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minating with their childhood, who, from denied, that these are owing to our rea want of knowing other pursuits, continue ligion. a fondness for the delights of that age,
It was chic Ay, if not altogether, upon after the relish of them is decayed. religious confiderations that princes, as
Providence hath with a bountiful hand well as private perfuns, have erected colprepared a variety of pleasures for the va- leges, and aligned liberal endowments to rious stages of life. It behoves us not to ftudents and profeffors. Upon the same be wanting to ourselves in forwarding the account they meet with encouragement and intention of nature, by the culture of our protection from all christian states, as being minds, and a due preparation of each fa- eiteemed a neceílary means to have the culty for the enjoyment of those objects facred oracles and primitive traditions of it is capable of being affected with, christianity preserved and understood. And
As our parts open and display by gen- it is well known, that after a long night of tle degrees, we rile from the gratifications ignorance and superstition, the reformaof sense, to relish those of the mind. In tion of the church and that of learning the scale of pleasure, the lowest are sen- began together, and made proportionable fual delights, which are succeeded by the advances, the latter having been the effect more enlarged views and gay portraitures of the former, which of course engaged of a lively imagination; and these give men in the study of the learned languages way to the fublimer pleasures of reafon, and of antiquity.
Guardian. which discover the causes and designs, the frame, connection, and symmetry of things,
20. On Chearfulnes. and fill the mind with the contemplation I have always preferred chearfulness to of intellectual beauty, order, and truth. mirth. The latter I consider as an act,
Hence I regard our public schools and the former as a habit of the mind. Mirth universities, not only as nurseries of men is mort and transient, chearfulness fixed for the service of the church and state, and permanent. Those are often raised but also as places designed to teach man- into the greatest transports of mirth, who kind the most refined luxury, to raise the are subject to the greatelt depreffions of mind to its die perfection, and give it a melancholy: on the contrary, chcarfulness, taste for those entertainments which af- though it does not give the mind such an ford the highest transport, without the exquisite gladness, prevents us from falgrofiness or remorse that attend vulgar en- ling into any depths of forrow. Mirth Joyments.
is like a fiain of lightning, that breaks In those blessed retreats men enjoy the through a gloom of clouds, and glitters sweets of solitude, and yet converle with for a moment; chearfulness keeps up a the greateit genii that have appeared in kind of day-light in the mind, and fills every age; wander through the delightful it with a fteady and perpetual ferenity. mazes of every art and science, and as Men of austere principles look upon they gradually enlarge their sphere of mirth as too wanton and diffolute for a knowledge, at once rejoice in their pre- ftate of probation, and as filled with a fent possessions, and are animated by the certain triumph and insolence of heart that boundless prospect of future discoveries. is inconsitent with a life which is every There, a generous emulation, a noble moment obnoxious to the greatest dangers. thirst of fame, a love of truth and honour. Writers of this complexion have observed, able regards, reign in minds as yet un
that the sacred Perion who was the great tainted from the world. There, the stock pattern of perfection, was never seen to of learning transmitted down from the an- laugh. cients, is preferved, and receives a daily Chearfulness of mind is not liable to increase; and it is thence propagated by any of these exceptions; it is of a serious men, who having finished their studies, go and composed nature; it does not throw into the world, and spread that general the mind into a condition improper for the knowledge and good taste throughout the prefent Itate of humanity, and is very conland, which is so distant from the barba- fpicuous in the characters of thole who rism of its ancient inhabitants, or the fierce are looked upon as the greatest philosophers genius of its invaders. And as it is evi- among the heathens, as well as among dent that our literature is owing to the those who have been deservedly esteemed schools and universities; so it cannot be as faints and holy men among Christians, If we consider chearfulness in three per. There is something so particularly lights, with regard to ourselves, to those gloomy and offensive to human nature in we converse with, and to the great Author the prospect of non-existence, that I canof our being, it will not a little recom- not but wonder, with many excellent wri. mend itself on each of these accounts. The ters, how it is possible for a man to outza who is posseiled of this excellent frame live the expectation of it. For my own of mind, is not only easy in his thoughts, but part, I think the being of a God is fo a perfect master of all the powers and facul- little to be doubted, that it is almost the ties of the foul: his imagination is always only truth we are sure of, and such a truth dear, and his judgment undisturbed ; his as we meet with in every object, in every lemper is even and unrufied, whether in occurrence, and in every thought. If we action or folitude. He comes with a relith lock into the characters of this tribe of into all thote goods which nature has pro- fidels, we generally find they are made up vided for him, tastes all the pleasures of of pride, ipleen, and cavil: it is indeed the creation which are poured about him, no wonder, that men, who are uneaiy to and does not feel the full weight of those themselves, Mould be so to the rest of the accidental evils which may befal him. world; and how is it poilible for a man
If we confider him in relation to the to be otherwise than uneaty in hinfe!f, persons whom he converses with, it natu- who is in danger every monient of ling sally produces love and good-will towards his entire existence, and dropping into him. A chearful mind is not only dif- nothing ? posed to be afrable and obliging, but raises The vicious man and Atheist have thereühe fame good-humour in those who come fore no pretence to chearfulness, and would within its influence. A man finds himself act very unreasonably, should they endeaplealed, he does not know why, with the vour after it. It is impor:ble for any one ebez:fulness of his companion: it is like to live in good-humour, and enjoy his prea fodden sunshine, that awakens a secret de- fent existence, who is apprehensive either light in the mind, without her attending to of torment or of annihilation; of being i The heart rejoices of its own accord, miserable, or of not being at all. and saturally flows out into friendship and After having mentioned these tivo great benevolence towards the person who has principles, which are destructive of chearfo kindly an effect upon it.
fulness in their own nature, as well as in When I consider this chearful ftate of right reason, I cannot think of any other mind in its third relation, I cannot but look that ought to banish this happy temper apon it as a constant habitual gratitude to from a virtuous mind. Pain and fickness, the great Author of nature. An inward fame and reproach, poverty and oid-age, cheartulness is an implicit praise and thankf- nay death itself, confidering the shortness giving to Providence under all its dispen- of their duration, and the advantage we tations. It is a kind of acquiescence in may reap from them, do not deserve the the tare wherein we are placed, and a se- name of evils. A good mind may bear cret approbation of the divine will in his up under them with fortitude, with indoconduct towards man.
lence, and with chearfulness of heart. The There are but two things, which, in my tosling of a tempest does not discompose opinica, can reasonably deprive us of this him, which he is sure will bring him to a chearfulness of heart. The first of these is the joyful harbour. ferfe of guilt. A man who lives in a state A man, who uses his best endeavours to of vice and impenitence, can have no title live according to the dictates of virtue and to that evenness and tranquillity of mind right reason, has two perpetual sources of which is the health of the soul, and the na- chearfulnefs, in the consideration of his tural effect of virtue and innocence. Chear- own nature, and of that Being on whom fulness in an ill man deserves a harder he has a dependence. If he looks into same than language can furnish us with, himself, he cannot but rejoice in that ex. ard is mary degrees beyond what we com- istence, which is fo lately bestowed upon morly call tolly or madness.
him, and which, afrer millions of ages, Atneiim, by which I mean a disbelief of will be fill new, a:.d till in its beginning. a Supreme Being, and consequently of a How many feit-coigratulations naturally future staze, under whatsoever title it inel- arise in the mind, when it reflects on this ters itself, may likewise very reasonably its entrance into eternity, when it takes a deprive a man of this chcarfulness of tem- view of those improveable faculties, which
in a few years, and even at its first setting a more than ordinary gaiety and chearfulout, have made so considerable a progress, ness of heart. The truth of it is, health and which will be still receiving an increase and chearfulness mutually beget each other; of perfection, and consequently an increase with this difference, that we seldom meet of happiness! The consciousness of such a with a great degree of health which is not being (preads a perpetual diffusion of joy attended with a certain chearfulness, but through the foul of a virtuous man, and very often see chearfulness where there is makes him look upon himself every mo- no great degree of health. ment as more happy than he knows ho Chearfulness bears the same friendly to conceive.
regard to the mind as to the body: it baThe second source of chearfulness to nishes all anxious care and discontent, a good mind is, its consideration of that soothes and composes the passions, and Being on whom we have our dependence, keeps the foul in a perpetual calm. But and in whom, though we behold him as yet having already touched on this last confibut in the firit faint discoveries of his per- deration, I hall here take notice, that the fections, we fee every thing that we can world in which we are placed, is filled imagine as great, glorious, or amiable. with innumerable objects that are proper: We find ourtelves every where upheld by to raise and keep alive this happy temper his goodness, and surrounded with an im- of mind. mensity of love and mercy. In short, we If we consider the world in its subferdepend upon a Being, whose power qua- viency to man, one would think it was lifies him to make us happy by an infinity made for our use; but if we consider it of means, whose goodness and truth en- in its natural beauty and harmony, one gage him to make those happy who desire would be apt to conclude it was made for it of him, and whose unchangeableness our pleasure. The fun, which is as the will secure us in this happiness to all eter- great soul of the universe, and produces all nity.
the necessaries of life, has a particular inSuch considerations, which every one fluence in chearing the mind of man, and Mould perpetually cherish in his thoughts, making the heart glad. will banish from us all that secret heaviness Those several living creatures which are of heart which unthinking men are subject made for our service or suítenance, at the to when they lie under no real afliction, same tine either fill the woods with their all that anguish which we may feel from music, furnish us with game,
raise pleafany evil that actually opprefies us, to which ing ideas in us by the delightfulness of I may likewise add those little cracklings their appearance. Fountains, lakes, and of mirth and folly, that are apter to be- rivers, are as refreshing to the imaginatray virtue than support it; and establish tion, as to the soil through which they in us such an even and chearful temper, as pass. makes us pleasing to ourselves, to those There are writers of great distinction, with whom we converse, and to him whom who have made it an argument for Provi. we are made to please. Spectator. dence, that the whole earth is covered § 21. On the Advantages of a chearful
with green, rather than with any other
colour, as being such a right mixture of Yomper.
light and shade, that it comforts and Chearfulness is, in the first place, the strengthens the eye instead of weakening best promoter of health. Repinings and or grieving it. For chis reason, several fecret murmurs of heart give impercepti- painters have a green cloth hanging near ble strokes to those delicaie fibres of which them, to ease the eye upon, after too great the vital parts are composed, and wear out an application to their colouring. A fathe machine intensibly; not to mention mous modern philosopher accounts for it those violent ferments which they ftir up in the following manner: All colours that in the blood, and those irregular disturbed are more luminous, overpower and dislimotions, which they raise in the animal pate the animal spirits which are employed spirits. I scarce remember, in my own in right; on the contrary, those that are observation, to have met with many old more obscure do not give the aniinal fpimen, or with such, who (to use our Eng- rits a suficient exercise; whereas, the
rays lish phrase) wear well, that had not at leait that produce in us the idea of green, fall a certain indolence in their humour, if not upon the eye in such a due proportion,
that they give the animal spirits their pro- tertainments of art, with the pleasures of per play, and, by keeping up the struggle friendship, books, conversation, and other sa jult balance, excite a very pleasing accidental diverfions of life, because I and agreeable sensation. Let the cause be would only take notice of such incitements what it will, the effect is certain; for which to a chearful temper, as offer themselves reason, the poets ascribe to this particular to persons of all ranks and conditions, and colour the epithet of cbearful.
which may fufficiently shew us, that ProviTo contider further this double end in dence did not delign this world should be the works of nature, and how they are, at filled with murmurs and repinings, or that the same time, both useful and entertain the heart of man should be involved in ing, we find that the most important parts gloom and melancholy. in the vegetable world are those which are I the more inculcate this chearfulness the moit beautiful. These are the feeds of temper, as it is a virtue in which our by which the several races of plants are countrymen are observed to be more defipropagated and continued, and which are cient than any other nation. Melancholy always lodged in flowers or blossoms. Na- is a kind of demon that haunts our island, ture seems to hide her principal design, and often conveys herself to us in an ealand to be industrious in making the earth terly wind. A celebrated French novelist, gay and delightful, while she is carrying in opposition to those who begin their room ber great work, and intent upon her mances with a flowery season of the year, own preservation. The husbandman, af- enters on his story thus: - In the gloomy ter the same manner, is employed in laying month of November, when the people of out the whole country into a kind of gar- • England hang and drown themselves, a den or landskip, and making every thing ditconfolate lover walked out into the
• ímike about him, whilst, in reality, he thinks fields,' &c. of nothing but of the harveit, and increale Every one ought to fence againit the which is to arise from it.
temper of his climate or coi titution, and may further observe how Provin frequently to indulge in himself those concence has taken care to keep up this siderations which may give him a ferenity cearfulness in the mind of man, by hav- of mind, and enable him to bear up chearing formed it after such a manner, as to fully againit those little evils and misformake it capable of conceiving delight from tunes which are common to human nature, feveral objects which seem to have very and which, by a right improvement of them, licle ole in them; as from the wildness of will produce a satiety of joy, and an upinrocks and deferts, and the like grotesque terrupted happiness. parts of nature. Those who are versed in At the same time that I would engage patolophy may still carry this considera- my reader to consider the world in its molt tion higher, by observing, that if matter agreeable lights, I must own there are had appeared to us endo:ved only with many evils which naturally spring up athole real qualities which it actually pof- midit the entertainments that are provided lettes, it would have made but a very joy- for us; but these, it rightly considered, leis and uncomfortable figure; and why should be far from overcasting the minit 12: Providence given it a power of pro- with forrow, or destroying that chearfulness dating in us íuch imaginary qualities, as of temper which I have been recommend tates and colours, founds and imells, heat ing. This interspersion of evil with good, and cold, but that man, while he is con- and pain with pleasure, in the works of vertant in the lower stations of nature, might nacure, is very truly ascribed by Mr. Locke, Lave his mind cheared and delighted with in his EiTay upon Human Understanding, agreeable sensations? In short, the whole to a moral reaton, in the following words: unterte is a kind of theatre filled with Beyond all this, we may find another ct eets that either raise in us pleasure, å- reason why God hath scattered up and Disement, or admiration.
down several degrees of pleafure and The reader's own thoughts will fuggest pain, in all the things that environ and to him the vicitiitude of day and night, the afteet us, and blended them together, in change of featons, with all that variety of almoit all that our thoughts and senses ielnes which diverlify the face of nature, • have to do with; that we, fmding imperand fill the mind with a perpetual succes- fection, diffatisfaction, and want of combon of beautiful and pleasing images. plete happiness in all the enjoyments I shall not here mention the several en- "which the creatures can afford us, might
'be led to seek it in the enjoyment of him, and needs nothing to help it out; it is
with whom there is fulness of joy, and always near at hand, and sits upon our • at whose right hand are pleasures for lips, and is ready to drop out before we Severmore.'
Spettator. are aware; whereas a lie is troublesome,
and sets a man's invention upon the rack, $ 22. On Truth and Sincerity.
and one trick needs a great many more to Truth and reality have all the advantages make it good. It is like building upon a of appearance, and many more. If the false foundation, which continually ilands shew of any thing he good for any thing, in need of props to shore it up,
proves I am sure sincerity is better: for why does at last more chargeable than to have raised any man diffemble, or seem to be that which a substantial building at first upon a true and he is not, but because he thinks it good to folid foundation; for fincerity is firm and have such a quality as he pretends to ? for substantial, and there is nothing hollow or to counterfeit and dissemble, is to put on unsound in it, and because it is plain and the appearance of some real excellency. open, fears no discovery; of which the Now the best way in the world for a man crafty man is always in danger, and when to seem to be any thing, is really to be he thinks he walks in the dark, all his prewhat he would seem to be. Besides, that tences are so transparent, that he that runs it is many times as troublesome to make may read them; he is the last man that good the pretence of a good quality, as to finds himself to be found out, and whilst he have it; and if a man have it not, it is ten takes it for granted that he makes fools to one but he is discovered to want it, of others, he renders himself ridiculous. and then all his pains and labour to seem Add to all this, that sincerity is the most to have it is loft. There is something un- compendious wisdom, and an excellent innatural in painting, which a skilful eye will strument for the speedy dispatch of busieasily discern from native beauty and com- ness; it creates confidence in those we have plexion.
to deal with, saves the labour of many inIt is hard to personate and act a part quiries, and brings things to an issue in long; for where truth is not at the bottom, few words; it is like travelling in a plain nature will always be endeavouring to re- beaten road, which commonly brings a man turn, and will peep out and betray herself sooner to his journey's end than bye-ways, one time or other. Therefore, if any man in which men often lose themfelves. In a think it convenient to feem good, let him word, whatsoever convenience may be be fo indeed, and then his goodness will thought to be in falfhood and diffimulaappear to every body's satisfaction; so tion, it is foon over; but the inconvenience that, upon all accounts, fincerity is true of it is perpetual, because it brings a man wisdom. Particularly as to the affairs of under an everlasting jealousy and luspicion, this world, integrity hath many advantages so that he is not believed when he speaks over all the fire and artificial ways of dif- truth, nor trusted perhaps when he means fimulation and deceit; it is much the honeftly. When a man has once forfeited plainer and easier, much the safer and more the reputation of his integrity, he is set
of dealing in the world; it has fast, and nothing will then serve his turn, less of trouble and difficulty, of entangle- neither truth nor falfhood. ment and perplexity, of danger and ha- And I have often thought that God hath, zard in it; it is the shortest and nearest in his great wisdom, hid from men of falle way to our end, carrying us thither in a and diihoneft minds the wonderful advanstrait line, and will hold out and last long- tages of truth and integrity to the prof. eft. The arts of deceit and cunning do perity even of our worldly affairs; these continually grow weaker and less effeétual men are so blinded by their covetousness and serviceable to them that use them; and ambition, that they cannot look bewhereas integrity gains strength by use; yond a present advantage, nor forbear to and the more and longer any man practi- seize upon it, though by ways never fo inseth it, the greater service it does him, by direct; they cannot see so far as to the reconfirming his reputation, and encouraging mote consequences of a feady integrity, those with whom he hath to do to repose and the vast benefit and advantages which the greatest trust and confidence in him, it will bring a man at last. Were but this which is an unspeakable advantage in the fort of men wife and clear-fighted enough business and affairs of life.
to discern this, they would be honest out Truth is always confiftent with itself, of very knavery, not out of any love to