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246. trepidumque magistrum, his trembling keeper. Martial, Spec. x., alludes to a case in which a lion killed its keeper in the reign of Domitian-“Laeserat ingrato leo perfidus ore magistrum."

247. cavea, cage.

alumnus. See note on xi. 98.

248. Nota mathematicis genesis tua, "your nativity, you say, is known to the astrologers," i.e. the man disregards the warning contained in 246-7, because the astrologers have promised him a long life. Yes; but suppose, says Juvenal, your son will not wait for the fates to finish their web.


On mathematicis conf. Sat. iii. 43, and x. 94. They were also called Chaldaei and astrologi. See Tacitus, Hist. i. 22, who speaks of them as 'genus hominum potentibus infidum, sperantibus fallax, quod in civitate nostra et vetabitur semper et retinebitur"; also Ann. ii. 32.

grave tardas exspectare colus. Conf. Sat. iii. 43, "funus promittere patris nec volo nec possum."

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251. torquet, tortures. Conf. Sat. i. 9, 'quas torqueat umbras Aeacus.

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cervina senectus. Conf. Verg. Ecl. vii. 30, “vivacis cornua cervi"; and Cic. Tuscul. Disp. iii. 69, "Theophrastus moriens accusasse naturam dicitur quod cervis et cornicibus vitam diuturnam . dedisset."

252. Archigenen. See Sat. xiii. 98.

quod Mithridates composuit. Pliny speaks of a "Mithridaticum antidotum," an antidote compounded by Mithridates, king of Pontus, to guard against poison. Conf. Mart. v. 76, "Profecit poto Mithridates saepe veneno toxica ne possent saeva nocere sibi"; and Sat. vi. 660,"si praegustabit Atrides Pontica ter victi cautus medicamina regis.'

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253. aliam decerpere ficum. Conf. Hor. Ep. i. 7, 5, "dum ficus prima calorque designatorem decorat lictoribus atris."

254. alias tractare rosas. For the rose garlands used at banquets, see note on Sat. v. 36.

255. et pater et rex, a father like you and a king like Mithridates.

256. voluptatem egregiam, viz. the sight of avaricious men getting money.

257. praetoris pulpita lauti. See notes on Sat. x. 36 and seq., and xi. 195.

258. quanto capitis discrimine, what peril to life. constent, cost; usually with gen. or abl. of price.

259. multus

fiscus, a quantity of treasure.

260. ad vigilem . Castora. Conf. Sat. x. 25. The money-lenders and bankers had their tables in the Forum, near the temple of Castor, which, in common with other temples, was often used to keep money and other valuables in. So Herodian (i. 14, 3) says of the Temple of Peace, NovσLúτаTOV δὲ ἦν πάντων δι' ἀσφαλεῖαν, ἕκαστος δὲ ἃ εἶχεν ἐκεῖσε ἐθησαυρίζετο. Conf. Cic. pro Quinct. 17, "nisi ad Castoris quaesisses quantum solveretur.' Sentinels were posted round the temple of Castor; hence the epithet vigilem.

261. Mars Ultor galeam quoque perdidit. The temple of Mars Ultor was in the Forum Augusti. Allusion is made to some robbery from the temple, which induced people to transfer their money to some safer place.

262. Florae. The Floralia were held from April 28 to May 3. Great license prevailed, and the feast lasted far into the night, which was illuminated by lamps. Conf. Ov. Fast. v. 361 seq. The Floralia was the especial time for the representation of mimes; this is what aulaea refers to.

263. Cereris. The Cerealia were from April 12-19. See Tac. Ann. xv. 53. They consisted mainly of chariot-racing.

Cybeles. On the Megalesia, see note on Sat. xi. 184. They lasted from April 3-10.

265. petauro. The petaurum was either a spring-board or a wheel from which two performers hung, one on each side, and which they made to revolve, one climbing up and the other letting himself down alternately. Conf. Mart. ii. 86, "per graciles vias petauri invitum iubeas subire Ladan.'

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266. rectum. . . funem, the tight-rope. Conf. Sat. iii. 77, "schoenobates."

268. Corycia. puppe. Corycus was a seaport town in Cilicia, where a considerable trade grew up, especially in saffron, which is referred to in the "sacci olentis" in line 269. Conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 4, 68, "Corycioque croco."

269. perditus, reckless.

sacci . . . olentis. A great deal of saffron was used in the theatres to produce an agreeable smell. Pipes were laid down throughout the building, and the liquid saffron was thrown out as from the jets of a fountain. Conf. Mart. v. 25, "rubro pulpita nimbo spargere, et effuso permaduisse croco," and also id. Spec. iii. 8, "Et Cilices nimbis hic maduere suis." These saffron fountains were called sparsiones and one or two inscriptions have been discovered on the walls at Pompeii, on which, after the notification of some theatrical performance,

the words are added, "sparsiones erunt." See Becker's Gallus, p. 48, note.

271. passum, raisin wine.

municipes Iovis, i.e. Cretan. Conf. Sat. iv. 33, "municipes siluros"; and Mart. v. 87, "Cadmi municipes lacernas.”

272. Hic, i.e. the "schoenobates" of line 266.

274. propter mille talenta, etc., “to make up your thousand talents or your hundred villas."

275. centum villas. Conf. Sat. x. 225, "quot villas possideat nunc," etc.

276. trabibus. Conf. Hor. Od. i. 1, 13, “trabe Cypria." plus hominum, i.e. more than on land.

278. Carpathium. The Carpathian Sea was between Rhodes and Crete.

Gaetula. The African Sea was dangerous on account of the Syrtes or sandbanks off the coast of Africa. The Gaetuli properly bordered on the Atlantic, but Juvenal evidently uses the word loosely, and intends it to be less and not more distant than Calpe.

Conf. Hor. Od. i. 3, 24, "non tangenda

279. transiliet. rates transiliunt vada." Calpe-Gibraltar.

280. Herculeo

gurgite. The Straits of Gibraltar were called Herculis Columnae, from the tradition that this was the extreme point to which Hercules penetrated. Hercules was originally a Phoenician deity, and there was a famous temple dedicated to him at Gades.

stridentem . solem, as if the sun, when it set, went down into the ocean with a hiss. Conf. Tac. Germ. 45. 281. Grande operae pretium est. Conf. Sat. xii. 127. folle. Conf. Sat. xiii. 61, cum tota aerugine follem."

282. aluta. In Sat. vii. 192 this word meant a shoe; here it means a leather purse.

283. Oceani monstra. Conf. Horace's "monstra natantia," Od. i. 3, 17.

iuvenes vidisse marinos, the Tritons and Nereids.

284. Non unus mentes agitat furor, i.e. there are different kinds of madness, and one kind is avarice. Conf. line 136. Ille-Orestes, alluded to before in Sat. viii. 215 seq.

sororis in manibus-in the arms of Electra.

285. vultu Eumenidum terretur. Conf. "Furiis agitatus Orestes." For the Eumenides, see note on Erinys, Sat. vii. 68.

The Erinyes were worshipped at Athens, in the deme of Colonos, under the name of Eumenides, the "kindly goddesses.'

286. hic. Ajax, son of Telamon, who, on being disappointed of the arms of Achilles, went out of his mind, and in the dead of night slaughtered the cattle which had been taken as booty (bove percusso), thinking that they were his enemies Odysseus and Agamemnon. Conf. Soph. Ai. 53 seq.

Ithacum. Conf. Sat. x. 257.

287. Parcat tunicis licet, "though he do not tear his clothes." lacernis. See note on Sat. i. 27.

288. curatoris. The property of an insane man was transferred by the praetor to the charge of one of his agnati, who was called curator. Conf. Hor. Sat. ii. 3, 217, "interdicto huic omne adimat ius praetor et ad sanos abeat tutela propinquos." 289. ad summum latus, up to the very bulwarks. tabula distinguitur unda. Conf. Sat. xii. 56.

291. concisum argentum in titulos, etc. - a mocking description of silver coins. The facies minutas are of course the emperors' heads.

292. solvite funem, weigh anchor.

295. aestivum tonat, 'tis only summer thunder.

297. zonam, the belt in which the purse was kept.

298. modo, but just now.

299. Tagus. Conf. Sat. iii. 55.

Pactolus, a river in Lydia. Conf. Hor. Epod. xv. 20, "tibique Pactolus fluat"; and Herod. v. 101.

302. picta se tempestate tuetur. See note on Sat. xii. 27. 305. hamis, fire-buckets. It was the duty of the seven cohortes vigilum to provide against fires in the city, but rich men naturally took their own precautions. See Tac. Ann. xv.


306. Licinus. For Licinus, see note on Sat. i. 109.

307. electro, amber, probably in the form of drinking vessels. See note on Sat. v. 38.

Phrygiaque columna. Valuable marble was got from Synnada in Phrygia. The Italians now call it "pavonazetto." See also on line 89.

308. testudine. See note on Sat. xi. 94. Beds and couches were inlaid with tortoise-shell.

nudi... Cynici-Diogenes; "nudi" because the Cynics did not wear the tunica. See note on Sat. xiii. 122.

310. "Or even the old one soldered together with lead will hold good."

311. Sensit Alexander, etc.-a reference to the famous story of Alexander's visit to Diogenes in his tub.

313. totum sibi posceret orbem. Conf. Sat. x. 168, "Unus Pellaeo iuveni non sufficit orbis.

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315. Nullum numen habes, etc. The same line occurs in Sat. x. 365.

318. in quantum means no more than quantum which a prose writer would probably have used.

319. Epicure. For Epicurus, see note on Sat. xiii. 123.

320. Socratici . penates. Socrates was conspicuous by his frugal and even austere life. These three clauses form the subject of a sentence of which the predicate would be "is the sufficient measure for an income."

322. Acribus, over-strict.

323. nostris de moribus, the morals of to-day.

324. bis septem ordinibus. The fourteen front rows at the theatre were, by a law of Roscius Otho in 67 B. C., assigned to the members of the ordo equester, i.e. to those whose census amounted to 400,000 sesterces. Conf. notes on Sat. i. 106, iii. 155 and 159; and Hor. Ep. i. 1, 67.

326. duos equites, i.e. the census of two knights; concrete for abstract.

tertia quadringenta, a third 400,000; for fac, conf. Sat. xii. 50.

327. implevi gremium. Conf. Sat. vii. 215, "Quis gremio Enceladi. adfert?"

328. Croesi. See note on Sat. x. 274.

329. divitiae Narcissi. Narcissus was the favourite freedman of Claudius Caesar. His wealth was said to amount to 400,000,000 sesterces. See note on Sat. i. 109, "Pallante" and "Licinis." Narcissus was "ab epistulis," i.e. the imperial secretary. Suetonius, Claud. 28, mentions the saying that Claudius would have had money enough and to spare if he had been taken into partnership by his two freedmen.

330. cuius paruit imperiis. See note on Sat. x. 342. Claudius would probably have spared Messalina's life, even after her marriage with Silius, had not Narcissus taken the matter into his own hands. See Tac. Ann. xi. 37, "ni caedem eius Narcissus properavisset." During the reign of Claudius, 41-54 A.D., freedmen enjoyed more power and influence than at any other time.

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