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150. poma, the last course of the dinner. Conf. Hor. Sat. i. 3, 6, “ab ovo usque ad mala.”

pascaris, potential, not consecutive after " ‘quorum."

151. Phaeacum. The Phaeacians, a partly mythical race, whose island has usually been identified with Corcyra. Conf. Sat. xv. 25, “de Corcyraea urna. The gardens of Alcinous are described by Homer, Odys. vii. 114 seq., oúð' árolelmel χείματος ουδέ θέρους. Verg. Georg. ii. 87.

152. sororibus Afris, the Hesperides. See Class. Dict. It was one of the labours of Hercules to steal their golden apples, which were guarded by a dragon. Conf. Sat. xiv. 114.

153. in aggere. The agger of Servius Tullius, which ran across the Caelian and Esquiline hills, through the Horti Maecenatis, and northwards, skirting the Viminal, to the Porta Collina. This agger, as we learn from Hor. Sat. i. 8, 15 (“aggere in aprico spatiari”), was a public place of resort, and near it were the quarters of the praetorian troops. Conf. Sat. xvi. 26.

154. qui tegitur parma, etc. The best way of taking these two lines is to suppose that they refer to monkey dressed up in shield and helmet by some soldiers, and taught to shoot javelins from the back of a goat on the Agger Servii

. Prof. Mayor says that on a wall-painting at Pompeii there is a boy with a whip in his hand teaching a clothed ape to dance. So, too, Martial, xiv. 202, speaks of “callidus emissas eludere simius hastas.” An objection to this way of taking it, that we should expect cx capelia, is met by Munro, who quotes Ov. Ars Am. 1, 210, "telaque ab averso quae iacit hostis equo. The other way of explaining the passage is this : A raw recruit, half-starved and munching a rotten apple, is being drilled and learning to shoot from a goat-like old centurion or campidoctor on the agger.

metuens flagelli. Conf.“metuens virgae," Sat. vii. 210. The genitive is objective, as after patiens, appetens, etc.

156. Forsitan (fors sit an); sometimes abbreviated into forsan, and even fors.

157. Hoc agit, “he does it expressly.” Conf. “hoc agite,” Sat. vii. 20.

comoedia (kwuos oń), originally the song of the revellers at the Phallic orgies, as tragoedia (Tpáyos ) was the chant of the satyrs who attended Dionysus. The Revel Song was afterward developed and systematised into comedy by Epicharmus and Susarion, by the latter of whom it was introduced into Athens. At Rome at this period all theatrical entertainments in public were slighted, owing to the rage for the more exciting pastimes

of the amphitheatre ; but it was a usual thing to have some entertainment of the nature of comedy at dinner parties. So Pliny, Ep. iii. 1, 9, says, “frequenter comoedis cena distinguitur.”

mimus. Mimes became popular during the last century of the Republic. They were usually short pieces of a farcical nature, but admitting elements from a variety of sources. They bore a general resemblance to the Atellanae, but were taken more from city life. They were characterised generally by extreme licentiousness (Mart. iii. 86, “non sunt haec mimis improbiora"); sometimes serious subjects were parodied ; sometimes a plot was introduced, in which vice always triumphed ; sometimes it consisted merely in mountebank tricks: they were always varied by dancing, music, and gestures of all kinds. No masks were worn, and the usual costume was a kind of harlequin's dress with a short mantle. Horace, Sat. i. 10, 6, mentions the mimes of Laberius, who was a writer of a much higher order than the other mimi ; he was, however, in the end obliged to yield to his sprightlier rival, Syrus. Mimes, though common at all seasons, were especially produced at the Floralia. The pantomimus or histrio was quite different, and was a professional dancer. See note on Sat. vii. 90.

160. stridere, to gnash ; diu presso molari, though your grinders have been long clenched tight,” i.e. to prevent an outburst which might ruin your poor prospects.

164. Etruscum puero si contigit aurum. This refers to the bulla, a circular plate of gold which, together with the toga praetexta, was worn by free-born youths as a badge of their condition. The custom was derived from Etruria, and the earliest instance we have recorded of its use was in the reign of Tarquinius Priscus, who was himself of Etrurian origin, and who decked his youthful son with the bulla as a reward for an act of bravery. Conf. Sat. xiii. 33, “senior bulla dignissime," and xiv. 4, “heres bullatus.”

165. nodus de paupere loro. The sons of freedmen and the poorer citizens generally wore bullae made of leather instead of gold. Conf. Livy, xxvi. 36, “ut lorum in collo pro bullae decore gestarent.”

166. “Ecce, dabit iam,” the client is supposed to say this to himself or one of his fellow-guests.

168. minor altilis, a smaller capon, i.e. than the one served up to the patron.

Inde, and so.

169. stricto pane, as if the bread were a weapon to be used upon the expected viands. Trans. "ready for action."

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tacetis, in reference to line 160. In spite of their anger they keep silence, and still hope on against hope.

171. Pulsandum vertice raso, etc., You will some day descend to be a mere jester, content to receive the blows and mockery of the company. Jesters were often provided by the host at a dinner ; they usually had their heads shaved.

172. quandoque, some day. Conf. Sat. xiv. 51.

173. flagra pati, “to be scourged,” like a slave. Conf. Sat. x. 109; and for the whole Satire, conf. Mart. ii. 14, iii. 60, and Plin. Ep. ii. 6.

SATIRE VII

1. ratio studiorum, “motive of our studies.” studia is evidently used (both here and in line 17) of poetry, as the context proves.

in Caesare tantum. See Introduction, where the date of Juvenal's Satires is discussed. Practically we have to choose here between Trajan and Hadrian. Pliny says of Trajan, Paneg. 47, “sub te spiritum et sanguinem et patriam receperunt studia”; see also Ep. iii. 18 ; but the studia are shown by the context to be oratory and philosophy, and Hadrian was the first emperor since Claudius who showed interest in poetry; he was indeed a poet himself. Friedländer believes that lines 1-21 were added as a complimentary dedication to Hadrian, while the rest of the Satire was written earlier. He points out the entire want of connection between this preface, which speaks of encouragement given to poetry, and all that follows, dealing as it does with the hardships and poverty of historians, lawyers, rhetoricians, etc. There is certainly some want of art in the Satire, unless we suppose that this view is correct. Hadrian succeeded Trajan in 117 A.D.

3. respexit, has taken notice of. Conf. Verg. Ecl. i. 28, "Libertas, quae sera tamen respexit inertem.”

4. balneolum. In Rome and the large towns there were public baths where very often no charge was made to the bathers, but even here the number of bathers was so large that it was found a profitable occupation to start private baths (balnea meritoria), at which a small charge, usually a quadrans, was made. Sen. Ep. 86, “balneum res quadrantaria.' Sat. vi. 447, “quadrante lavari.” At Gabii, a primitive little placeconf. Sat. iii. 192—there would be no public bath, and a private one would probably be but a poor speculation. Conf. Hor. Ep i. 11, 12

furnos, bakehouses.

6. praecones fieri. The trade of a praeco or auctioneer was considered so dishonouring that they were excluded from all municipal offices by the lex Iulia municipalis. Conf. Sat. iii. 33 and 157.

Aganippes, a fountain in Boeotia from which the river Permessus flowed. It was sacred to the Muses.

7. migraret in Atria, pass to the halls of the auctioneers. The Atria Licinii, situated in the Forum, was a place where auctions took place. Cicero, pro Quinct. c. 3, says, “ Tollitur ab atriis Liciniis atque a praeconum consensu in Galliam Naevius.”

8. Pieria . . . in umbra. Conf. the epithet Pierides, applied to the Muses. It was a grove at the foot of Mount Olympus. Conf. Mart. ix. 85, 3.

9. ames, "you must be content with.” Machaerae, some praeco of the day.

10. commissa auctio. Conf. committere proelium. The phrase is appropriate to an auction in which there was a

certamen" between the bidders.

11. oenophorum, one of the various kinds of cadus or amphora into which the wine was poured (diffusum) from the dolium.

cistas. See Sat. iii. 206, where it is used for books.

12. Alcithoen Pacci. Alcithoe was daughter of Minyas, king of Orchomenos, and was changed into a bat for despising the orgies of Bacchus. Paccius is some tragic writer.

Thebas, the scene of many a Greek play.

Terea, husband of Procne, who served up to him his son Itys. See Ov. Met. vi. 424 seq., and conf. Sat. vi. 644, “quidquid de Colchide torva dicitur et Procne.”

Faustus is another unknown name. We are not always to suppose that they are real names. Some of them, like those of Martial, may be inventions of the poet.

13. sub iudice. Conf. Sat. iv. 12, and xv. 26.

14. equites Asiani, i.e. slaves from Asia, etc. (conf. Sat. iii. 62), who had gained the equestrian census. The Asiatics were notorious for lying. In writers of the Silver Age, quamquam often takes a subjunctive.

15. equites Bithyni. The MSS. have "equitesque”; but the first syllable of Bithyni is long. See Sat. x. 162.

16. altera quos nudo, etc., “whom the Galatian shoe makes ridiculous with uncovered ankle.” The gallicae (see Cic. Phil. ii. $ 76) were a species of soleae of which Aulus Gellius says (xiii. 21, 1), “quibus plantarum calces tantum infimae teguntur, cetera prope nuda sunt.” Apparently altera

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gallica =Galatian shoe, just as altera Gallia=Gallograecia or Galatia. For this meaning of traducit, see Sat. viii. 17, and xi. 31. This reading removes the difficulty caused by the apparent confusion of Galatians and Bithynians, if Gallia is read.

17. studiis. See on line 1.
19. eloquium vocale, the eloquence of words.

laurumque momordit, and has tasted the laurel (of Apollo). Conf. Tibull. ii. 5, 63, “Vera cano : sic usque sacras innoxia laurus vescar,” etc.

20. Hoc agite, “bestir yourselves.” Conf. Sat. v. 157. 21. materiam sibi, material for his patronage.

Ducis indulgentia. Tacitus, de Orat. 10, gives an instance under Vespasian, who gave 500,000 sesterces to Saleius Bassus, and adds, “pulchrum id quidem indulgentiam principis ingenio mereri.”

23. atque ideo, and from that belief; referring back to putas.

croceae membrana tabellae, “the parchment with its saffron page.

The charta was made either from the papyrus, and this was the cheapest sort, or parchment-Pergami membrana — invented under King Eumenes' of Pergamus. It was not, however, generally used in Juvenal's time, nor for some time afterwards, except perhaps for small note-books, etc. Books of papyrus were rolls, books of parchment were flat. The back of the paper was dyed with cedrus or saffron, both of which imparted a yellow colour, and were intended as preservatives against moths and damp. Conf. Hor. Ars Poet. 331, “carmina linenda cedro”; Persius, iii. 10, “bicolor membrana.” See note on Sat. i. 5, and Becker's Gallus, pp. 326-8.

24. lignorum aliquid. Conf. Sat. iii. 285, “multum flammarum.

25. Veneris marito, Vulcan, i.e. “fire.” Conf. Prometheus, a potter; Ceres, corn ; Bacchus, wine; Minerva, wisdom; Neptunus, the sea.

Telesine. A Lucceius Telesinus was banished from Italy as a philosopher by Domitian.

26. clude. Conf. Hor. Ars Poet. 388.

28. in parva ... cella. Martial often speaks from experience of the miserable garrets in which poets were obliged to live. See especially viii. 14.

29. hederis. Conf. Verg. Ecl. vii. 25, “hedera crescentem ornate poetam”; and Hor. Car. i. 1, 29, “Doctarum hederae praemia frontium."

imagine macra. Busts of the poets were placed in private

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