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ing, his image would be broken and his family thereby disgraced. See note on line 2, and conf. the case of Seianus described in Sat. x. 58 seq.

Conf. Tac. Ann. iii. 14. 19. veteres . cerae . .. atria. See notes on lines 1 and 2. Friedländer illustrates, by Tac. Ann. iii. 23, how the sentiments here expressed by Juvenal were opposed to popular ideas. Aemilia Lepida, a woman notorious for her crimes, when prosecuted, won the sympathy of all because she was a member of the Aemilian gens and a descendant of Sulla and Pompeius.

21. Paulus, Cossus, Drusus; names belonging to some of the most illustrious gentes at Rome. Drusus was a stepson of Augustus, brother of Tiberius, and father of Germanicus. On Cossus, see Sat. iii. 184.

22. hos, i.e. mores; so also illi in the next line. Pliny (Ep. v. 17) is anxious“. ne nobiles nostri nihil in domibus suis pulchrum nisi imagines habeant.”

24. mihi debes, you owe to me, i.e. you must show me.

25. iustitiaeque tenax. Conf. Hor. Od. iii. 3, "propositi tenacem."

26. agnosco procerem, “I recognise your nobility;" For the question put as the protasis, conf. Sat. iii. 100, “Rides, maiore cachinno concutitur.

Gaetulice, referring to the Cossus mentioned above. Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Cossus under Augustus gained this name (consul, 1 B.C.)

27. Silanus belonged to the Iunia gens. See Tac. Ann. iii. 24.

29, populus quod clamat, Osiri invento. Apis or Osiris, worshipped under the form of a bull, was killed by Tryphon. Isis, his sister, with her attendants and the dog-headed Anubis, sought for him with tears and lamentations till they found the body, when they exclaimed : ευρήκαμεν, συγχαίρομεν. The representation of this was kept up as part of the Egyptian worship annually. Conf. Tibull

. vii. 28, “atque suum pubes miratur Osirim barbara Memphiten plangere docta bovem.”

30. generosum · Eůyevńs; and so, contrasted with indignus genere, est must be supplied after qui.

32. Nanum, a dwarf. It was not an uncommon thing under the Empire for dwarfs, pumiliones, to be kept by the rich. “Atlas " was a usual nickname for them. Conf. Mart. vi. 77, “Non aliter monstratur Atlas cum compare ginno.” Vergil describes Atlas (Aen. iv. 246) as “maximus.'

36. si quid adhuc est, whatever else there is.
38. sic, i.e. as the dwarf is called Atlas : ironically.

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Creticus, one of the Metelli, gained the agnomen of Creticus on account of his conquest of Crete in B.C. 66.

Camerinus. See note on Sat. vii. 90.

39. Rubelli Blande. This is the grandson of the Rubellius Blandus who married Iulia the granddaughter of Tiberius (Tac. Ann. vi. 27), and son of Rubellius Plautus, mentioned by Tacitus, Ann. xiv. 22, "omnium ore Rubellius Plautus celebratur, cui nobilitas per matrem ex Iulia familia.” He was perhaps vain and boastful of his illustrious race; at any rate, he is taken as an example of a titled nonentity.

40. Drusorum stemmate. The brother and son of Tiberius were both named Drusus. On stemmate, see line 1.

42. ut te conciperet. ut must go closely with feceris aliquid to deserve that.”

quae sanguine fulget Iuli. Iulia was really the grandmother, not the mother, of this Rubellius Blandus, so that conciperet = "should be your ancestress. It seems unnecessary to suppose with Weidner that a brother of Rubellius Plautus is meant, who could not have been a contemporary of Juvenal.

43. ventoso . . . sub aggere. The agger of Servius Tullius, on which see note to Sat. v. 153. Juvenal says, in Sat. vi. 588, “Plebeium in Circo positum est et in aggere fatum.”

conducta ... texit, weaves for hire.

46. Cecropides. Cecrops was the first king of Athens. It is here used simply for an example of ancient birth. Conf. “Troiugenas,” Sat. i. 100. Vivas, long may you live.

47. Quiritem. Vergil, Aen. vii. 710, uses the word Quirites of inhabitants of Cures, a Sabine town which was incorporated with Rome. It was applied to the Roman citizens in their civil as opposed to their military capacity. The probable derivation is from quiris, a Sabine word for a spear.

49. nobilis indocti. Conf. “dives avarus,” vii. 30; “veteres caecos,” vii. 170 ; “dubii aegri,” xiii. 124.

de plebe togata. The toga was a distinguishing mark not only of the clients (see note on Sat. i. 96) and of the advocate class, but also of civilians as opposed to the military. So Martial, ii. 90, calls Quintilian “Romanae gloria togae. Tacitus also says, Ann. xi. 7, that the plebs gained their distinction by the toga—"Cogitaret plebem quae toga enitesceret.” See also line 240.

51. petit Euphraten, to serve against the Parthians.

domitique Batavi. The Batavians, a German tribe who had lately rebelled under Civilis, and had been subdued by Vespasian.


52. custodes aquilas, i.e. the legions of Lower Germany.

53. truncoque simillimus Hermae, like a mere bust, without hands or feet. At Athens statues of Hermes were frequently placed over the doors of private houses and in public places. The sudden and mysterious mutilation of all these Hermae just before the Sicilian Expedition threw the whole city into excitement.

58. facili cui “who with easily-won palm enjoys the excitement of many a victory,” etc.

59. rauco. circo. Conf. Sat. xi. 197, “Totam hodie Romam circus capit et fragor aurem percutit,” and ix. 144, “clamosus circus.

61. primus in aequore pulvis, “whose cloud of dust is first in the course.

In spite of the water thrown down between the races, the Circus was one huge cloud of dust. Conf. Hor. Od. i. 1, “Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum collegisse iuvat.”

62. venale pecus, a mere herd, fit for the market.

Coryphaei. The reading of P. is Coryte ; Coryphaei is proved to be the right reading by S. Coryphaeus is the name of a famous horse. '63. Hirpini. Another horse mentioned by Mart. iii. 63,

Hirpini veteres qui bene novit avos.” The various factions were very careful about preserving the genealogies of their horses, but, as the next line shows, birth was nothing if unaccompanied by merit.

65. dominos ... mutare, i.e. to be sold.

66. epiredia. Probably some kind of car, or possibly, as the Scholiast explains it, “harness.” Quintilian says of the word, i. 5, “Nam cum sit praepositio éti Graeca, reda Gallicum, Romani suum ex alieno utroque fecerunt.”

67. nepotes, their descendants.

69. titulis, the inscriptions underneath the statues placed in the atrium ; see Sat. i. 130.

71. iuvenem. Rubellius Blandus.
fama, his illustrious name.
72. tradit, presents to us.

plenumque Nerone propinquo. He was related to Nero through Iulia, his grandmother ; see note on line 39.

73. sensus communis, common human sympathy (conf, the expression “vita communis,” social life).

74. censeri laude tuorum. Conf. “sanguine censeri,” line 2.

75. noluerim. The perf. potential implies a sententia modeste expressa. Conf. “ crediderim,” “haud affirmaverim.”

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sic, ut = ea conditione ut.

78. viduas . . . ulmos. Contrast with this the expression of Horace, “caelebs platanus.” The plane-trees were never used for training vines.

desiderat, feels the want of.

79. tutor bonus. A tutor was the legal guardian of a pupillus, whose property he managed until he became sui iuris. See Sat. i. 39.

arbiter, a person chosen to decide a dispute in private, according to rules of equity ; while the iudices decided in public on the legal merits of the question.

81. Phalaris ... admoto ... tauro. Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, invented a hollow brazen bull, into which his victims were put, and which was then heated. Conf. Hor. Od.

“nec vultus instantis tyranni mente quatit solida," and Sat. vi. 48, “praefectura domus Sicula non mitior aula”; Hor. Ep. i. 2, 58, “invidia Siculi non invenere tyranni maius tormentum.

85. Dignus morte perit, “he who deserves to die is dead.”

ostrea Gaurana-oysters from the Lucrine lake, close behind which rose the Gaurani Montes. Conf. Sat. iv. 140, “Lucrinum ad saxum.'

86. Cosmi, a' perfumer, frequently alluded to in Martial. Conf. Mart. xi. 8, “Quod Cosmi redolent alabastra focique deorum.

87. Exspectata diu. A provincial government was looked forward to by a large number of candidates as a means of making their fortunes by all sorts of extortion.

88. rectorem, i.e. a legatus if an imperial province, a proconsul if a senatorial.

90. ossa vides rerum, etc., “You see a world's bones sucked dry and their marrow gone.”

91. leges, e.g. lex Calpurnia ; Acilia ; Iulia de repetundis.

93. Capito. Cossutianus Capito was a son-in-law of Tigellinus ; he was made legatus of Cilicia, and was accused and convicted of repetundae (57 A.D.)—Tac. Ann. xiii. 33, and xiv. 48.

Numitor ; see Sat. vii. 94. Apparently he was also a legatus of Cilicia.

94. piratae Cilicum, i.e. using against the Cilicians their own weapons, for they were notorious pirates; “out-pirating Cilicians.”

quid damnatio confert ? As in the case of Marius Priscus, Sat. i. 50, it was “iudicium inane.'

95. Pansa Natta — fictitious names for provincial governors.

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96. Praeconem, Chaerippe, etc. The wretched provincial is advised to look for some auctioneer to sell his scanty rags for him before they are taken away.

97. post omnia perdere naulum, to lose your passagemoney, i.e. by a fruitless journey to Rome. Legati from Cilicia had caused the condemnation of Capito, but then his successor was just as bad.

98. Non idem gemitus olim. Juvenal takes an unfairly pessimistic view of the state of the provinces, which had immensely improved in every respect since the Republican days. Bad provincial governors like Capito could always be accused by the provincial concilia under the lex de repetundis, and the Annals of Tacitus show that such accusations usually resulted in condemnation.

101. Spartana chlamys. The Laconian purple dye ranked next after the Tyrian. Conf. the expression, "Týrias lacernas,” Sat. i. 27. Conf. Hor. Od. ii. 18, 7.

conchylia Coa. Transparent silk garments, bombycinae vestes, were woven and dyed in the island of Cos. The conchylia were the pale diluted purple as opposed to the dark full tints of the Tyrian-Becker's Gallus, p. 447. Conf. Hor. Od. iv. 13, 13.

102. Parrhasii tabulis. Parrhasius was a famous painter, born at Ephesus about 450 B.C., and a contemporary of Zeuxis, the story of his contest with whom is well known.

signisque Myronis. Myron was a sculptor, born somewhat earlier than Parrhasius. His statues were much prized, and many were carried away to Rome by Verres and others like him. Conf. Mart. viii. 51, “Quis labor in phiala ? docti Myos anne Myronis ?” His masterpiece was “The Cow,” conf. Öv. Pont. iv. 1, 34.

103. Pheidiacum vivebat ebur-Pheidias (490-433 B.C.), the great contemporary and friend of Pericles, and the sculptor of the famous statue of Zeus at Olympia. On the lifelike appearance of his work conf. Mart. iii. 35, “Artis Pheidiacae toreuma clarum: pisces aspicis: adde aquam, natabunt.” Conf. Verg. Aen. vi. 848.

ebur. Many of the original statues were chryselephantine, i.e. of ivory and gold; c.g. the statue of Zeus at Olympia, of Athene on the Parthenon, etc. Later copies were of marble.

Polycliti, another statuary of the same age (452-412 B.C.) Quintilian says of him, “diligentia ac decor in Polyclito supra ceteros : deorum tamen auctoritatem non explevit. Conf. also Cic. in Verr. iv. 5.

104. Mentore, an artistic embosser in silver. Silver cups of

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