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gave him."

banish to their estates the chief nobles of A wizard of such dreaded fame the city, and then, stirring up a popular

That when, in Salamanca's cave,

Him listed his magic wand to wave, tumult, sell upon the rest, laying waste The bells would ring in Notre Dame ! their houses, and sending them into exile Some of his skill he taught to me ; or to prison, and thus greatly depopu

And, warrior, I could say to thee

The words that cleft Eildon hills in three, Jating the city.

And bridled the Tweed with a curb of stone; 110. lial, I. 69: “And Calchas, the But to speak them were a deadly sin ; son of Thestor, arose, the best of augurs,

And for having but thought them my heart

within, a man who knew the present, the future,

A treble penance must be done." and the past, and who had guided the ships of the Achæans to Ilium, by that and the opening of the tomb to recover power of prophecy which Phæbus Apollo

the Magic Book :112. Æneid, II. 114: “In suspense

Before their eyes the wizard lay, we send Eurypylus to consult the oracle

As if he had not been dead a day.

His hoary beard in silver rolled, of Apollo, and he brings back from the

He seerned some seventy winters old : shrine these mournful words: ‘O Greeks, A palmer's amice wrapped him round, ye appeased the winds with blood and a With a wrought Spanish baldric bound, virgin slain, when

Like a pilgrim from beyond the sea ; irst ye came to the

His left hand held his book of might; Trojan shores; your return is to be A silver cross was in his right; sought by blood, and atonement made The lamp was placed beside his knee ; by a Grecian life.'

High and majestic was his look,

At which the fellest fiends had shook, Dante calls Virgil's poem a Tragedy, And all unruffled was his face :to mark its sustained and lofty style, in They trusted his soul had gotten grace." contrast with that of his own Comedy, of which he has already spoken once, See also Appendix to the Lay of the Last Canto XVI. 138, and speaks again, Minstrel. Canto XXI. 2; as if he wished the 118. Guido Bonatti, a tiler and astro. reader to bear in mind that he is wear- loger of Forlì, who accompanied Guido ing the sock, and not the buskin.

di Montefeltro when he marched out of 116. “Michael Scott, the Magician, Forlì to attack the French “under tlie says Benvenuto da Imola, “practised great oak.” Villani, VII. 81, in a pasdivination at the court of Frederick II., sage in which the he and him get a little and dedicated to him a book on natural entangled, says: “It is said that the history, which I have seen, and in which Count of Montefeltro was guided by among other things he treats of Astro- divination and the advice of Guido Bonatti logy, then deemed infallible. . . It (a tiler who had become an astrologer), is said, moreover, that he foresaw his or some other strategy, and he gave the own death, but could not escape it. He orders; and in this enterprise he gave had prognosticated that he should be him the gonfalon and said, “So long as a killed by the falling of a small stone rag of it remains, wherever thou bearest upon his head, and always wore an iron it, thou shalt be victorious ;' but I rainer skull-cap under his hood, to prevent this think his victories were owing to his own disaster. But entering a church on the wits and his mastery in war. festival of Corpus Domini, he lowered Benvenuto da Imola reports the fol. his hood in sign of veneration, not of lowing anecdote of the same personages Christ, in whom he did not believe, but “ As the Count was standing one day in to deceive the common people, and a the large and beautiful square oí Forli, small stone fell from alost on his bare there came a rustic mountaineer and gave heard."

him a basket of pears. And when the The reader will recall the midnight Count said, “Stay and sup with me,' the scene of the monk of St. Mary's and rustic answered, My Lord, I wish to go William of Deloraine in Scott's Lay of home before it rains; for infallibly there the Last Minstrel, Canto II. :

will be much rain to-day.' The Count, In these far climes it was my lot

wondering at him, sent for Guido Bonatti, To ineet the wondrous Michael Scott; as a great astrologer, and said to him

"Dust thou hear what this man says?' man in the moon ; this thorn-bush, my Guido answered, 'He does not know thorn-Lush ; and this dog, my dog.' wat he is saying; but wait a little.' The time here indicated is an hour Gaido went to his study, and, having after sunrise on Saturday morning. then bis astrolabe, observed the aspect of the heavens. And on returning he said that it was impossible it should rain

CANTO XXI. 11 day. But the rustic obstinately 1. The Fifth Bolgia, and the punishaiming what he had said, Guido asked ment of Barrators, or “ Judges who tahe tsu, How dost thou know?' The rus- bribes for giving judgment.' 2 answered, · Because to-day my ass, in 2. Having spoken in the preceding Coming out of the stable, shook his head Canto of Virgil's “lofty Tragedy,” Dante and pricked up his ears, and whenever here speaks of his own Comedy, as is to be does this, it is a certain sign that the prepare the reader for the scenes which weather will soon change.' Then Guido are to follow, and for which he apolo. replied, “Supposing this to be so, how gises in Canto XXII. 14, by repeating dit thou know there will be much rain!' | the proverb, * Because,' said he, ‘my ass, with his Ears pricked up, turned his head aside, With saints, and in the tavern with carousers.”

" In the church and wheeled about more than usual.' Then, with the Count's leave, the rustic 7. Of the Arsenal of Venice Mr. Hildeparted in haste, much fearing the rain, lard thus speaks in his Six Months in though the weather was very clear. Italy, I. 63 :Ani an hour afterwards, lo, it began to No reader of Dante will fail to pay thander, and there was a great down- a visit to the Arsenal, from which, in pouring of waters, like a deluge. Then order to illustrate the terrors of his Gunio began to cry out, with great indig: Inferno,' the great poet drew one of nation and derision, "Who has deluded these striking and picturesque images, me? Who has put me to shame?' And characteristic alike of the boldness and for a long time this was a great source of the power of his genius, which never mertiment among the people.

hesitated to look for its materials among Asdente, a cobbler of Parma. “I the homely details and familiar incidents think he must have had acuteness of of life. In his hands, the boiling of mind, although illiterate ; some having pitch and the calking of seams ascend to the gift of prophecy by the inspiration the dignity of poetry: Besides, it is the of Heaven.

Dante mentions him in the most impressive and characteristic spot Cemito, IV. 16, where he says that, if in Venice. The Ducal Palace and the mobility consisted in being known and Church of St. Mark's are symbols of talked about, “Asdente the shoemaker pride and power, but the strength of of Parma would be more noble than any Venice resided here. Her whole his. of his fellow-citizens.”

tory, for six hundred years, was here 126. The moon setting in the sea west epitomized, and as she rose and sunk, of Seville. In the Italian popular tradi- the hum of labour here swelled and subtion to which Dante again alludes, Par. sided. Here was the index-hand which 11. 51, the Man in the Moon is Cain marked the culmination and decline of with bis Thoms. This belief seems to her greatness. Built upon several sma! have been current too in England, Mid- islands, which are united by a wall o Sunimer Night's Dream, III. I: “Or two miles in circuit, its extent and com else one must come in with a bush of pleteness, decayed as it is, show what thorns and a lantern, and say he comes the naval power of Venice once was, as to disfigure, or to present, the person of the disused armour of a giant enables us moza-shine.”. And again, v. i: “The to measure his stature and strength. man should be put into the lantern. Near the entrance are four marble lions, How is it else the man i' the moon ? brought by Morosini from the Pelopon.

All that I have to say is to tell nesus in 1685, two of which are striking fu, that the lantern is the moon. I, the works of art. Of these two, one is by

63.

III.

far the oldest thing in Venice, being not It sweeps into the affrighted sea.

In morning's smile its eddies coil, much younger than the battle of Mara

Its billows sparkle, toss, and boil, Thon; and thus, from the height of Torturing all its quiet light swenty-three centuries, entitled to look Into columns fierce and bright." down upon St. Mark's as the growth of yesterday. The other two are nonde

Canto IX. 22: script animals, of the class commonly called heraldic, and can be styled lions “True is it once before I here below only by courtesy. In the armoury are

Was conjured by that pitiless Erictho,

Who summoned back the shades unto their some very interesting objects, and none

bodies. more so than the great standard of the Turkish admiral, made of crimson silk,

95. A fortified town on the Arny, in taken at the battle of Lepanto, and the Pisan territory. It was besieged by which Cervantes may have grasped with the troops of Florence and Lucca in his unwounded hand. A few fragments 1289, and capitulated.

As the garrison of some of the very galleys that were marched out under safe-guard, they were engaged in that memorable fight are also terrified by the shouts of the crowd, preserved here."

crying: “Hang them ! hang them !" 37. Malebranche, Evil-claws, a general In this crowd was Dante, “ a youth of name for the devils. 38. Santa Zita, the Patron Saint of twenty-five,” says Benvenuto da Imola.

110. Along the circular dike that Lucca, where the magistrates were called

separates one Bolgia from another. Elders, or Aldermen. In Florence they

This is a falsehood, as all the bore the name of Priors. 41. A Barrator, in Dante's use of the See Canto XXIII. 140.

bridges over the next Bolgia are broken. word, is to the State what a Simoniac is

II2. At the close of the preceding to the Church; one who sells justice, Canto the time is indicated as being an office, or employment.

hour after sunrise. Five hours later Benvenuto says that Dante includes would be noon, or the scriptural sixth Bontura with the rest, “because he is hour, the hour of the Crucifixion. Dante speaking ironically, as who should say, understands St. Luke to say that Christ Bontura is the greatest barrator of all.' died at this hour. Convito, IV. 23: For Bontura was an arch-barrator, who

Luke says that it was about the sixth sagaciously led and managed the whole hour when he died; that is, the culminacommune, and gave offices to whom he tion of the day.” Add to the “one wished. He likewise excluded whom he thousand and two hundred sixty-six wished.” 46. Bent down in the attitude of one earth, and it gives the year 1300, the

years,'

," the thirty-four of Christ's life on in prayer; therefore the demons mock date of the Infernal Pilgrimage. him with the allusion to the Santo Volto.

114. Broken by the earthquake at 48. The Santo Volio, or. Holy Face, the time of the Crucifixion, as the rock is a crucifix still preserved in the Cathe- leading to the Circle of the Violent, dral of Lucca, and held in great venera - Canto XII. 45: tion by the people. The tradition is that it is the work of Nicodemus, who “And at that moment this primeval rock sculptured it from memory.

Beth here and elsewhere made such over

throw." See also Sacchetti, Nov. 73, in which a preacher mocks at the Santo Volto in the church of Santa Croce at Florence. As in the next Bolgia Hypocrites are

49. The Serchio flows near Lucca. punished, Dante couples them with the Shelley, in a poem called The Boat, on Violent, by making the shock of the the Serchio, describes it as a “torrent earthquake more felt near them than fierce,"

elsewhere. " Which fervid from its mountain source,

125. The next crag or bridge, tra. Shallow, smooth, and strong, doth come;

versing the dikes and ditches. Swift as fire, tempestuously

137. See Canto XVII, 7j.

tines :

bullocks: the car was always rei, and

the bullocks, even to their hoofs, covered CANTO XXII.

as above described, but with red or white 1. The subject of the preceding according to the faction; the ensign staff Canto is continued in this.

was red, lofty, and tapering, and sur5. Aretino, Vita di Dante, says that mounted by a cross or golden ball : on Dente in his youth was present at the this, between two white fringed veils, great and memorable battle, which hung the natioral standard, and halfiefall at Campaldino, fighting valiantly way down the mast, a crucifix. A plat. on horseback in the front rank.” It was form ran out in front of the car, spacious there he saw the vaunt-couriers of the enough for a few chosen men to defend Aretines, who began the battle with it, while behind, on a corresponding such a rigorous charge, that they routed space, the musicians with their military the Florentine cavalry, and drove them instruments gave spirit to the combat : Lack upon the infantry.

mass was said on the Carroccio ere it 7. Napier, Florentine Hist., I. 214– quitted the city, the surgeons were 217, gives this description of the Car- stationed near it, and not unfrequently a raccio and the Martinilla of the Floren- chaplain also attended it to the fieli.

The loss of the Carroccio was a great "* In order to give more dignity to the disgrace, and betokened utter discomnational army and form a rallying point fiture; it was given to the most distin. for the troops, there had been established guished knight, who had a public salary a great car, called the Carroccio, drawn and wore conspicuous armour and a by two beautiful oxen, which, carrying golden belt : the best troops were stathe Florentine standard, generally accom- tioned round it, and there was frequently panied them into the field. This car was the hottest of the fight. . painted vermilion, the bullocks were “Besides the Carroccio, the Florentine covered with scarlet cloth, and the driver, army was accompanied by a great bell, a man of some consequence, was dressed called Martinella or Campana dezli in crimson, was exempt from taxation, Asini, which, for thirty days before hosand served without pay; these oxen tilities began, tolled continually day and were maintained at the public charge in night from the arch of Porta Santa a public hospital, and the white and red Maria, as a public declaration of war, banner of the city was spread above the and, as the ancient chronicle hath it, car between two lofty spars.

Those 'for greatness of mind, that the enemy taken at the battle of Monteaperto are might have full time to prepare himself. still exhibited in Siena Cathedral as At the same time also, the Carroccio was trophies of that fatal day.

drawn from its place in the offices of "Macchiavelli erroneously places the San Giovanni by the most distinguished adoption of the Carroccio by the Floren- knights and noble vassals of the republic, tines at this epoch, but it was long before and conducted in state to the Mercato in use, and probably was copied from Nuovo, where it was placed upon the the Milanese, as soon as Florence be- circular stone still existing, and remained came strong and independent enough to there until the army took the field. equip a national army. Eribert, Arch. Then also the Martinella was removed bishop of Milan, seems to have been its from its station to a wooden tower placed author, for in the war between Conrad I. on another car, and with the Carroccio and that city, besides other arrange served to guide the troops by night and ments for military organisation, he is day. And with these two pomps, of said to have finished by the invention of the Carroccio and Campana,' says Maiesthe Carroccio; it was a pious and not pini, 'the pride of the old citizens, our impolitic imitation of the ark as it was ancestors, was ruled.' carried before the Israelites: This vehicle 15. Equivalent to the proverb, “Do is described, and also represented in in Rome as the Romans do. ancient paintings, as a four-wheeled ob 48. Giampolo, or Ciampolo, say all long car, drawn by two, four, or six the commentators; but nothing more is

now:

known of him than his name, and what “A painted people there below we found, he tells us here of his history.

Who went about with footsteps very slow,

Weeping and in their looks subdued and 52. It is not very clear which King

weary." Thibault is here meant, but it is probably King Thibault IV., the crusader and Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 2780 :poet, born 1201, died 1253. His poems

“In his colde grave have been published by Lévêque de la Alone, withouten any compagnie. Ravallière, under the title of Les Poésies du Roi de Navarre; and in one of his And Gower, Conf. Amant, :songs (Chanson 53) he makes a clerk

To muse in his philosophie address him as the Bons Rois Thiebaut.

Sole withouten compagnie Dante cites him two or three times in his Volg. Eloq., and may have taken

4. The Fables of Esop, by Sir Roger this expression from his song, as he does L'Estrange, IV. : " There fell out a afterwards, Canto XXVIII. 135, lo Re bloody quarrel once betwixt the Frogs ies

, the Re Giovane, or Young King, and the Mice, about the sovereignty of from the songs of Bertrand de Born.

the Fenns; and whilst two of their 65. A Latian, that is to say, an champions were disputing it at swords Italian.

point, down comes a kite powdering 82. This Frate Gomita was a Sar- upon them in the interim, and gobbles dinian in the employ of Nino de' Vis- up both together, to part the fray.' conti, judge in the jurisdiction of Gallura,

7. Both words signifying the

gentle Judge Nino” of Purg: mo, from the Latin modo; and issa, from VIII. 53. The frauds and peculations the Latin ipsa; meaning ipsa hora. of the Friar brought him finally to the “ The Tuscans say mo," remarks Bengallows. Gallura is the north-eastern venuto, “the Lombards issa.jurisdiction of the island.

37. “When he is in a fright and 88. Don Michael Zanche was Senes- hurry, and has a very steep place to go chal of King Enzo of Sardinia, a natural down, Virgil has to carry him alta son of the Emperor Frederick II. Dante gether,” says Mr. Ruskin. See Canto gives him the title of Don, still used in XII., Note 2. Sardinia for Signore. After the death of 63. Benvenuto speaks of the cloaks Enzo in prison at Bologna, in 1271, Don of the German monks as “ill-fitting and Michael won by fraud and flattery his shapeless." widow Adelasia, and became himself

66. The leaden cloaks which FredeLord of Logodoro, the north-western rick put upon malefactors were straw in jurisdiction, adjoining that of Gallura. comparison. The Emperor Frederick II.

The gossip between the Friar and the is said to have punished traitors by Seneschal, which is here described by wrapping them in lead, and throwing Ciampolo, recalls the Vision of the them into a heated cauldron. I can find

It rests Sardinian poet Araolla, a dialogue be no historic authority for this. tween himself and Gavino Sambigucci, only on tradition ; and on the same written in the soft dialect of Logodoro, authority the same punishment is said to a mixture of Italian, Spanish, and Latin, have been inflicted in Scotland, and is and beginning :

thus described in the ballad of " Lon!

Soulis,” Scott's Minstrelsy of the Sceilisk “Dulche, amara memoria de giornadas Fuggitivas cun doppia pena mia,

Border, IV, 256 :Qui quanto plus l'istringo sunt passadas."

“On a circle of stones they placed the poi, See Valery, Voyages en Corse el en

On a circle of stones but barely nine ;
Sardaigne, II, 410.

They heated it red and fiery hot,
Till the burnished brass did glimmer and

shine.

“They roll'd him up in a sheet of lead,
CANTO XXIII.

A sheet of lead for a funeral pall,
In this Sixth Bolgia the Hypo-

And plunged him into the cauldron red,

And nielted him,-lead, and bones, and crites are punished.

all."

1.

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