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gathered at this time of the year. To
date of writing the weather has been
steadily cool with little precipitation;
in fact, unless we soon get rain a short
crop of hay is assured.

But bees wintered well, and jidging
from present appearances they are
steadily building "p, even if the days
they can fly and bring in nectar and
pollen are few and far between. The
little clover we had last fall is now past
the danger point, and in our section at
least it has wintered well.

In another 10 days fruit bloom will
be on, and if weather permits queen
clipping and other work of the season
will be in order. After the long time
since active work with bees, we look
forward with pleasure to being in the
harness again. Only a few weeks at
most until the harvest, great or small,
will be a thing of the past, and the bee-
keeper can again take it easy if he
wishes. This is one of the drawbacks
of beekeeping, looking at it from one
angle, for if the great amount of work
that often crowded into a few weeks

could be divided up into that many
Notice the decoy hive in the tree to the right.

months, it would make things easier
all around. But no doubt it is much

better than we could possibly arrange frozen, but is coming out well this resemble the snapdragon in shape, and it for ourselves.

are nectar yielding. The dark chamiso The “wild buckwheat” is a species chaparral," as it is also called, of Eriogonum. It grows in almost all whose clusters of bloom now whiten

Newspaper Advertising of Honey Too localities, but in some, yields a much the mountain sides, is a great favorite

Expensive better grade of honey than in others. with bees, but chiefly for pollen. This Constantly we hear about the benefits Near the coast its honey is apt to be is the chief use also of the gray arte- of advertising honey so as to increase dark and not of a good flavor, while misia, which lends much of the gray to

the consumption of this useful and back in the canons bordering on the the landscape. This plant furnishes

toothsome delicacy and food. Any desert it yields better, and is of good abundant stores of winter pollen, but it

kind of advertising is to be commendquality.

has of late years spread to such an ex- ed as long as it is truthful and not misThe coffee berry” is a beautiful tent as to crowd out many a worthier

representing, and while each individual dark green shrub with dark glossy plant.

beekeeper can do much in his own foliage. Its fruit which changes color from red to black, resembles the ber

The hoarhound was introduced here. neighborhood to increase the consumpries of the true coffee. It grows only It is a steady yiel ler, but the honey

tion of honey, the longer I study the in the cool damp canons, and gives a from it is very dark, and the plant

question the more it seems to me that good flow of amber honey,

itself is such a pest that most people, extensive newspaper advertising is imThe “California holly” (which is not

even bee-men, regret its introduction. possible. Why? Because the cost of a holly at all, being a member of the The wild lilac, a beautiful shrub

producing honey is too near the sellrose family), yields very freely for but whose sweet-scented, lilac-colored blos- ing price to allow much money to be a short time. The honey is white. This soms furnish much pollen, is notice

paid for advertising. is one of our most beauti'ul mountain able on account of its blue pollen. I

Take the various patent medicines,

breakfast foods and drinks, different shrubs. Its dark green leaves and had a hurry call from a beginner not heavy panicles of heavy white blos- long ago who thought he had disease

kinds of corn syrups, etc., the names soms make it showy in summer, while among his bees. On inspection it was

so common to us all through seeing its brilliant crimson berries in mid- the blue_pollen that had caused the

them in the papers that any child could

list off hand. In almost, if not winter brighten the whole landscape.

alarm. The bees were rather weak This furnishes the Christmas decoraowing to local conditions, but perfectly is many times the cost of production,

in all of these cases, the selling price tions for all California; hence the term healthy.

so it is easy to see why they can adver“holly” by which it is known.

I have mentioned only the most im

tise so extensively. Then, again, each There is a gorgeous yellow pentste- portant of the native plants. There

firm is advertising an article produced mon, shrubby in growth, distributed are many others which give us nectar

only by themselves, and they get the freely along many canons. Its flowers in varying quantities.

benefit of all the advertising done. In
the case of honey, if my neighbor bee-
keeper across the road advertises the
good qualities of honey, the chances
are that if the advertisement does any
good I will share equally, even when I
am not paying a cent for advertising.

Newspaper advertising costs a tre

mendous amount of money if done at
Conducted by J. L. BYER, Mt. Joy, Ontario.

all extensively. This means that other
forms of publicity will have to be em-

ployed if we ever expect to increase Crop Prospects, Outlook, Etc. from the maples, and an abundance of the consumption of honey by means of

much-needed nectar from the willows. advertising. If I could truthfully adMay 12, sugar maples and yellow wil- I say "needed nectar," for although vertise that my honey was better than lows are in bloom. But with weather there may be lots of old stores in the anybody's else, it might pay me to advercool and a drizzling east rain falling, hives, nothing seems to be quite as tise; but no matter how good a prothe prospect is not pleasant for the good to cause a great boom in brood- duct we had, very few of us would beekeeper who would like to see the rearing as some nice fresh nectar in make such a decided statement as that. bees carrying great loads of pollen combination with the natural pollen I remember tasting a sample sent in

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3. Carl Hanneman. 4. E. S. Hildemann

6. Joseph Kurth. 7.

8. John Hearn. 9. A. C. Allen. 10. N. E France. 11. Gus Dittmer. 12. Mrs. W. R. Harte. 13. Mrs. W. Habermann, 14. Mrs. C. M. Soelch. 15. Mrs. Frank Kittinger. 16. J. I. McGinty. 17. 18. Mr. Sayles, 19. Freman Johnson, 20. August Diehnelt. 21. W. H. Habermann. 22. H. H. Moe. 23. Harry Lathrop. 24. H. M. Rood. 25. Herman Gloege. , 26. Francis Jager. 27.

, L. V. France. 28. Prof. Sanders, 29. Chas. Alberts, 30. John Wambold. 31. E. B. Rosa. 32. Lawrence Post. 33. N. K. Walsh, 34. Geo. Acker. 35. John Willgrub. 36. Fred Blunck. 37, A. A. Linn. 38. Wm. H. Wallace. 39. M. M. Rice. 40. Mrs, M. M. Rice. 41. G. M. Ranum. 42. Jacob Paulson. 43. Ogden Glaeden. 44. A. C. Woodbury. 45. E. Engels. 46. A. L. Kleeber. 47.



51. Louis Post. 52. 53. H. C, Ahlers. 54. W. C. Smith. 55. Mr. Huffmann. 56, Frank Kittinger. 57. Geo. G. Harte. 58. Mr. Sykes. 59. F. E. Matzke. 60. L. W. Parman.


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Shipping Bees from Southern New Mexico

-Loss in Weight May 4, five 2-pound packages of bees were shipped to me by express from southern New Mexico. They were shipped without queens. Leaving there at 10 a.m. of the 4th, they reached Boulder at 9:35 a.m. of the 7th. At 11:30 a.m. they were placed in empty supers over weak colonies of bees with which I wished to unite them. By 4:30 p.m. of the 7th, the bees were out of all the shipping-cages in which they came. Counting from the time they were put into the cages to the 4th, the bees were in them about 70 hours. The weight given, gross, for the five packages at the shipping point was 23 pounds. The gross weight when I received them was 1972 pounds, showing a loss in weight of 3%2 ponnds. This was the amount of water and candy consumed and loss in bodily weight of the bees. There might be a slight variation in the scales, but mine are quite accurate, and I assume that those at the shipping point were accurate also.

The weather was almost ideal for springtime when the bees arrived, so that conditions could hardly have been better. The packages were numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.


The loss in bodily weight of the live bees was about 12 ounces, unless there was some loss in the weight of the dead bees, which would equal the loss in weight of the live ones. The great loss in weight is accounted for in this case by the lack of water. There was, however, only half as many dead bees in this package as in No. 2, which had plenty of water. But this cage, No. 3, was needing attention when it came, as the bees had their tongues out and were crying for water. Strange as it may seem the bees in this package were loath to leave it, and the last half of them finally had to be shaken out. They had consumed one-half of their honey.

Number 4 weighed 4 pounds and 12 ounces when put_up, and 3% pounds when received. The weight of the live bees was 14 pounds, and there were over 4 pound of dead bees in the cage. This_cage had the most dead bees in it. They had eaten half their candy, and the water can was still full, the little hole in the cover being too small apparently, and also clogged with a speck of dirt.

Number 5 weighed 4 pounds and 8 ounces when put up, and 4 pounds when received. There were less than 25 dead bees in the cage, and the weight of live bees was 17 pounds. This cage came through in the best condition of any. The candy had only been one-third consumed and little of the water used. The hole in the water can also seemed to be clogged, but the bees must have gotten some of the water, as they did not seem to be suffering

The cages were tacked together with lath, and were spaced about 5 inches apart, so that there would be ample circulation between the clusters in the cages. The express was $1.64 on the 23 pounds weight. If the bees could have been sent by parcels post the cost would have been 98 cents,

Number 1 weighed 4 pounds and 8 ounces gross when put up, and 3 pounds and 12 ounces gross when received. The net weight of the live bees at time of packing was 2 pounds, and 1 pound and 10 ounces on arrival. There were less than 25 dead bees in the package. The bees ate about one-fourth of the candy provided, and the water can

about two-thirds full. Threeeighths of a pound must represent the loss in bodily weight, or probably more accurately must be the amount of honey the bees were loaded with before they were put in the cages.

Number 2 weighed pounds and 12 ounces when put up, and 3 pounds and 12 ounces when received. The weight of the live bees was 1/2 pounds. There was about 14 pound of dead bees in the package. One-half of the candy had been consumed, and also about one-half of the water. The loss in bodily weight of the live bees was about 4 pound.

Number 3 weighed 4 pounds and 8 ounces when put up, and 3 pounds and 4 ounces when received. The light weight of this package is explained by the fact that the cover to the water can came off en route and the water was lost. There was 11ś pounds of live bees and about 's pound of dead bees.

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It will be seen that 10 pounds of bees It is my intention to keep up the exwere shipped in these five packages, periments in shipping bee's without and that 7% pounds of live bees were

combs until we know what we can detaken out. There was a loss of less pend upon, then perhaps it will not pay than one pound of bees dying en route, us to winter our bees in the North. I the remaining loss being in bodily shall receive another shipment of five weight as mentioned above. It would packages in a day or two, and it is seem that, for shipment this distance, probably on the road

The 25 percent more bees would have to weather is

and the bees be put in to make the weight of full 2 may not come through in such good pounds hold out.






ciation, but it might not be so under a possible successor.

Prof. Sanders spoke on “The value of a single beekeeping course at the State Agricultural College.” He is held in high esteem by the beekeepers, and always commands close attention.

L. V. France exhibited charts, showing distribution of different honeyplants, number of colonies, etc., in the different counties of the State. Mr. France stated that answers to his inquiries had not been as full as anticipated; however, he was voted the thanks of the convention with the request to continue the work.

After the supper a large number went to the Agricultural College, where they were entertained by an address by F. Wilcox, general survey of beekeeping, State and National; also a_stereopticon entertainment by N. E. France, inspector of Wisconsin apiaries.

SECOND DAY MORNING SESSION. A good share of the morning was taken up by “ five minute talks” “One important thing I have learned

The election of officers for ensuing year resulted as follows: President, N. E. France; vice-president, Frank Wilcox; secretary, Gus Dittmer; treasurer, Harry Lathrop.

It was decided by an almost unanimous vote not to send a delegate to the National.

The Committee on Resolutions reported the following:

WHEREAS, 'The Supreme Ruler of the universe, in His all-wise providence, has deemed fit to call from our association our beloved president, Jacob Huffman; therefore, be it

Resolved. That we, the Wisconsin State Beekeepers' Association in convention assembled Feb. 3, 1914, do hereby express our sorrow at the loss of our beloved President, that the beekeeping world has lost an able counselor who will be hard to replace; therefore, be it further

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be spread upon our minutes; that a copy be sent to the family, and that the chair be draped in mourning during the time of this convention. H. H, MOE.

E. B. Rosa,



this year.

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the Minnesota University. Here in Wisconsin it is a department of the Agricultural College. Under Prof. Sanders it is perfectly satisfactory to the Wisconsin State Beekeepers' Asso

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The Wisconsin State Beekeepers' Association met in convention in Madison Feb. 2. N. E. France was elected temporary president.

The Assembly Room was well filled, over 80 beekeepers, including 8 ladies, being present.

Rev. Francis Jaeger, of the University of Minnesota, addressed the convention on “ Present Needs of Wisconsin and Minnesota Beekeepers." His argument was a comparison of old-time and present day methods, not only in beekeeping but in dairy work. He urged beekeepers to organize along the same lines as the various agricultural societies.

M. E. Eggers spoke on, “Should a young man specialize on beekeeping ?" The report of A. C. Allen, delegate to the National, was substantially as published in the Beekeepers' Review. A committee on resolutions was appointed, consisting of E. B. Rosa, H. H. Moe, and Herman Gloege.

The convention adjourned until 1:30 p.m.

At 1:30 p.m. the meeting was called to order, and Rev. Francis Jaeger addressed the convention on A separate department of beekeeping at the State Agricultural College." Brother Jaeger showed the necessity of its being not only separate, but independent, as in

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American Bee Journal



The resolutions were adopted by a Inspector of Apiaries by the Governor. weather and where we had a friend to unanimous rising vote.

Mr. Frank Wilcox was recommended visit—a relative of one of our neighA paper was read by Mr. Frank,F. for the appointment of judge of the bors in the United States—living in the France.

Apiarian Exhibit at the State Fair. city of Rolle. Passing through Bern, On motion, N. E. France was recom- Meeting then adjourned.

Fribourg and Lausanne, we reached mended for the appointment of State

Gus DITTMER, Sec. Rolle in the evening. The rain caught

up with us, but had spent its force and
clear weather followed.

In these trips we heard more Ger-
man spoken than any other tongue.
But it would not do to speak secrets
aloud, when using either French, Eng-
lish or Italian, for everybody seems to
understand everybody else. Americans
are so numerous that little attention is

paid to them. However, an American BY C. P. DADANT,

family, in a touring-car with a colored

chauffeur, attracted the curious at Brig. .- Zermatt, Neuchatel

which, owing to the distance, did not Evidently colored men are rare in

make even a speck on the immaculate Switzerland. The trip to Zermatt, from the head

white of the snow, when sought with While in Rolle, the friend we were of Lake Geneva, is up the valley of the the naked eye. The setting or rising visiting accompanied us to a litte town Rhone, then up the Visp until we reach

sun, shining on that immensity of up the sunny hills that beam upon the the center of a cluster of snow-covered

white, shading it with pink and red, lake, to visit a school teacher, who is mountains, of which Monte Rosa and

made an impression beyond descrip- a beekeeper and an apiary inspector. the Matterhorn are the highest. But tion. Instead of 12 tourists, there He had called him on the telephone the latter is the more conspicuous, should have been 1200. The thou- and announced that a foreign beeowing to its sharp peak.

sands who come stay there only a part keeper wished to visit him.' This apici The Rhone river which we first saw

of the day, owing to the defective ac- arist had bee fever, the genuine disat Lyon, then at Geneva, at its exit commodations of that huge caravan- ease, for he awaited us eagerly and from the lake, is the feeder of that

sary, which they call “Hotel Gorner- could talk on but little else. He had lake, through which it flows from east

grat.” The crowds are found below some 60 colonies, all hybrids. The hyto west. As we ascend eastward toat Zermatt.

brids of Italian and Swiss bees are wards its source, we pass through the Returning to Zermatt, we stayed almost uniformly reared in French Canton of Valais. We again see vine- there only long enough to visit the Switzerland, through the slow but yards, on shelves one above another, immediate surroundings, especially the steady importation of Italians across meadows and small fields of grain and Gorner Gorge. This, however great the Alps. I have given in tlie Decempotatoes, looking like the patches of a and frightful, is a diminutive wonder ber number my explanation of why quilt. Irrigation is practiced, for the when compared with the gorges of the the pure Italians are not liked in Switzclimate is dry and the water from the

Aare at Meiringen, which we saw later erland. It is useless to repeat it. peaks is plentiful. We see it run in in the month.

Here I heard for the first time in every direction. It is diverted into the

Back to cultivated lands and warmth, Europe, of European foulbrood. He fields by side ditches, and a flat stone we landed at Brig on the 11th, where had had it, and ha i cured it in other serves to turn it right or left as needed.

we proceeded to get rested and warmed apiaries as well as in his own. He had To one accustomed to the majestic and

up, in a very comfortable hotel. Brig had combs containing honey from disquiet flow of the Mississippi, the waters is near the Swiss end of the Simplon eased colonies accidentally robbed by of the Swiss mountains appear in a tunnel. It rained and we stayed there healthy colonies without bad results. great hurry, for they tumble in their

two days, at the end of which we left So he readily understood that our haste, in every direction, and we can for Interlaken, via the new railroad of method of cure by changing the queens go nowhere without hearing the mur- the Lotschberg, a beautiful scenic line, would be likely to succeed. However, mur of the brooks. There are running just completed. Reached Spietz for he practiced the starving method, refountains in every village. The houses dinner. It rained. Went on to Inter- moving all the combs. According to seem odd, with their long eaves and laken. It rained that afternoon and Dr. Carton, this ought to succeed in brown walls. The roofs are often all the next forenoon. We then re

any case. He thought so himself. made of coarse flat stones, laid like solved to

go back

towards Lake He had seen the May disease, and I shingles. But how they managed to Geneva, where we had left the fair gave him the address of Prof. White, build some of these houses is a mystery, for they look like eagles' nests on the mountain side.

We reached Zermatt on Aug. 9. It was cold, and we could see snow in every direction. To enjoy climbing, one must train. We took no time to do this. An inclined cog road took us clear up to Gornergrat, where an immense hotel has been built. There we stayed over night in company with a dozen other tourists. The hotel was supposed to be heated, but they had only pine wood to fire with, and when we complained of room being chilly, they excused themselves on the the bad quality of their fuel. It was at this hotel that, for the first time in our lives, we had to pay even for the water we drank. We went away the next day, disgusted with the accommodations, but delighted with what we had seen at sunset and sunrise. From the top of the Gornergrat, we had been shown, through a telescope, the ridge line forming the Italian and French frontiers, guard houses, flags, caravans, of alpinists walking on the snow, things




American Bee Journal




of Washington, D. C., asking him to forward samples to him, whenever he found it. He was sure that it was caused by the famous “nosema.” Yet Prof. White has failed to discover this parasite in a number of samples sent him.

We walked up to his house, and sat down and I made note of his replies to my questions. He was intensely interested. In discussing foulbrood, I had occasion to ask him whether he had read what we wrote about it in the French edition of Langstroth Revised. Then it became apparent that he had misunderstood name when we were introduced. He jumped up from his chair and insisted on shaking hands over again with both Mrs. D. and myself. He was

so enthused that he would hardly let us depart when the time came for us to take leave. It was very amusing and interesting.

Distances are not great in Switzerland, and one is soon transported from one part to another. he railroad accommodations are fine. The coaches have, like ours, a passage through a center aisle, but instead of being in only one or two compartments, each car has five or six sections. About two-thirds of them are smoking compartments, for smoking is very popular, whether pipe, cigar or cigaret. The women are accustomed to it. Once or twice we even saw some good-looking women smoking like the men. (Why should they not?) The smoking compartments, marked “raucher, fumeurs, fumatori,” in German, French and Italian, are always the most crowded.

During the summer crowds are immense. When you reach a railroad station in any large tourist resort, you wonder how they can sug ceed in accommodating the thousands who are there. But the train cones In, unloads, reloads, and goes again, with everybody aboard in comfort.

In the afternoon of the 15th, we started for Boudry, near Neuchate the home of Mr. Gubler, from where I wrote the letter inserted in the October Bee Journal. In three hours w were there. A young man with a pring


have to pay 62 cents. They have a mutual insurance against losses by foulbrood, and have also succeeded in getting from the several cantons regu. lations for the inspection of bees and the destruction of contagious diseases. Apiaries are small but numerous. At the meeting of the Neuchatel section, which we attended on the Sunday following our arrival, about 80 members were present. We give a cut of this on our cover page. The meeting was hell in the basement of a house right by the apiary of Mr. Belperrin at Areuse. But the photograph had to be taken upon the hillside, in the vineyard, because the apiary is located under dwarf fruit trees in such a manner that a good picture of it could not be made. In the evening the beekeepers were congregated together at a banquet given in the neighboring village on the shore of the Lake of Neucliatel. As a trolley line joins Neuchatel with the vicinity, we were only 15 minutes from our lodgings. The lake is some 25 miles long, with pretty villas and villages all along.

A few details as to our quarters in the Boudry Home and the hospitable reception we enjoyed, will give a local coloring to our description. The guest chamber in the Home is a special room in the second story of the big barn. However queer this may appear to American readers, this chamber is kept in as fine a style as some of the best hotel rooms, with white walls, fine furniture, framed paintings on the walls, etc. Flowers fresh from the garden were daily brought in a vase, and every night we found an immense hot-water bottle in our bed. We protested against this, but it was of no avail, and we had to submit. The eveings were cool, and our hosts were unwilling to chance our catching cold. The private office of the manager, in the main building, was our writing room, and upon his desk we found a framed picture of Grandpa Dadant. It was there also that I first saw the magnificent work of Gaston Bonnier on the flora of ance, Switzerland and Belgium.

While at Boudry, we had numerous invitations from local beekeepers. W: accepted only a few, for our time was limited.

wagon awaited us at the station and took us at once to the Orphans' Home managed by Mr. Gubler, located about a mile away, on the slope below the mountain, where pure air and open fields are enjoyed by some 50 boys between 8 and 16 years of age.

Mr. Gubler is not only the editor of the Bulletin D’Apiculture, which has taken the place of the Revue Internationale, formerly published by Mr. Bertrand, he is also president of the Société Romande D'Apiculture. The name “Romande

represents. nothing connected with Rome, as might be understood by the uninformed. It represents simply that part of Switzerland in which the French or Romanic language is spoken, in contradistinction with the parts of the same country where German is used. It covers the cantons of Geneva, Vaud, Neuchatel' and a part of Valais, Fribourg and Bern. The association numbers about 2000 members, and is subdivided into some 20 different Lranches, which hold local meetings and send delegates to the central association.

The little magazine, which is their official organ, is furnished to members at 42 cents per annum, while outsiders

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months the Sense of Smell of the Honey is this sense in the lives of bees ? Both


BY N. E. MC INDOO, PH. D., BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY, WASHINGTON, D. C. (Extract from Journal Exp. Zool., l'ol. 16, No.

3. April, 1911.) VER since man has kept the honey

bee, he has asked the following

questions in regard to its sense of smell : (1) How well can the honey bee smell? (2) Where are its olfactory organs located? (3) How important

scientists and beekeepers are now generally agreed that the honey bee has an acute sense of smell, and that its olfactory organs are located in the antennæ, but the critics have never been convinced that the antennæ carry the organs of smell, because all the antennal organs are covered with a hard membrane through which odors must pass in order to stimulate these organs.

Ďuring the past three years the writer has devoted his entire time to a study of the olfactory sense in the honey.bee


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