup
Fr. domain ; Span. pressing of it, by domestick dissentions.
Domination, n. s. Portug. and Ital. domi
King Charles. If the first corruption be not sucked in from the
Dom'rnative, adj. nio; Lat. dominium, from domestie manners, a little providence might secure
DOM'INATOR, n. S. domus; Gr. ôojos, a men in their first entrance into the world.
DOMIN'ION, n. s. house, à oeuw, to build.
Clarendon. To prevail over: domination and dominion both A servant dwells remote from all knowledge of his signify supreme authority, power, as over a man's lord's purposes : he lives as a kind of foreigner under
own house or territory: a dominator is he who the same roof; a domestick, and yet a stranger too.
Sowth. Settynge him on his right half in heuenli thingis Beholding thus, 0 happy as a queen!
aboue ech principat and potestat and vertu and domiWe cry; but shift the gaudy, hattering scene,
nacioun, and (above) ech name that is named, not View her at home in her domestick light,
oonli in this world, but also in the world to comyng. Por tbither she must come, at least at night.
Wiclif. Effesies i. Granville. By him were all things created, visible and invisi. The practical knowledge of the domestick duties is ble, whether they be thrones or dominions, or princithe principal glory of a woman.
Col. i. 16, Clarissa. palities or powers.
Thou and thine usurp The faithful prudent husband is an honest, tracta. The domination, royalties, and rights ble, and domestic animal. Addison's Spectator.
Of this oppressed boy.
Shakspeare. King John. Probably a philosopher would rejoice in that liberty
Jupiter and Mars are dominators for this northwhich Englishmen give their domestics; and for
west part of the world, which maketh the people
my own part, I cannot avoid being pleased at the happi. impatient of servitude, lovers of liberty, martial,
and ness of those poor crcatures, who in some measure
Camden's Retrains. contribute to mine.
Goldsmith. Conquest and good husbandry both enlarge the
king's dominions: the one by the sword, making the DOMIFYING, in astrology, the dividing or
acres more in number, the other by the plough, distributing the heavens into twelve houses, to making the same acres more in value.
Fuller, erect a theme, by means of six great circles, called circles of position. Regiomontanus makes which God exercised over man, using his utinost
The Law of Works is that empire and dominion the circles of position pass through the intersec- right, and obliging man to the rigorous observation tions of the meridian and the horizon: others of all that law he should impose upon Inake them pass through the poles of the zodiac.
Bp. Taylor. See ASTROLOGY.
He gave us only over beast, fish, fowl, DOMINANT, among musicians, is used either
Dominion absolute; that right we hold as an adjective or substantive; but these different
By his donation : but man over man acceptations are far from being indiscriminate. Me made noi lord.
ter or summer.
Flear, all ye angels, progeny of light,
found it known ai Cuba as Hayti, signifying, it l'hrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers. appears, a highland country; thus the natives
also called it, and the name has been revived of What can our travellers bring home
late years by the independent black governments That is not to be learnt at Rome?
who have revolutionised the French portion of What politics, or strange opinions, That are not in our own dominions ? Hudibras.
the island. This great navigator himself called
it, according to Dr. Robertson, Espagnola, or I thus conclude
Little Spain; or at first, as other writers say, The dominating humour makes the dream.
Isabella, in honor of the queen of Spain. It is,
Dryden. He could not have private dominion over that which however, best known to European geographers was under the private dominion of another. Locke.
as St. Domingo, the name of the capital of the
Spanish part of the island. Maximinus traded with the Goths in the product of St. Domingo, as it existed before the revoluhis own estate in Thracia, the place of his nativity; tion of 1789, is described by the abbé Raypal as whither he retired, to withdraw from the unjust abounding in delightful vales, where all the domination of Opilius Macrinus. Arbuthnot on Coins.
sweets of spring are enjoyed, without either winBlest use of power, 0) virtuous pride in kings !
There are but two seasons,' he And like his bounty whence dominion springs. continues, " in the year, and they are both equally
Tickell, Of all the enemies of idleness, want is the most covered with flowers, realises the delights and
fine. The ground always laden with fruit, and formidable. Fame is soon found to be a sound, and love a dream. Avarice and ambition may be justly
riches of poetical descriptions. Wherever we suspected of being privy confederacies with idleness,
turn our eyes, we are enchanted with a variety for when they have, for a while, protected their vota
of objects, colored and reflected by the clearest ries, they often deliver them up, to end their lives light. The air is temperate in the day-time, and under her dominion.
Johnson. the nights are constantly cool.' The Spaniards To sit on rocks, to muse o'er fond and fell,
and French were the European masters of this To slowly trace the forest's shady scenes,
island, until a very receni period; the line of Where things that own not man's dominion dwell,
demarcation, between their respective territories, And mortal foot hath ne'er, or rarely been. commencing at the river Massacre on the north
Byron. side, at the head of the bay of Mancenille, and DOMINEER, v.n. Fr. dominer. See Domi- extending to the river Pedernates south. All the NATE. To rule with absolute authority : hence fourths of the island, was claimed by Spain;
st of this line, being about threeto swell; bluster.
and all to the westward by France. The French Go to the feast, revel, and domineer, Carouse full measure.
part of the island, of a very irregular figure,
comprehended 2,500,000 acres, of which 1,500,000 Shakspeare. Taming of the Shrew.
were in high cultivation previous to 1789. The voice of conscience now is low and weak,
The coast of St. Domingo is abrupt and chastising the passions, as old Eli did his lustful domi- rocky, and the navigation of the neighbourhood necring sons.
dangerous: in his course from Cuba to Cape Both would their little ends secure;
François, Columbus, it is well known, lost the lle sighs for freedom, she for power :
vessel in which he originally sailed from Europe. His wishes tend abroad to roam,
None of its harbours will admit vessels of conAnd hers to domineer at home.
siderable burden. On the south side are the DOMINGO (St.), Hispaniola, or Hayti, bays of St. Domingo, Neyba and Acon, or Acoa. one of the largest and most fertile of the West The first has become, of late years, very shallow India islands, and the second in point of size, is and full of reefs. The bay of Neyba receives situated between Porto Rico on the east, and vessels of thirty tons burden ; but a river of this Jamaica and Cuba on the west. It is approached name flowing into it, divides itself, before enteron its northern side by the southern part of the ing the ocean, into various channels, which, Bahama chain, while southward the Caribbean changing in the rainy season, perplex the pilot. sea runs between it and Terra Firma. The ex- Acoa Bay has also several small rivers falling into treme length of St. Domingo is generally stated it. The entrance is two leagues across, and it at about 400 miles; Rainsford, however, extends widens inwards to nearly six leagues. On the it to 490 miles, and its utmost breadth 150; but east side is the capacious port of Caldera, one of a considerable peninsula projects for nearly 140 the best and safest of the island. On the northmiles towards the west, and, with a large pro- east coast is the Bay of Samana, extending from montory on the uouth, forms a spacious bay op- its southern point, Cape Rafael, to the opposite posite the island of Cuba. Its medium length side or peninsula of Samana, eighteen miles, and may therefore be computed at 300 miles, and its enclosed by a bulwark of rocks and sands, the breadth at 100, which gives a superficial area of entrance only being left clear, but having a safe about 30,000 square miles, equal therefore to and deep channel between the shore of Samana that of Ireland. Its most northerly point is in and some detached islands : it receives the rivers 19° 46'; and its most southerly in 17° 37' Yuna and Cambu after their junction. The N. lat. ; westward iis extreme point (Cape former has a course of about 100 miles. This Tiberon) is in 74° 15'; and eastward, Cape bay is about sixty miles deep, and is surrounded Engano, its extreme point in this direction, on every side by a fertile couutry. In Puerto is 67° 35' W. long. Columbus, who dis- Plata is Balsama Bay, which has only fourteen covered it in his first voyage to the New World, feet depth of water, and is of difficult navigation,
the entrance being very narrow: the neighbour- and so impregnated with moisture is the atmoshood is rich in valuable woods. Batia Ecossaise, phere at this season, that the brightest metallic or Scots' Bay, is in this direction, but is a polish becomes tarnished; the brooks now swell dangerous, rocky inlet; and there are several into torrents, and not seldom overwhelm the adother small harbours and bays on this side of the jacent plantations. From time immemorial the island. None of the rivers are practicable, even inhabitants of the dryer parts of the island have for boats, in the dry season. Eleven leagues reserved a portion of these copious streams by east of Port-au-Prince is a salt lake, named an artificial irrigation. The sea-coast is said to Henriquelle, twenty-two leagues in circuit; its be more unfavorable to European constitutions water is deep, clear, and bitter, and it abounds than the interior. On the northern Coast severe in alligators and tortoises of a large size ; in it gales are felt, but the violent hurricanes of other is an island, two leagues long, abounding with parts of the West Indies seldom blow here; wild goats, and having a spring of fresh water. when they occur, it is chiefly on the southern
The independent portion of St. Domingo (the coast, where they are denominated southern former French part), is mountainous and well- gales. wooded, containing mines of silver and iron. St. Domingo is chiefly valuable for its vegetaMuch of the central part of the Spanish territo- ble productions. The useful and elegant mahories is also composed of elevated mountains, gany-tree here grows to a noble size and is of many of them capable of cultivation, and having very superior grain. The largest of its plants is a soil extremely rich. They also have yielded the cotton-tree, whose stem often furnishes the gold and silver. From the city of St. Domingo entire body of the Indian canoes: the pine is several wide plains, from twenty to twenty-five also abundant; and here is a species of oak, miles in breadth, stretch for about eighty miles to resembling the American, which yields planks of the east. They are called the Los Llanos, and from sixty to seventy feet long. Brasil, satin, are adapted to the growth of every tropical pro- and various hard and ornamental woods are also duction. A beautiful valley to the north of found. Sugar, coffee, and cotton, of a fine quathese, through which the river Cotu pows, is lity, are produced in abundance. Indigo was said to be still more productive. The mountains once cultivated, but it has been long since abanare principally composed of two parallel chains, doned. Vanilla grows spontaneously in the woods, running from east to west, with several collateral and the plantain, also, is abundant. Flowers are branches. Excellent timber abounds throughout numerous, and are distinguished both by their the mountains. In those of Cibao originate the beauty and fragrance : all the tropical fruits are principal streams of the island; and the influence produced in high perfection. of these lofty ranges, in mitigating the winds and The only indigenous quadruped remaining is cooling the atmosphere, is most important in this the agouti cat, called by the natives heetia. But climate. Some of them rise to the height of the stock of horned cattle, horses, mules, asses, 6000 feet above the level of the sea.
sheep, and goats, is prodigious. Many of the Such, according to Edwards, is the unrivalled cattle, as we have stated, run wild, and are the fertility of the plains of this island, that they are prey of any one who will pursue them : some alone capable of producing more sugar and other farmers of the interior own 10,000 or 12,000, valuable commodities than all the British Westworth from six to eight dollars a head: the horse Indies put together. Common attention to their is here very sure-footed, and useful, but of small decided advantages was alone wanting in the size and inferior paces. The whole number Spanish colonists to render this one of the most of horses, mules, and asses, both the latter being important possessions of that crown. But when, valuable breeds, is estimated at 150,000; the by the arts of cruelty and oppression, they had horned cattle at 300,000. extirpated the aboriginal inhabitants, many of Birds are numerous, particularly wild fowl; them became speculators in adventures to South but the Jamaica nightingale, or mocking-bird, America; while those who remained sunk into and the banana, are the only songsters. The such wretched indolence, as to suffer this beau- flesh of the wild pigeon is particularly savory, tiful part of the country lo become a luxuriant though somewhat bitter; the parrot is also eaten, wilderness. The Savannahs, and fine plains in and ortolans are numerous. The best fish of the the interior, became, in consequence, entirely rivers are the mullet, snook, calapever, pargo, occupied by wild animals, such as swine, horses, grooper, baracooter, craw and rock-fish, and and horned cattle; and herds of domestic animals particularly the land-crab. Turtle abounds on ran wild in every direction. The export of the coast, and immense quantities of tarapins, those animals to the French settlements of the logether with a small species of amphibious torneighbourhood, formed an important branch of toise, which is a very delicate and luxurious food. commerce to the Spaniards; and it was in ex The serpent tribes, though numerous, are not change for them chiefly that they received the venomous, but the centipede is very annoying. manufactures of Europe.
A venomous crab-spider is also found here; the The climate is moist, hot, and unhealthy to destructive white-ant, and abundant swarms of Europeans; the thegmometer in the plains rising insects. This ant will eat through any kind of as high as 99°; and in the higher parts to 72° packing box, from side to side, and penetrate and 77o. But these heats are moderated by the every fold of goods. regular sea-breeze, which sets in about ten in The aborigines of St. Domingo have been the morning, and which is succeeded, towards long since extirpaled by the Spaniards. When it the evening, by a land breeze. The heaviest was discovered by Columbus, 9th December, rains of the wet season fall in May and June; 1492, it formed five kingdoms, called Maqua,
Marien, Higuay, Maguana, and Xaraguay, each the laws were always either artfully eluded, or governed by its own cacique. The Spaniards openly violated. The weakness, which was a had possession of the whole of it for 120 years. necessary consequence of such conduct, leaving This islaud, their earliest settlement in the new the coasts without defence, encouraged the eneworld, was at first in high estimation for the mies of Spain to ravage them. See our article quantity of gold it supplied. But its wealth BUCCANIERS. Even the capital of this island diminished with the inhabitants of the country, was taken and pillaged by Sir Francis Drake. whom they obliged to dig it out of the bowels of Cruizers of less pretensions contented themthe earth; and the source of its wealth was selves with intercepting vessels in their passage entirely dried up, when thew were extinct. Ben- through those latitudes, which were the best zoni relates, that of 2,000,000 of inhabitants, known at that time of any in the new world contained in the island when discovered by To add to these misfortunes, the Spaniards them. Columbus in 1492, scarcely 153 were alive in selves commenced pirates. They attacked no ships 1545. Bishop Las Casas inakes the extermi- but those of their own nation; which were more nation of the natives by his countrymen still rich, worse provided, and worse defended, than greater and more rapid. Ile states the original any others. The custom they had of fitting out number at 3,000,000, and says they were reduced ships clandestinely, to procure slaves, prevented to 60,000 within fisteen years. A vehement them from being known; and the assistance they desire of opening again this source of wealth purchased from the ships of war, commissioned first inspired the thought of obtaining slaves from to protect the trade, insured to them impunity. Africa; but, besides that these were found unfit The fore trade of the colony was its only for the labors they were destined to, the multitude resource in this distress; and that was illicit: of mines, then beginning to be wrought on the con but as it continued to be carried on, notwithtinent, made those of St. Domingo no longer of standing the vigilance of the governors, or, perany importance. An idea now suggested itself, haps, by their connivance, the policy of an that the negroes, who were healthy, strong, and exasperated and short-sighted court exeried itself patient, might be usefully employed in husban. in demolishing most of the sea-ports, and driving dry. The produce of their industry was at first the miserable inhabitants into the inland country. extremely small, because the laborers were few. This act of violence threw them into a state of Charles V. had granted an exclusive right of the dejection, which the incursions and settlement slave trade to a Flemish nobleman, who made of the French on the island afterwards carried to over his privilege to the Genoese. These the utmost pitch. The latter, after having made avaricio republicans conducted this infamous some unsuccessful attempts to settle on the island, commerce as all monopolies are conducted: they had part of it yielded to them, in 1697, by, the resolved to sell dear, and they sold but few. Spaniards. The court of Spain, totally taken up When time and competition had fixed the price with that vast einpire which they had formed on of slaves, the number of them increased. It may the continent, used no pains to dissipate this easily be imagined that the Spaniards, who had lethargy. They, even refused to listen to the been accustomed to treat the Indians as beasts, solicitations of their Flemish subjects, who did not entertain a higher opinion of these unfor- carnestly pressed that they might have permistunate Africans, whom they substituted in their sion to clear the fertile parts of this island. place. Degraded still farther in their eyes by Rather than run the risk of seeing them carry on the price they had paid for them, even religion a contraband trade on the coasts, they chose to could not restrain them from aggravating the hury in oblivion a settlement which had been of weight of their servitude. They made frequent considerable consequence, and was likely again attempts, however, to recover the undeniable to become so. This colony, which had no rights of mankind, and thus procured somewhat longer any intercourse with the mother country better treatment. The cultivation of the island but by a single ship, of no great burden, that was, at times, therefore, pursued with tolerable arrived hence every third year, consisted, in
About the middle of the sixteenth cen- 1717, of 18,410 inhabitants, including Spaniards, tury, Spain drew annually from this colony Mestees, Negroes, and Mulattoes. The com10,000,000 weight of sugar, a large quantity of plexion and character of this population differed wood for dyeing; tobacco, cocoa, cassia, ginger, according to the different proportions of American, cotton, and peltry in abundance. One might European, and African blood they had receivel imagine, that such favorable beginnings would from that natural and transient union, which have given both the desire and the mcans of restores all races and conditions to the same carrying them further; but a train of events, level. Demi-savages, in fact, the greater part of more fatal each than the other, ruined these them plunged into extreme sloth, lived upon hopes. The first misfortune arose from the fruits and roots, or dwelt in cottages without furdepopulation of the island. The Spanish con- niture, and most of them without clothes. The quests on the continent should naturally have few among them, in whom indolence had not contributed to promote the success of an island, totally suppressed the sense of decency and which seemed to have been formed to be the taste for the conveniences of life, purchased centre of that vast dominion arising around it. clothes of their neighbours, the French, in return But it fell out quite otherwise : on a view of the for their cattle, and the money sent to them for immense fortunes raising in Mexico, and other the maintenance of 200 soldiers, the priests, and parts, the richest inhabitants of Hispaniola began the government. A century after its original to despise their settlements, and the government settlement it was found necessary to remit annuendeavoured in vain to put a stop to emigration: ally from Mexico 300,000 dollars, for the sup