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Sed libertinus prior est: prior, inquit, ego adsum :
stitution, were two, afterwards came to other parts, even for whole nations ; be ten; they were keepers of the liber- who bore prodigious holes in their ears, ties of the people, against the encroach- and wear vast weights at them. Dryments of the senate. They were called Plin. lib. xi. c. 37. tribunes, because at first set over the The epithet molles may, perhaps, intithree tribes of the people. See Ainsw. mate, that this custom was looked upon Tribunus and Tribus.
at Rome (as among us) as a mark of efJuvenal satirically represents some feminacy. Or the poet, by Hypallage, of the chief magistrates and officers of says, Molles in aure fenestræ, for, fenethe city as bawling out to be first served stræ in molli aure. out of the sportula.
105. Five houses.] Tabernæ here may 102. The libertine.] An enfranchised be understood to mean shops or wareslave. There were inany of these in houses, which were in the forum, or Rome, who were very rich, and very in. market-place, and which, by reason of solent; of one of these we have an ex their situation, were let to merchants ample here.
and traders at a great rent. -Is first, &c.] “ Hold,” says this 106. Procure 400.] In reckoning by upstart, a freedman, rich as I am, is sesterces, the Romans had an art which “before the prætor ; besides, I came may be understood by these three rules : first, and I'll be first served.”
First: If a numeral noun agree in 103. Why should I fear, &c.] i. e. I number, case, and gender, with sestertius, am neither afraid nor ashamed to chal- then it denotes so many sestertii; as delenge the first place. I will not give it cem sestertii. up any body
Secondly : If a numeral noun of an103, 4. Alihough born at the Euphra. other case be joined with the genitive tes.] He owns that he was born of ser- plural of sestertius, it denotes so many vile condition, and came from a part of thousand, as decem sestertiâm signifies the world from whence many were sold 10,000 sestertii. as slaves. The river Euphrates took its Thirdly: If the adverb numeral be rise in Armenia, and ran through the joined, it denotes so many 100,000 : as city of Babylon, which it divided in the decies sestertiûm signifies ten hundred midst.
thousand sestertii. Or if the numeral 104. The soft holes, &c.] The ears of adverb be put by itself, the signification all slaves in the East were bored, as a is the same : decies or vigesies stand for mark of their servitude. They wore so many 100,000 sestertii, or, as they bits of gold by way of ear-rings; which say, so inany hundred sestertia. custom is still in the East Indies, and in The sestertium contained a thousand
But the libertine is first: I the first, says he, am here present.
thou dost not dwell, we have erected no altars of money, As Peace is worshipp'd, and Faith, Victory, Virtue, 115 And Concord, which chatters with a visited nest.
sestertii, and amounted to about 171. 16s. 110. Let riches prevail.] Vincant, 3d. of our money. KENNET, Ant. overcome, defeat all other pretensions. 374, 5.
-Sacred honour.] Meaning the triAfter 400, quadringenta, sestertia bunes, whose office was held so sacred, must be understood, according to the that if any one hurt a tribune, his life third rule above.
was devoted to Jupiter, and his family The freedman brags, that the rents of was to be sold at the temple of Ceres. his houses brought him in 400 sestertia, 111. With white feet.] It was the which was a knight's estate.
custom, when foreign slaves were ex-What does the purple, &c.] The posed to sale, to whiten over their narobes of the nobility and magistrates ked feet with chalk. This was the token were decorated with purple. He means, by which they were known. that, though he cannot deny that he 112. The majesty of riches.] Intimating was born a slave, and came to Rome as their great and universal sway among such, (and if he were to deny it, the men, particularly at Rome, in its corrupt holes in his ears would prove it,) yet state, where every thing was venal, he was now a free citizen of Rome, pos- which made them reverenced, and alsessed of a larger private fortune than most adored. This intimates too the the prætor or the tribune. What can command and dominion which the rich even a patrician wish for more ? Indeed, assumed over others, and the self-import“ when I see a nobleman reduced to ance which they assumed to themselves ;
keep sheep for his livelihood, I cannot a notable instance of which appears in
perceive any great advantage he de- this impudent freedman. “ rives from his nobility; what can it, 113. Baleful money.) i. e. Destructive, “ at best, confer, beyond what I pos- the occasion of many cruel and ruinous “ sess?"
deeds. 107. Corvinus.] One of the noble fa 114. Alturs of money.] i. e. No temple mily of the Corvini, but so reduced, that dedicated, no altars called aræ nummohe was obliged to keep sheep, as an hired rum, as having sacrifices offered on them shepherd, near Laurentum, in his own to riches, as there were to peace, faith, native country. Laurentum is a city of concord, &c. Italy, now called Santo Lorenzo.
116. Which chatters, &c.] Crepito 109. Pallas.] A freedman of Clau- here signifies to chatter like a bird. The dius.
temple of Concord, at Rome, was erected - The Licini.] The name of several by 'Tiberius, at the request of his mother rich men, particularly of a freedman of Livia. About this birds, such as Augustus ; and of Licinius Crassus, who choughs, storks, and the like, used to was surnamed Dives.
build their nests. What the poet says
Sed cum summus honor finito computet anno,
Ipse dies pulchro distinguitur ordine rerum ;
titulos Ægyptius, atque Arabarches ; Cujus ad effigiem non tantum mejere fas est.
alludes to the chattering noise made by were carried in litters) seek in so eager these birds, particularly when the old a manner, as that they crowded the very ones revisited their nests, after having door up, to get at the sportula. been out to seek food for their young. 122. Is led about.] The husband lugs See Ainsw. Salutatus, No. 2.
about his sick or breeding wife in a 117. The highest honour, &c.] i. e. litter, and claims her dole. People of the first rank and dignity. 123. This asks for the absent.] Another
-Can compute, c.], i.e. Can be brings an empty litter, pretending his $0 sunk into the most sordid and meapest wife is in it. avarice, as to be reckoning, at the year's Cunning in a known art.] i.e. He end, what they have gained out of these had often practised this trick with sucdoles which were provided for the poor.
125. It is my Galla.] The supposed 119. The attendunts, &c.] The poor name of his wife. clients and followers, who, by these 126. Put out your head.] i.e. Out of doles, are, or ought to be, supplied with the litter, that I may see you are there, clothes, meat, and fire. What will these says the dispenser of the dole. do, when the means of their support is 126. Don't vex her.] “ Don't disturb thus taken from them by great people? “ her," replies the husband ; don't
- From hence.] i. e. By what they disquiet her, she is not very well, and receive from the dole-basket.
“' is taking a nap.". By these methods A shoe.] Shoes to their feet, as he imposes on the dispenser, and gets a we say.
dole for his absent wife : though, usually, 120. Smoke of the house.] Wood, or none was given but to those who came in other fuel for firing ; or firing, as we say. Person; and in order to this, the greatest The effect, smoke; for the cause, fire. caution was commonly used. See 1. METON.
97, 8. -Crowd of litters.] The word den. The violent hurry which this impostor sissima here denotes a very great num appears to be in (1. 125.) was, no doubt, ber, a thick crowd of people carried in occasioned by his fear of a discovery, if litters.
he stayed too long. 121. An hundred farthings.] The qua Thus doth our poet satirize not only drans was a Roman coin, the fourth part the meanness of the rich in coming to of an as, in value not quite an halfpenny the sportula, but the tricks and shifts of our money. An hundred of these which they made use of to get at the were put into the sportula, or dole- contents of it. basket : and for a share in this paltry 127. The day itself, &c.] The poet sum, did the people of fashion (for such having satirized the mean avarice of the
But when the highest honour can compute, the year being
finished, What the sportula brings in, how much it adds to its accounts, What will the attendants do, to whom from hence is a gown, from hence a shoe,
120 And bread, and smoke of the house? A thick crowd of litters An hundred farthings seek; and the wife follows the husband, And, sick or pregnant, is led about. This asks for the absent, cunning in a known art, Shewing the empty and shut-up sedan instead of the wife. 124 “It is my Galla," says he, "dismiss her quickly: do you delay?" “ Galla, put out your head”_"don't vex her she is asleep." The day itself is distinguished by a beautiful order of things: The sportula, then the forum, and Apollo learned in the
law, And the triumphals: among which, an Egyptian, I know
not who, Has dared to have titles: and an Arabian prefect; 130 At whose image it is not right so much as to make water.
higber sort, now proceeds to ridicule the state. These were placed in great their idle manner of spending time.
numbers in the forum of Augustus, and 128. The sportulu.] See before, 1. 95. in other public parts of the city. The day began with attending on this. -An Egyptian, &c.] Some obscure
- The forum.] The common place low wretch, who for no desert, but only where courts of justice were kept, and on account of his wealth, had his statue matters of judgment pleaded. Hither placed there. they next resorted to entertain them 130. An Arabian prefect.] Arabarches. selves with hearing the causes which So Pompey is called by Cic. Epist. ad were there debated.
Attic. 1. 2. epist. xvii
. because he con- Apollo learned in the law.] Augustus quered a great part of Arabia, and made built and dedicated a temple and library it tributary to Rome. But Juvenal to Apollo, in his palace on mount Pala means here some infamous character, tine; in which were large collections who had probably been prefect, or viceof law-books, as well as the works of allroy, over that country, and had, by rathe famous authors in Rome.
pine and extortion, returned to Rome Hor. lib. i. epist. iii. 1. 16, 17. men with great riches, and thus got a statue tions this;
erected to him, like the Egyptian above Et tangere vitat mentioned, whom some suppose to have Scripta Palatinus quæcunque recepit been in a like occupation in Egypt, and Apollo.
therefore called Ægyptius. Arabarches But I should rather think, that the poet - from Agay or A gablos and agxn. means here the forum which Augustus 131. To make water.] There was a built, where, it is said, there was an very severe law on those who did this ivory statue of Apollo, which Juvenal at or near the images of great men. represents as learned in the law, from This our poet turns into a jest on the the constant pleadings of the lawyers in statues above mentioned. Some are for that place. Here idle people used to giving the line another turn, as if Juvelounge away their time.
nal meant, that it was right, or lawful, 129. The triumphals.] The statues of not only to do this, non tantum mejere, heroes, and kings, and other great men but something worse. But I take the who had triumphed over the enemies of first interpretation to be the sense of
Vestibulis abeunt veteres, lassique clientes,
animal propter convivia natum ?
the author, by which he would intimate, some kind of pot-herbs, and in buying that the statues of such vile people were a little fire-wood, in order to dress them not only erected among those of great for a scanty meal. men, but were actually prevented, like The poet seems to mention this by them, from all marks of indignity. So way of contrast to what follows. Pers. sat. i. 1. ) 13. Sacer est locus, ite 135. Their lord.] i. e. The patron of prophani, extra mejite.
these clients. Rex not only signifies a 132. The old and tired clients.] The king, but any great or rich man : so a clients were retainers, or dependents, on patron. See Juv. sat. v. I. 14. This great men, who became their patrons: from the power aud dominion which he to these the clients paid all reverence, exercised over his clients. Hence, as honour, and observance. The patrons, well as from his protection and care over on their part, afforded them their inte. them, he was called patronus, from the rest, protection, and defence. They also, Greek wargwe, wros, from matng, fain better times, made entertainments, to
ther. which they invited their clients. See -Meanwhile.] i.e. While the poor before, note on I. 95. Here the poor clients are forced to take up with a few clients are represented as wearied out boiled coleworts. with waiting, in long expectation of a -The best things of the woods, &c.] supper, and going away in despair, un The woods are to be ransacked for the der their disappointment. Cliens is de- choicest game, and the sea for the finest rived from Greek xalla, celebro, cele sorts of fish, to satisfy the patron's glutbrem reddo; for it was no small part of tony: these he will devour, without asking their business to flatter and praise their any body to partake with him. patrons.
136. On the empty beds.] The Romans -Vestibules.] The porches, or entries lay along on beds, or couches, at their of great men's houses.
meals. Several of these beds are here Vestibulum ante ipsum, primoque in li- supposed to be round the table which mine. VIRG. Æn. ii. l. 469. were formerly occupied by his friends
and clients, but they are now vacant134. Pot-herbs.] Caulis properly de- not a single guest is invited to occupy notes the stalk or stem of an herb, and, them, or to partake of the entertainment by synecdoche, any kind of pot-berh, with this selfish glutton. especially coleworts, or cabbage. See 137. Dishes.] Which were round, in Ainsw. Caulis, No. 2.
an orbicular shape; hence called orbes. -To be bought.] The hungrywretches -Beautiful.] Of a beautiful pattern go from the patron's door, in order to -ancient-valuable for their antiquity; lay out the poor pittance which they made, probably, by some artists of old may have received from the sportula in time.