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reproductions of miniatures from the Ambrosian and other manuscripts of Terence (Leyden, 1903). Other minor sources specified are Pompeian wall paintings, Campanian reliefs, statuettes and Roman terra cottas, Donatus, Euanthius, Pollux, and "scattered references mainly from Roman literature." Though the term costume has been used broadly to designate "not only the actual dress of the actors, but also such other properties as have a particularly close connection with the characters under discussion," so pertinent a topic as the use of masks has, by reason of its compass, been omitted. The chapters presented deal with Sources, Terminology, Prologus, Stock-Rôles, and Unusual Rôles. Critical consideration is given to the theories of the origin of the miniatures and the period represented by them, and, while "the value of the archetype or the faithfulness of the descendants to that archetype" is questioned (p. 12), a very just refusal is accorded the extreme view of Englehardt, that a mere illustrator of the text devised the series.

However a more positive faith, at least in the value of the archetype, seems necessary to justify the sober use made of the pictures, and more effort to discover, perhaps by a comparative method, the testimony of this archetype would have been both welcome and consistent. Without full use of C and P, which are still inaccessible, though Father Ehrle of the Vatican has promised a publication of the former, it seems that critical work upon the miniatures must lack finality and real effectiveness. In the discussion of the Prologus, the writer after distinguishing the Roman and Greek types is concerned chiefly with Fabia's theory of the probable costume of the Terentian prologue-speaker. The adverse criticism of his supposition, that Prologi carried as insignia fillet-wound branches (p. 36), gains much sympathy.

The examination, however, of his other main contention, that the ornatus prologi of Hec. Prol. ii was the ornatus of the adulescens as a stockrôle, seems a sophistical effort to exalt the credibility of the miniatures at the expense of the literary evidence. From the variety of prologue types shown in the former it is assumed that "absolute identity and uniformity of make-up for the Roman Prologus may easily have been a matter of indifference" (p. 38).

Other chapters present at greater length the evidence from Plautus and Terence and the miniatures for the costuming of specific rôles. The miniatures themselves are obviously responsible for the method employed, by which their testimony is subjoined rather than correlated. The list of citations, unfortunately without index, is seemingly exhaustive within the limits determined for the title and supplies in convenient and reliable form an interesting collection of scenic matter. A few errors in type I have recorded elsewhere in an earlier notice of the monograph (Class. Weekly, III, No. 21).

Dr. Saunders has studied the miniatures with great care and ingenious insight into their crudities and, though the result emphasizes most perhaps

their many inconsistencies and consequent negative value for the purpose in hand, her scholarly analysis of their characteristics is an essential contribution to the perplexing problem of their status.



Zum Alexandrinischen Antisemitismus. Von ULRICH WILCKEN. (Des XXVII. Bandes der Abhandlungen der philologischhistorischen Klasse der Königlichen-Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, No. XXIII.) Leipzig: Bei B. G. Teubner, 1909. Pp. 59. M. 2.40.

Wilcken has collected and discussed a number of documents relating to anti-Jewish feeling and demonstrations in the first and second centuries. An interesting series of texts is included, reporting trials and convictions of Alexandrians (Isidorus, Lampo, Appianus) before various emperors. These are interpreted by Wilcken as relating to Alexandrian Jewish-Hellenic controversies which being carried to Rome resulted disastrously for the antiSemitic party. Wilcken holds, as formerly, that these so-called Acts of Martyrdom represent a novel type of Alexandrian literature, based upon official sources, but worked up for partisan purposes. The whole makes a very significant group of texts, and Wilcken's interpretation of them is striking and suggestive, if not in all points convincing.



Corpus Medicorum Graecorum auspiciis Academiarum associatarum ediderunt Academiae Berolinensis Hauniensis Lipsiensis. X, 1.1: Philumeni De Venenatis Animalibus eorumque Remediis e codice Vaticano primum edidit MAXIMILIANUS WELLMANN. Lipsiae et Berolini: In aedibus B. G. Teubneri, MCMVIII. The editor of this recently discovered text is the author of Die pneumatische Schule bis auf Archigenes in ihrer Entwickelung dargestellt (Berlin, 1895) and of many articles on the Greek physicians published in Hermes and in the journals of the learned societies. He is eminently fitted to write with authority upon his subject, Greek medicine, and in the present instance has performed his duties as editor in praiseworthy fashion.

As he says in his preface, Wellmann chanced upon the treatise De venenatis animalibus in the spring of 1907 in Cod. gr. 284 (s. XI) of the Vatican library. The contents of this manuscript, which seems to have

been designed as a convenient collection of authorities on medicaments, includes, first, books vi-xi of Galen's repì κpáσews kaì dvváμews tŵv áñλŵv φαρμάκων, so interpolated from the περὶ ὕλης ἰατρικῆς of Dioscurides as to fill out the subjects not treated by Galen; second, the pseudo-Dioscuridean πepì dnλntηpíwv papμákov; third, on foll. 264v-288v, the present treatise; the last two leaves are filled with miscellaneous excerpts. The manuscript was copied by an uneducated scribe.

Wellmann has supplemented the short discussion in the preface of his edition by an article in Hermes ("Philumenus," Hermes xliii. 374 ff.), in which he has more carefully traced the relations between Philumenus and later writers. Aside from the fact that hitherto Philumenus was known to us only as he was cited, the great value of the present discovery lies in the care that he generally takes to name the authorities from whom he draws, for Philumenus was a compiler rather than an originator. Chief of these is Archigenes, who Wellmann thinks was used even more than the actual citations show, and whose method of presenting the subject Philumenus follows. Other sources are Apollonius, Herophileus, Theodorus, Soranus, and Strato. Galen is not cited, and it is therefore conjectured that Philumenus was his contemporary and is to be dated about 180 A.D. Later writers, namely Aëtius Amidenus (sixth century) in his lib. xxiii. 1-44, Paulus Aegineta (seventh century) in his Compendium de Re Medica v. 1-26, and the pseudo-Dioscurides (seventh century) in the Tepì ioẞóλwv, depend largely upon Philumenus, but in his Hermes article Wellmann adopts the view that all these citations come through the medium of the Evvaywyai ἰατρικαὶ πρὸς Ἰουλιανόν of Oribasius, a considerable portion of which has been lost. Wellmann has been able, in editing the text, to use the portions of these later writers which are clearly dependent upon Philumenus. Inasmuch as the accounts in Aëtius, Paulus, and pseudo-Dioscurides are frequently fuller than those in Philumenus himself, it may be inferred that the latter has been purposely condensed for use in the compilation.

The treatise itself deals with the bites of venomous animals. The author generally presents a short description of each creature, follows this with an account of the symptoms attendant upon the wound which it inflicts, and finally enumerates the antidotes, often naming the physician from whose writings they are taken. The first five sections are occupied with the discussion of wounds inflicted by mad dogs, after which he treats of the various kinds of serpents, the wasp, bee, and spider, lizards, and other poisonous creatures. Indices of words and of writers will increase the value of the text for the ordinary classicist, while for the specialist in this field its interest will be extreme. I have noted the following misprints: p. 18. 20, γύρον for γύρον; p. 37. 21, δηχθέντες for δηχθέντες.



Νέαι Ερμενεῖαι Αναγλύφων. By ΙΩΑΝΝΗΣ Ν. ΣΒΟΡΩΝΟΣ. Athens: Ἡ ἐν ̓Αθήναις Ἑλληνικὴ Ἐκδοτική Εταιρεία, 1910.

Some years ago Professor Svoronos, one of the most brilliant of archaeologists, conceived the magnificent plan of publishing, with photographic reproductions, full explanatory and critical text, and complete bibliography, every piece of work of Hellenic antiquity preserved in the National Museum in Athens. This monumental work, in quarto form beautifully executed, is to appear in Greek and German at the same time, bearing the titles Τὸ ἐν ̓Αθήναις Εθνικὸν Μουσεῖον, respective, Das Athener National Museum. Sixteen fascicules have already appeared, each containing at least twentyfour pages of text and ten photographic plates. Under the title given above the publishers have sent out selections from the numbers already published. They comprise illuminating discussions, in the author's brilliant style, of half a dozen votive reliefs and, as pièce de resistance, an account of his remarkable discoveries at Colonus Hill. Following an old clue given by Professor Kastriotes he found under a cottage on the southeast slope of the hill the opening of a deep chasm which he identified as the entrance to the subterranean dwelling of the August Ones. When in Athens last summer, I had the good fortune to be directed to this same house; Mme. Loukisa very kindly opened her home to me and permitted me to explore her cellar ad libitum. I found there a great hole, which might be the entrance to a deeper chasm. But I failed, through my own inability to see, perhaps, to discover that deeper "chasm into which one can make one's way for a distance of many meters without finding the end." We shall hope to see soon the excavations completed that Svoronos proposes to institute, that the shrine of the August Goddesses may become a place of pilgrimage for all who love the poet of Colonus Hill. The simple fifth- and fourth-century reliefs, with their representations of Heracles at the Gate of Hades, that led to this full discussion of Colonus and the Academy and their heroes and shrines will have a new and larger influence from henceforth.



Κρίσις τῆς Πλατωνικῆς Ἐκδόσεως τῆς ὑπὸ ΣΠ. Μωραΐτου. By ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΣ Κ. ΓΑΡΔΙΚΑΣ. Athens: Sakellarios, 1908. Pp. 72.

One of the striking features of the Hellenic spirit of today is the ambition of the Greek who has made a fortune at home or abroad to make that fortune a blessing to his people. An 'Aßepóp builds a stadium; a Zayypîs builds schools in every quarter of his kingdom; a Baλavós erects a library, a Συγγρός a museum. In like generosity of spirit the Zographos Library was founded by the man whose name it bears for the publication of classical

Greek texts. In this Zographos Series not long since appeared the first volume of Plato: Introduction, Apology, Crito, and Gorgias, by Sp. Moraïtes. This new Plato has met with a warm reception at the hands of M. Gardikas, a classical docent in the University of Athens, who assails it at a thousand vulnerable. points. Moraïtes' modern Greek, both in point of style and syntax and orthography, he finds faulty to a degree unpardonable in a philologist. And as an interpreter of Plato the editor fails utterly to satisfy his critic; he understands neither Plato's words nor his grammar nor his ideas. Moraïtes' textual criticism fares no better at his critic's hands. Gardikas even accuses him of misappropriation of the work of other editors and interpreters of Plato. Gardikas closes his monograph with some wholesome advice to the older scholar for the improvement of the later volumes upon the first.

The critique appears a little too polemical and severe. But the criticisms are not general, but backed up with copious examples and citations by page and line. There are many points of criticism that the reviewer would like to take up in detail; but this is not our fight.



Culti e Miti nella Storia dell'Antica Sicilia. By EMMANUELE CIACERI. Catania: Battiato, 1911. Pp. x+324.

In this work we have gathered together in finished form, but with much additional material, the results of many separate studies by Ciaceri upon Sicilian cults and myths. The evidence from literature, from epigraphy, from archaeology, and especially from numismatics has been carefully collected and studied. Valuable too is the study of the survivals of antique ritual and beliefs in certain contemporary Sicilian festivals of the Catholic saints; such for example as the festa of Saint Agata, a clear survival of the Isidis Navigium, still celebrated at Catania on March 5.

The work falls into five chapters: i, "Culti indigeni ellenizati"; ii, “Miti e culti di carattere apparentemente orientale"; iii, "Le grandi divinità greco-romane"; iv, "Le divinità minori"; v, "Eroi e personaggi mitici"; and an index. To the reviewer these chapters appear of somewhat uneven merit. The treatment of the indigenous cults is sane and conservative. Only the cults of 'Αδρανός, the παλικοί, Δάφνις, πεδιοκράτης, and Ἔρυξ (sic) are demonstrably indigenous. Chap. ii, a good piece of destructive criticism, reduces the Phoenician element in the religion of the Sicilians to a minimum. It should serve as a corrective to the overemphasis on this element by Holm and Freeman. Especially convincing is the treatment of the Heracles myth, which Ciaceri rightly believes represents a Boeotian-Argive influence. In the chapter on the Greco-Roman divinities the author rightly lays stress on the position of Rhodes as the original seat for Sicilian cults

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