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dated brother Edward with fine and country rams, on the occasion probably short-woolled sheep, the latter royal of improving in the quality of the food in shepherd might have obliged the former their district. So they have at length with a specimen of the produce of his returned to Mark hain's large boney country—the long and coarse-woolled. breed, with a deep-stapled, or long. It was a very lair and obvious compli- wnolied, fleece. As the learned Francis ment. In the coinage, I think, of the Moore said, omnium rerum vicissitudo ; late lord Sandwich, there was recipro- which will be farther exemplified as suon city in the thing. I should not indeed as the abovesaid shepherds shall come wonder, if the staple adverted to by to the right or left about again, by the Stowe, at Bruges, was of the course adoption of the old new-fashioned woolled kind; and that the Spaniards were Spanish cross. emulous of excelling in wat fabric like- I have taken the pains to write, or wise, since they have ever had long rather repeat, thus much, in order to and coarse as well as fine and short- check a report which seemed growing woolled sheep, the former most probably undeservedly into public favour, carrying the indigenous sheep of their country'; a bit of prejudice with it. For, under and that it might, at that period, be de- favour be it spoken, we have perhaps sirable to improve their breed by an enough already of those happy national English cross. And this notion of mine, prejudices, which have so generally pro(23 such merely I give it,) is in some sort cured us the admiration and the love of confirmed by my old friend Gervase all other nations; and it may not be Markharn, who flourished in the reign of politic lu surseit them with good things. Elizabeth; and who represents the Cot. And yet atter all, and notwithstanding teswolde-hill sheep, in contradistinction my 'immense and bumble respect for to those of Ilerefordshire, bearing the those sages of the ancient, and more Lempster ore, or five teece, as of better especially of the modern school, who bone, shape, and burden, than the others, profess to find so inuch benefit to the but wiik wool of a staple coarser and moral world from the sly retention and deeper.

clerislunent of prejudices, I am 100 As to Mr. Rankin's enquiry respecting blind, or my brains are of too coarsethe Corleswold breed, nothing is more

woolled a texture, to perceive this mighty easy than to satisfy it: but he must pre- benefit, or any benefit whatever. Econviously be apprised, that we farmers and trurio, I opme, and must continue to stock-breeders change our breeds of care opine, until the happy moment of contle, sheef', and pics, from great to small, viction cometh, that false prejudices in froin small to great, from fine to coarse- the moral, as well as weeds in the agriwoolled, from shwrt to long-horned, from cultural world, ought to suffer a total and long and lop-eared to prick-eared and sweeping, if necessarily a gradual, erapug, and so on, in circles; not quite so dication. And as a certain honest old often indced, but much upon the sanie whig said of yore, le would not leave a principle on which the cut of a coat, or tory dog, or a tory cat, to pur and mew the cock of a hat, is changed in Bond- about the king; neither would I, who am street. Thus old Gervase above quoted, neither whig nor tory, leave a single and I think his cutemporary, Barnabé erroneous prejudice, to humbug and Goge (who, by the bye, also wrote very mislead besotted man. My creed, reharinonious English verses, and perfectly ligious and moral, will admit of but one correct as to measure), both found the prejudice~in favour of truth, and no matCotteswold-bill sheep a large and coarse- ter how strong that be. As to what and woolled breed. Thenceforth, but my where truth is--seek and ye shall tind. reading does not extend to the precise

In conclusion, with a suitable gravity, date, the Cotieswold farmers made a I say to those who venture into the prochop, generally adopting fine-woolled found and erudite subjects above agitated, sleep: and such they have been within "Drink deep, or taste not, the bucolic spring." my memory, a breed siinilar to the Rye $0907's Town, JOHN LAWRENCE. lands of Herefordshire; always, and at

Murch 18, present, the finest native breed of Eny- P.S. I wish to add a few words on the land, and best adapted to the Spanish Fiorin Grass. Mr. Farey says correctly, that Sosne thirty or forty years since, and iung gruss of Wiltshire, to be the same

the late Mr. Davis supposed the Orcheston the Gloucester breeders male another species as the fourin; the correctness ar waich chnp, tupping their fine-woolled ewes opinion appears to me a subject of doubt. ! wild large and long. woulled midland have not for mully ycurs seen either of these



Memoirs of the Life and IVritings of M. Bitaubé. [April 1

grasses, and that which I have to say upon of cultivation; and I understood him to speak them is from the report of others I se srcely from experiment. The face of Guinea and think the the Orcheston grass would grow other sta ses, formerly recommended with so on any diy or area upin] $1.uation, which much zesi. is well known. In truth, there are we are assored on the fiorin. Upwards of hardy ana buiky grasses enough to be found, eight tons of nay from an English acre of land, wer they, ou compurison with those we have is doubtless a vast produce, in respect of hulk of real use, worthy of cultivation. We have and weight; but if the quality be hard, pipy, even had the culture of thistles recool. and innutritious, the eight tons in quan'ity mended of late years, hy a learned doctor. may, in consumption, dwindle to less than a I desire only to guard the public, by no means single ton in quality. Certainly however, to check the experimental culture of the watered land would have the favourable effect fiorin grass; one good and nutritious crop of of softening a too harsh grass. I profess to which will, as it ought, ovirturn these my have no experience in this article ; but a speculations : and in cases like this, I shall friend of mine lately assured me, that from ever feel happy to find myself in an error, its coarseness, the fiorin grass is unworthy




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MEMOIRS of the Life and WRITINGS of inclination for that particular branch of the late M. BITAUBE.

study to which he afterward attached

himself. AUL Jeremiah Bitaubé was born An assiduous perusal of the bible,

at Konigsberg, on the 24th of No- which in all protestant countries forms veinber 1732, of one of those families of one of the principal foundations of pulFrench refugees whom the revocation pit-eloquence, gave M. Biraubé an of the edict of Nantes had dispersed over early familiarity with the simple and different parts of Europe, and who had sublime images of that priinitive state of particularly enriched the protestant mankind, of which the sacred writings countries of Germany. Prussia was one offer so many and such inimitable moof the earliest in receiving, and afford. dels. In recurring to this source for the ing a settlement to some of these wane elements of religious knowledge, he had dering colonies, who every where repaid been struck with admiration at the their reception by introducing with them accents of that poetry which, by sounds a spirit of industry, the cultivation of the more noble and affecting than those of arts and sciences, morality, and good any profane lyre, announce a divine examples. Accordingly she was origin; and bespeak a master “ whose long in reaping the harvest of her bene- brows,” to use the expressions of Tasso, volent biosiality: for though, previously " instead of the perishable laurels of to that pemad, less acivaniced than most Hercon, are crowners with unfading other states in the progress of civilin stars anidst the celestial choirs.” sation, she too afterwards enjoyed an After having enjoyed the advantage of enlightened age; and under Frederic the forming a taste in inis elevated school of Great, who

gave his name to this age, poetry, the mind is naturally disposed to the north of Europe was illumined by feel the powerful charms of the works of one of those bright sunshines of genius Homer, and the other early productions which only break forth upon nations at of Greece. The inanners of the patridistant intervals : nor can it be denied archal, instruct us in those of the heroic that the excitement and emulation prudu. ages. These great pictures, in which ced by the new-settlers hastened its dawn, man is shewn in a state of bold and maand increased its meridian splendour. jestic simplicity, undisfigured by the

As the refugees did not enjoy the artificial gloss of a late stage of civilisarights of citizenship in Prussia, M. Bi- tion, shew most forcibly in how high a taubé, when he had finished his course of degree the times celebrated by the austudies, and was of an age to choose a thor of the Iliad and the Odyssey were profession, had only an option between favourable to poetical imitation. irade (which his father pursued), medi- All that is known concerning the cire, and the church. As he had early early years of M. Bitaubé, is drawn from imbined a taste for literature, he made some of his works composed at a more choice of the last; and perhaps it was advanced age, among which be occasi. ibis decision that also determined his onally indulges in recollections of liis


their own.

youthful days. He appears from these productions in eloquence and poetry, to have been led in this manner from the was also that of the most profound and study of the bible to that of Hoiner, most luminous erudition. It was by the and the other classical authors of Greece; side of the greatest orators and poets, whose language he had learnt, and whose that those able critics were formed, ivhose treasures have never been despised by names and writings will command the the writers of any sect of christians. respect of the reinotest posterity. But he was soon so captivated by the These orators and poets, who themselves charms of Grecian learning, that he spoke a rich and harmonious language, resolved to attach himself entirely to it; were also well versed in Greek, and famiand by degrees, from a divine, he be liar with the master-pieces which have came merely a man of letters. Though reached us in that congue. Racing and a Prussian by birth, he was a French- Boileau, Bossuet and Fenelon, as well man not only by descent, but also by as most other men of real learning, read affection, and the habitual use of a lan- Homer and Demosthenes in the original, guage which Frederic, and all men of as commonly as Cicero and Virgil are education in his kingdom, preferred to now read in Latin; so that it may be

It cost him therefore no said, that if the French nation had ihen trouble, on devoting himself to litera. but few good translators by profession, tare, to write constantly in the language. this was because there was but little want of his ancestors.

of translations. But since a less strict In entering on this new career, his system of education has been introduced. views were directed toward the country with regard to the ancient languages, of his origin; to become wholly a French- there has arisen of course a necessity for man, was his highest ambition; and to versions from those languages, to render be able to settle at Paris, was the ob- their treasures generally accessible. ject of all his efforts and his wishes, Before this period however, and so But he felt that the best means of be- early as the seventeenth century, a coming naturalised in a country where French woman celebrated for her eruhe had ceased to have any relations, and dition, and her enthusiasm for Grecian had not yet acquired any friends, would literature, had attempted to display the be, to get adopted into the great family prince of poets to admiration in lier lanof men of letters, loy producing some guage, and to avenge bim of the insults work that should deserve such adoption. of some modern wils who were incapa-,

There is more than one honourable ble of reading him in his own. In order rank in the empire of Learning: an aspia to appreciate the merits of Homer ring to the highest, i, sometimes less a justly, it is not sufficient merely to unmark of genius than of presumption; derstand the tongue in which he wrotes and a writer may often serve both his it is necessary to be familiar wiih the own interests, and those of literature, state of manners which that great poet, more ellectually in some of the lower so faithfully delineates; and this delinea. stacions, which ailord sufficient scope for tion is perhaps the most difficult part of a noble exercise of the faculties of the his poems to transfuse into our modern anind in labours of utility. Among languages with the dignity which acthese labours, M. Bitaubé chose that companies it in the original. of translation; which had the greater The detractors of Homer, thinking recommendations at that time (about the that the progress of letters and the arts middle of the eighteenth century), as ought to keep pace in all respects with French literature was then in possession that of civilisation, and judging the age of few translations worthy of being of Homer to be less polished than their

Very soon afterward indeed, own, inferred that his poems should productions of this description became yield to those of a more refined period. so numerous, that whoever should under- They erroneously drew conclusions from take to sketch the literary portrait of the state of the sciences which depend that century, would not fail to mark this upon observation, to that of the imitative peculiarity as one of its distinguishing arts; and persuaded themselves, that as characteristics; and to add to epi. those sciences had made great advances chets which it has already obcained, of anong the moderns, poetry and the arts Age of Philosophy, of Illumination, and of genius must have improved in the of Prose, that of Age of Translations. same proportion.

The preceding century, which had To ihese attacks from the enemies of been the age of genius, and of great Homer, and particularly from those who


called so.


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ing her.

233 Memoirs of the Life and Writings of M. Bilaubé. [April 1,
could know nothing of him but through composition all the lustre which it ought
the medium of the Latin version, and to display. These objects the success
therefore were the most violent against of his work left him no doubt of having,
bum, madame Dacier opposed her French at least in a great nicasure, attained.
translation of that great poet. But it Long before the appearance of his
may be doubted whether this forined a translation of the Iliad in the state
shield as impenetrable as that of Achil. in which we now have it, M. Bitaubé
les: and whether this learned lady bas had published in Prussia French
fully succeedesi in uniting nobleness with abridgment of that poem, which was
simplicity, elegance with artlessners, and very favourably received. By means of
strength and conciseness with subli- that publication, and the kindness of
mity; whether she has given eren a d'Alembert, whose friendship he had
faint idea of the pomp and magnificence acquired in a journey to France, and
& Homer's poetry; and has conquered who recommended him strongly to Fre-
all the difficulties of every kind which deric, he obtained adınission as a mem-
the text presented, and which it was her .ber of the academy of Berlin; and soon
duty not to avoid. In granting that she afterware had leave to make a second
Exas surmounted many of these, and thus tour to France, and remain there long
facilitated the task of future translators, enough to complete and perfect his
it may still be asserted that she had not translation in the centre of enlightened
precluded them from all hope of surpass-

After residing at Paris some

years, which he spent in assiduous It was in doing ample justice to the labour, he published in 1780 his whole labours of this illustrious woman, that Iliad; and then undertook the translation M. Bitaubé undertook to bear away the of the Odyssey, which experienced a suc palm from her. He thought the quali- cess equally flattering on its publication ises necessary in a French translation of in 1785. Homer, though in some degree incompa. These two works, which he accompa. tible with each other, might still be nied with notes and retlections equaliy jnore happily blended togeclier; and judicious and learned, gave such bonourkoped that, without acting as a servile able testimony of his rank in literature, copyist, or making use of paraphrases that on the death of the reigning land. or unfaithful substitutions, he should be grave of liesse Cassel in 1786, he was able to reconcile his adopted language chosen to succeed that prince as in the details which seement often un- foreign associate of the academy of suitable to it; and mould the stately belles-lettres. This new title, which inarch and bold forms of the language gave him the privilege of assisting at and poetry of Greece, on the reserve ihe meetings of the academy, having and circumspection of the French still further increased his attachinent to tongue.

France, be resolved to settle permaThe principles and objects which the bently in that country of his ancestors, new translator of Homer imposed on and which he had himself enriched by inanself, were these: that the thoughts bis labours. and images of the poet

should preserve

About the time of the appearance of their trutlı, and soine tint of their colour, M. Bitaubé's Homer, a dispute had in the translation, without doing violence arisen among men of letters in France, to the proprieties of their modern dress; concerning the manner in which the shat the heroic personages should not poets ought to be translated. One party Jose the character of their oren times, maintained that this could not be done but yet be presented in such a manner properly except in verse.

The new as not to offend the delicacy of ours; translator of Homer was too much in. that the picturesque details which one a terested in this discussion, to remain part of their charnı to that of the rhythm, silent on it: be declared his sentiments, should still possess this feature by ineans as might be expected, in favour of prose ofan harmonious and skilludly varied prose;" translations. Being thus of opionun and that the first and fundamental law that the marvellous and the tictions of the epopce, the union of the marvels which characterise epic composition, dous with historic action, should not lose may be supported without the illusion of its power of illusion and its poetic 'that poetic style which exerts its least prenature, an losing the aid of that magic rogative in removing them from the tria language which alone can blend them in bunal of cool reason, M. Bitaubé natu. pestection, and give to this bigh class of · rally becaine an advocate for original 1



poerns in prose;" and it cannot be denied revolution of the L'nited Provinces in that the epopee, even when thus de 1787; but it was under the auspices of prived of a part of its charms, inay still the French revolution that the poem was preserre safficient means to interest and matured, received its last form, and applease. His " Poem of Joseph" would peared in 1796. The sanguinary catasalone prove this.

trophes of : hich France bad beconie the The sutject of that work tras particu- scene, could not deter him from conlarly suited to a man who, like M. secratirg this monument to the divinity Bitaubé, had been captivated in his to which he had himselt heen in danger youth by the simplicity of the patriarchal of railing a sacrifice; for the celebrater manners; who scemed to have modelled of Liberty was not safe from the fury of his own life on them;, and who therefore, those who she had enancipaied. in delineating them, had no need to They had made him expiate lns confifecur to foreign sources. There is no dence in that respect, as well as the history more affecting than that of Joe offence of not baring applauded and seph; and the fine and pathetic manner joined in their excesses, within the walls in which it is related in the sacred wri- of a prison. Some alleviation indeed tings, surpasses every other style of nar. was given to his sufferings: for though rative: this is not the result of art; but the cruel caprice of his persecutors at it is far above all art. It was a bold first separated him from the faithful attempt, to enter on ground already so partner of his affections, the wife who occupied : this sublime picture of sim. had partaken bis fortunes from his youth, plicity might be disfigured by efforts to who bere constituted all his fainily, and erpbellish it, or lose a part of its elect who had been arrested along with bin; by being loaded with acce-sory circum- yet a subsequent capricè alloned this stances. T'lie story itself too, compri- interesting couple to inhabit the same sing only a small number of events, and prison, and thus assist each other to suisbeing confined to the narrow circle of a tain their affliction. This unexpected single family, seeined rasher adapted to indulgence filled them both with such furnish materials merely for a dramatic joy, as, in the first transports, alınost piece, than for a poem in nine cantos. inade them forget their captivity. The reception however which the work When the gorernment of ccrror, under of M. Bitaubé has met withi, not only which France had groaned, found a among his own countrymen but also termination in the fury of those who had foreigners, and the numerous editines established it, M. Bitaube left the dane through which it has passed, prove that geons of tyranny, together with all the the author has overcome or avoided ali

victims whom the tyrants had not bad these obstacles.

time to sacrifice. His lovy confinemeng The success of this poem inspired him however had thrown his domestic with a desire of making a bulder trial, by affairs into embarrassment. The mode. Composing a genuine epic, on a sutject rate ease which he enjoyed in his ciralmost wholly of his own inrention, cumstances at Paris, depended almost which would admit of liis employing wholly on the assistance that he received allegory, the marvellous, and fictions of from Prussia: but his pension had nosv every kind that he should think proper been suppressed; and though he bad for giving action and life to his poem. somne property at Berlin, ali communica. With this view, he undertook to cele. tion with foreign countries was stopped, brate Liberty, in the persons of William He had long owed liis support enticiy of Nassau, and the heroes who, in the to the kindness of his friends; and his sixteenth century, cifccted the independe gratiiure now sighed for an opportunity of ance of Holland.

discharging this debt. Brighter days soon M. Bitaubé, as lie informs us himself, shone upon France, aurt seemed to prohad begun this latter work long before lié mise her a cahner fluturity: peace as published it in France. Some detached couchuded with Prussa; M. Birauhé's passages of it had been translated into pension was restorert, and its accupije Durch, and printed at the time of the lated arreaus were pail; and in a single

day he not only reiintomsed his friente, If any reader should be at

but had the additional happiness of re19 reconcile these terms, he may be dering to some of them the same service teminded of Telemachus, and the Death of ås le bad received at their hands. Abel, both of which are examples of poems

About this tine also, the literary focistics which the resolucion had abola


a loss

in prose.


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