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lowards Siena. He rode still, seemingly the nations, all the free Italian cities, in in full vigour and activity. But the fatal possession of their rights and old muniair of Rome had smitten his strength. cipal institutions." A carbuncle had formed under his knee; 106. The two noble families of Ve. injudicious remedies inflamed his vitiated rona, the Montagues and Capulets, blood. He died at Buonconvento, in whose quarrels have been made familiar the midst of his awe struck army, on the to the English-speaking world by Romeo festival of St. Bartholomew. Rumours and Juliet :of foul practice, of course, spread abroad; a Dominican monk was said to have

“Three civil brawls, bred of an airy word, administered poison in the Sacrament,

By thee, old Capulet and Montague,

Have thrice disturbed the quiet of our streets, which he received with profound devo And made Verona's ancient citizens tion.

His body was carried in sad state, Cast by their grave beseeming ornaments, and splendidly interred at Pisa.

To wield old partisans, in hands as old, "So closed that empire, in which, if

Cankered with peace, to part your cankered

hate." the more factious and vulgar Ghibellines beheld their restoration to their native 107. Families of Orvieto. city, their triumph, their revenge, their 11. Santafiore is in the neighboursole administration of public affairs, the hood of Siena, and much infested with nobler Ghibellinism of Dante foresaw the banditti. establishment of a great universal mo 112. The state of Rome in Dante's narchy necessary to the peace and civili. time is thus described by Mr. Norton, zation of mankind. The ideal sovereign Travel and Study, pp. 246-248 : of Dante's famous treatise on Monarchy “On the slope of the Quirinal Hill, in was Henry of Luxembourg. Neither the quiet enclosure of the convent of St. Dante nor his time can be understood Catherine of Siena, stands a square, but through this treatise. The attempt brick tower, seven stories high. It is a of the Pope to raise himself to a great conspicuous object in any general view pontifical monarchy had manifestly ig- of Rome ; for there are few other towers nominiously failed: the Ghibelline is so tall, and there is not a single spire or neither amazed nor distressed at this steeple in the city. It is the Torre delle event. It is now the turn of the Impe- Milizie. It was begun by Pope Gregory rialist to unfold his noble vision. • An the Ninth, and finished near the end of universal monarchy is absolutely neces. the thirteenth century by his vigorous sary for the welfare of the world;' and and warlike successor, Boniface the this is part of his singular reasoning : Eighth. Many such towers were built *Peace,'" (says the weary exile, the man for the purposes of private warfare, in worn out in cruel strife, the wanderer those times when the streets of Rome from city to city, each of those cities were the fighting-places of its noble more fiercely torn by faction than the mmilies; but this is, perhaps, the only last,) 'universal Peace is the first blessing one that now remains undiminished in of mankind. The angels sang, not riches height and unaltered in appearance. It or pleasures, but peace on earth : peace was a new building when Dante visited the Lord bequeathed to his disciples. Rome ; and it is one of the very few For peace One must rule. Mankind is edifices that still preserve the aspect they most like God when at unity, for God then presented. The older ruins have is One ; therefore under a monarchy. been greatly changed in appearance, and Where there is parity there must be most of the structures of the Middle strife ; where strife, judgment; the judge Ages have disappeared, in the vicissimust be a third party intervening with tudes of the last few centuries. The supreme authority.' Without monarchy Forum was then filled with a confused can be no justice, nor even liberty ; for mass of ruins and miserable dwellings, Dante's monarch is no arbitrary despot, with no street running through their put a constitutional sovereign ; he is the intricacies. The Capitol was surrounded Roman law impersonated in the Em. with uneven battlemented walls, and peror; a monarch who should leave all bore the character and look of an irre

gular citadel. St. Peter's was a low was building her Cathedral and her basilica ; the Colosseum had suffered Campanile, and Orvieto her matchless little from the attacks of Popes or princes, Duomo, --while Pisa was showing her neither the Venetian nor the Farnese piety and her wealth in her Cathedral, palace having as yet been built with her Camposanto, her Baptistery, and stones from its walls; and centuries were her Tower,—while Siena was beginning still to pass before Michael Angelo, a church greater and more magnificent Bernini, and Borromini were to stamp its in design than her shifting fortune would present character upon the face of the permit her to complete, -Rome was modern city. The siege and burning of building neither cathedral nor campanile, Rome by Robert Guiscard, in 1084, may but was selling the marbles of her ancient be taken as the dividing-line between temples and tombs to the builders of the city of the Emperors and the city of other cities, or quarrying them for her the Popes, between ancient and modern own mean uses. Rome.

Rome was in a state of 118. This recalls Pope's Universal too deep depression, its people were too Prayer, turbulent and unsettled, to have either the spirit or the opportunity for great

“ Father of all! in every age, works. There was no established and

In every clime, adored,

By saint, by savage, and by sage, recognized authority, no regular course

Jehovah, Jove, or Lord ?" of justice. There was not even any strong force, rarely any overwhelming 125. Not the great Roman general violence, which for a time at least could who took Syracuse, after Archimedes subdue opposition, and organize a steady, had defended it so long with his engines and consequently a beneficent tyranny. and burning-glasses, but a descendant of The city was continually distracted by his, who in the civil wars took part with petty personal quarrels, and by bitter Pompey and was banished by Cæsar. family feuds. Its obscure annals are full Pope's Essay on Man, Ep. IV. 257 :of bloody civil victories and defeats, victories which brought no gain to those

“And more true joy Marcellus exiled feels,

Than Cæsar with a senate at his heels." who won them, defeats which taught no lesson to those who lost them. The 127. Of the state of Florence, Napier breath of liberty never inspired with life writes, Flor. Hist., I. 122 :the dead clay of Rome; and though for “It was not the simple movement a time it might seem to kindle some vital of one great body against another ; not heat, the glow soon grew cold, and the force of a government in opposition speedily disappeared. The records of to the people; not the struggle of Florence, Siena, Bologna, and Perugia privilege and democracy, of poverty are as full of fighting and bloodshed as and riches, or starvation and repletion ; those of Rome ; but their fights were | but one universal burst of unmitigated not mere brawls, nor were their triumphs anarchy. In the streets, lanes, and always barren. Even the twelfth and squares, in the courts of palaces and thirteenth centuries, which were like the humbler dwellings, were heard the coming of the spring after a long winter, clang of arms, the screams of victims, making the earth to blossom, and glad. and the gush of blood : the bow of dening the hearts of men,- the centuries the bridegroom launched its arrows which elsewhere in Italy, and over the into the very chambers of his young rest of Europe, gave birth to the noblest bride's parents and relations, and the mediæval Art, when every great city was bleeding son, the murdered brother, or adorning itself with the beautiful works the dying husband were the evening of the new architecture, sculpture, and visitors of Florentine maids and mapainting,

these centuries left trons, and aged citizens. Every art scarcely any token of their passage over was practised to seduce and deceive, Rome. The sur., breaking through the and none felt secure

even of their clouds that had long hidden it, shone nearest and dearest relatives. In the everywhere but here. While Florence morning a son left his paternal root


with undiminished love, and returned their statutes and ordinances, a weedat evening a corpse, or the most bitter ing out, as it were, of the obsolete and enemy! Terror and death were tri- contradictory, and a substitution of umphant ; there was no relaxation, no those which were better adapted to peace by day or night: the crash of existing circumstances and the forward the stone, the twang of the bow, the movement of man. There are certain whizzing shaft, the jar of the trembling fundamental laws necessarily permanent mangonel from tower and turret, were and admitted by all communities, as the dismal music of Florence, not only there are certain moral and theological for hours and days, but months and truths acknowledged by all religions ; years. Doors, windows, the jutting but these broad frames or outlines are galleries and roofs, were all defended, commonly filled up with a thick nietand yet all unsafe : no spot was sacred, work of subordinate regulations, that no tenement secure : in the dead of cover them like cobwebs, and often night, the most secret chambers, the very impede the march of improvement. hangings, even the nuptial bed itself, The Florentines were early aware of were often known to conceal an enemy. this, and therefore revised their laws

“Florence in those days was studded and instiiutions more or less frequently with lofty towers ; most of the noble and sometimes factiously, according to families possessed one or more, at least the turbulent or tranquil condition of two hundred feet in height, and many the times ; but in 1394, after forty years' of them far above that altitude. These omission, an officer was nominated for were their pride, their family citadels ; that purpose, but whether permanently and jealously guarded ; glittering with or noi is doubtful.” arms and men, and instruments of war. Every connecting balcony was alive with soldiers; the battle raged above

CANTO VII. and below, within and without ; stones rained in showers, arrows flew thick 6. See Canto III. Note 7. and fast on every side ; the seraglj, or 28. Limbo, Inf. IV. 25, the “fore. barricades, were attacked and defended most circle that surrounds the abyss.” by chosen bands armed with lances and boar-spears; foes were in ambush “ There, in so far as I had power to hear,

Were lamentations none, but only sighs, at every corner, watching the bold or

Which tremulous made the everlasting air, heedless enemy; confusion was every And this was caused by sorrow without tor. where triumphant, a demon seemed to

Which the crowds had, that many were possess the community, and the public

and great, mind, reeling with hatred, was steady Or infants and of women and of men." only in the pursuit of blood. Yet so accustomed did they at last become to 34. The three Theological Virtues of this fiendish life, that one day they Faith, Hope, and Charity. fought, the next caroused together in 36. The four Cardinal Virtues, Pru. drunken gambols, foe with foe, boast. dence, Justice, Fortitude, and Tempeing of their mutual prowess ; nor was it until after nearly five years of re 44. John xii. 35: “Then Jesus said ciprocal destruction, that, from mere unto them, Yet a little while is the lassitude, they finally ceased thus to light with you. Walk while ye have mangle each other, and, as it were for the light, lest darkness come upon you : relaxation, turned their fury on the for he that walketh in darkness knoweth neighbouring states."

not whither he goeth.” 147. Upon this subject Napier, Flor. 70. In the Middle Ages the longing Hist., II. 626, remarks :-

for rest and escape from danger, which "A characteristic, and, if discreetly found its expression in cloisters, is ex. handled, a wise regulation of the Flo- pressed in poetry by descriptions of rentines, notwithstanding Dante's sar. Howery, secluded meadows, suggesting casms, was the periodical revision of the classic meadows of Asphodel. Dante



us :

side ;

winter were.

has given one already in the Inferno, Now, almost in the opening d and gives another here.

the Purgatory, as at the entrance Compare with these the following of the Inferno, we find a company from The Miracles of Our Lady, by of great ones resting in a grassy Gonzalo de Bercéo, a monk of Cala- place. But the idea of the grass now horra, who lived in the thirteenth cen- is very different. The word now used tury, and is the oldest of the Castilian is not 'enamel,' but 'herb,' and inpoets whose name has come down to stead of being merely green, it is

covered with flowers of many colours.

With the usual mediæval accuracy, I, Gonzalo de Bercéo, in the gentle summertide,

Dante insists on telling us precisely Wending upon a pilgrimage, came to a meadow's what these colours were, and how bright; All green was it and beautiful, with flowers far which he does by naming the actual and wide,

pigments used in illumination,-'Gold, A pleasant spot, I ween, wherein the traveller and fine silver, and cochineal, and might abide.

white lead, and Indian wood, serene Flowers with the sweetest odours filled all the and lucid, and fresh emerald, just brosunny air,

ken, would have been excelled, as less And not alone refreshed the sense, but stole the is by greater, by the flowers and grass

mind from care; On every side a fountain gushed, whose waters

of the place. It is evident that the pure and fair

‘emerald' here means the emerald Ice-cold beneath the summer sun, but warm in green of the illuminators; for a fresh

emerald is no brighter that one which There on the thick and shadowy trees, amid is not fresh, and Dante was not one to the foliage green,

throw away his words thus. Observe, Were the fig and the pomegranate, the pear and then, we have here the idea of the And other fruits of various kinds, the tufted growth, life, and variegation of the leaves between ;

* green herb,' as opposed to the smalto None were unpleasant to the taste and none of the Inferno ; but the colours of the decayed, I ween.

variegation are illustrated and defined The verdure of the meadow green, the odour by the reference to actual pigments ; of the flowers,

and, observe, because the other colours The grateful shadows of the trees, tempered with are rather bright, the blue ground (In. Refreshed me in the burning heat of the sultry but serene'; and presently two angels

dian wood, indigo ?) is sober ; lucid, noontide hours ; O, one might live upon the balm and fragrance enter, who are dressed in the green of those bowers.

drapery, but of a paler green than the Ne'er had I found on earth a spot that had grass, which Dante marks, by telling such power to please,

us that it was 'the green of leaves just Such shadows from the summer sun, such odours budded.'

on the breeze ; I threw my mantle on the ground, that I might

“In all this, I wish the reader to ob

serve two things : first, the general And stretched upon the greensward lay in the carefulness of the poet in defining colour, shadow of the trees.

distinguishing it precisely as a painter There, soft reclining in the shade, all cares would (opposed to the Greek careless. I heard the soft and mellow notes that through garding the grass for its greenness and

ness about it); and, secondly, his re: the woodland rung. Ear never listened to a strain, from instrument variegation, rather than, as a Greek or tongue,

would have done, for its depth and So mellow and harmonious as the songs above freshness. This greenness or brightme sung."

ness, and variegation, are taken up by See also Brunetto Latini, Tesoretto, later and modern poets, as the things XIX. ; the Vision of Piers Ploughman; intended to be chiefly expressed by Gower's Confessio Amantis, VIII., &c. the word enamelled ; and, gradually

, 73. Of this description Ruskin, Modern the term is taken to indicate any kind Painters, III. 228, remarks :

of bright and interchangeable colouing i

rest at ease,

there being always this much of pro- of Kamberg in the middle of the Danube, priety about it, when used of green- under a tent whose curtains should be sward, that such sward is indeed, like closed to spare him public mortification. enamel, a coat of bright colour on a Ottocar presented himself covered with comparatively dark ground; and is gold and jewels; Rudolph, by way of thus a sort of natural jewelry and superior pomp, received him in his painter's work, different from loose simplest dress; and in the middle and large vegetation. The word is of the ceremony the curtains of the often awkwardly and falsely used, by tent fell, and revealed to the eyes of the later poets, of all kinds of growth the people and of the armies, that lined and colour; as by Milton of the flowers the Danube, the proud Ottocar on his of Paradise showing themselves over knees, with his hands clasped in the its wall; but it retains, nevertheless, hands of his conqueror, whom he had through all its jaded inanity, some half- often called his maître d'hôtel, and unconscious vestige of the old sense, whose Grand-Seneschal he now became. even to the present day.”

This story is accredited, and it is of 82. The old church hymn attributest little importance whether it be true or to Arminius or Hermann, Count of not." Vehringen, in the eleventh century, be But the wife was not quiet under this ginning :

humiliation, and excited him to revolt “ Salve Regina, mater misericordiæ,,

against Rudolph. He was again overVita, dulcedo et spes nostra, salve.

come, and killed in battle in 1278.

101. This Winceslaus, says the 0194. Rudolph of Hapsburg, first Em. timo, was “most beautiful among all peror of the house of Austria. was men; but was not a man of arms; crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1273. he was a meek and humble ecclesiastic, "It is related,” says Voltaire, Annales and did not live long.” Why Dante de l'Empire, I. 303, “that, as the im- accuses him of living in luxury and ease perial sword, which they pretended was does not appear. that of Charlemagne, could not be 103. Philip the Third of France, sur. found, several lords made this defect named the Bold (1270-1285). Having in the formalities a pretext for not invaded Catalonia, in a war with Peter taking the oath of allegiance. He the Third of Aragon, both by land and seized a crucifix; This is my sceptre, sea, he was driven back, and died at he said, and all paid homage to Perpignan during the retreat. him. This single act of firmness made 104. He with the benign aspect, who him respected, and the rest of his rests his cheek upon his hand, is Henry conduct showed him to be worthy of the of Navarre, surnamed the Fat, and Empire.”

brother of “Good King Thibault,” Inf. He would not go to Rome to be XXII. 52. An old French chronicle crowned, and took so little interest in quoted by Philalethes says, that, “though Italian affairs, that Italy became almost it is a general opinion that fat men are of independent of the Empire, which seems a gentle and benign nature, nevertheless greatly to disturb the mind of Dante. this one was very harsh."

109. Philip the Fourth of France, 100. Ottocar the Second, king of surnamed the Fair, son of Philip the Liohemia, who is said to have refused | Third, and son-in-law of Henry of the imperial crown. He likewise re- Navarre (1285-1314). fused to pay hoinage to Rudolph, whom 112. Peter the Third of Aragon (1276be used to calı his maître d'hôtel, de- 1285), the enemy of Charles of Anjou claring he had paid his wages and owed and competitor vith him for the kinghim nothing. Whereupon Rudolph at- dom of Sicily. He is counted among tacked and subdued him. According to the Troubadours, and when Philip the Voltaire, Annales de l'Empire, I. 306, Bold invaded his kingdom, Peter "he consented to pay homage to the launched a song against him, Emperor as his liege lord, in the island plaining that the “Hower-de-luce kept

He died in 1291.


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