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[ 160 )
[March 1, PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE. Ecouen, perhaps nore perfect, for the Repart on the Progress of the Fine inost famous of the Montmorencies; and
arts, from the Epoch of the French Anet, which appeared to be the work of Revolution, (1789) to the Year 1808, tlie Graces, for the woman who to the made by a Commission of the Insti- greatest loveliness, and the most charins, tute of France, by order of the En- united the greatest dignity of character,
Diana of Poitiers. peror Napoleon.
· The horrors of the massacre of St. IS Majesty being in council," a de. Bartholomew, and its fatal consequences, Fine Arts of the Instituie, was presented barbarisin. Athens, Rome, Florence, by the Minister of the Home Depart- might preserve the arts in the midst of ment, and adınitted to the bar of the political troubles, and even obtain beaucouncil.
tiful monuments froni them; but reliThe deputation was composed of gious wars spare nothing that is liberal. M. M. Bervic, president; Vincent, When Androuet du Cerceau, one of the vice-president; 1. Lebreton, perpetual restorers of architecture, forced to quit secretary; Vien, a
senator; Moitte, his country or to abjure his made of Heurtier, Gossec, Jeuffroy, Grandmesnil, worship, preferred exile; when John Visconti, Dufourny, Peyre, and Chaudet. Goujon was assassinated as a Huguenot, After a speech from the president, the while working at those beautiful pieces following report was read by the se
of sculpture of which our school is so cretary :
proud; France was no longer worthy of SIRE,
possessing the fine arts. The view which we submit to your
We must pass to the age of Lonis Majesty, having for its object not only XIII. to witness their revival. Not that to describe what the arts have pro. Henry IV. did not protect and support duced within the last twenty years, but, them: his natural inclinations, and his also to point out what may influence
generous character, made him their their prosperity, we have thought that, friend. He assembled the ablest artists, in order the better to second the gene- and gave them apartinents in the Louvre, Tous intentions of your imperial decree, where be often visited them: bot the it would be proper to trace farther back misfortunes of all kinds which the civil the causes which have contributed to
war had left for him to repair, bis plans their prosperity, or their decline, in of policy, and death, which cut him off France. The sciences connect their in the midst of his glorious career, prelabours, and the truths deduced from vented brim from giving a strong impulse them, with incontestable principles: we to the arts. are obliged to appeal to examples, in
Richelieu encouraged them all: lię order to establish rules, and to convince. seized the sacred fire which John Cousin May we then be permitted to consult bad happily preserved during the dark for a moinent our ancient annais?
reigns of Francis II, Charles IX. and At the epoch of 1989, the fine arts Henry III. His vigorous administration had completed in France their entire impressed on the fine arts a more decided revolution. Brilliant with youth, strength, character, and greater perfection, than and grace, under Francis I. who natu- they had under Louis XIV, who, it is ralized thein, avd under Henry II. who, true, conferred on them greater magniwithout loving them as much as his ficence. father, equally protected them, the arts
The cardinal de Richelieu prevailed still threw a lustre on the only noble
on Le Poussin to quit Rome, in order to passion of Catharine de Medicis, her devote his talents to the reign which that taste for magnificence. Thus, in less minister wished also to render illustrious than a century, were raised and embela by ibe fine arts; and during a residence lished the palaces of the Louvre, the of two years, that great painter composed Thuilleries, Fontainebleau, the Luxem
cartoons for tapestry, allegorical subjects bourg, for royal residences; the castle of for the decoration of the great gallery of
the Louvre, frontispieces for the fine * Sitting of Saturday the 5th of March.
editions produced by the royal presses, 3
recently established. Exceeding the or- formed the standard of opinion, and of dinary dimensions of his works, he drew the favours of the prince: subunission the only great pictures that are still ex- was compulsory: Accordingly we find tant by him.t . At the same time, Le in the arts, during the whole age, only Sueur painted the cloister of the Car- one naine worthy of being inscribed with thusians; Philip de Champagne executed those of Montesquieu, Button, J. J. his pictures and portraits, so natural and Rousseau, and Voltaire: it is that of Vien, so full of truth; the Luxembourg was
who put an end to that state of things. finished; the equestrian statue of Louis Let not the other nations of Europe XIII. was erected, Warin struck the avail themselves of that humiliation : no finest coins used by the moderns; while
one of them could enter into competithe gold and silver-smithis produced ex- tion, it, instead of considering the general cellent models. Such was the influence causes of the prosperity or decline of of Richelieu on the arts at the com- the fine arts, we made a selection of mencenient of the seventeenth century. their works, even since the regency: But when he was no more, they began to Amongst the painters, the Coypels, decline: that profound knowledge of de- Restout, Carle. Vanloo; Boucher himsign, the taste, the grace, which charac- selt, whoin nature bad gifted with inaterised the time of Francis I. and gination, wit, and facility; the statuaries Henry II. disappeared.
Bouchardon, Pigalle, G. Coustou, Fal. If the Fine Arts had so greatly degene.
conet; would yet form a respectable list, rated since the time of Louis XIV. it which would admit of no rivalship, except was not because their administration had in architecture; in which we should have experienced any apparently great alter- to quote only three or four cdifices ation. In the state of degradation to worthy of esteem, until the year 1752. * wbich we have just seen them reduced, In 1789, painting Bourished in the their organisation was very nearly the French school, because it possessed both saine as under Colbert: .they had always M. Vien, and his principal pupils. The for their administrator the director-ge- former is always the object of our veneral of the king's buildings, (board of neration, and the latter execute grcat works ;) and their masters had the titles works, which show that their talents are of first painter, and first architect. It still in their full vigour. We are inwas absolutely necessary to conciliate debted to them for a new gerieration of these last, in order to obtain prizes in the painters, in different branches, and in schools' einployment, or the title of Aca- every one worthy of their misters. demician. 'In this artists succeeded by From their schools annually proceed the imitating their manner, and adopting young artists who
obtain the great their tastes, their aversions : or hy not prizes, and repair to the imperial school daring to attempt any thing beyond at Rome, to complete their instrucwhat they knew, and particularly by re.
tion. specting their babits. Such was the Painting is therefore not only flourishcommon law by which all the arts, and ing in France, but it never was more so. their academies, were governed. It was The same may be said of sculpture, that which all times opposed every with this difference, that the latter has kind of progress ; but which was most yet formed only one generation sivce absolute with respect to the fine arts
The art has been brought back to good under the reign of Louis XV.
taste, and the principles of the beautiful, The contrast which then existed be. The same statuaries who have thus retween the sciences, philosophy, and stored it, continue to afford examples of literature, on the one hand, and the fine success. But, as well as in painting, the arts on the other, has something very first pupils enjoy a reputation established singular in it; the former boldly atiаcker on beautiful works. all their livnits for the purpose of extend- Of all the arts, sculpture is that which ing them, whilst the others continued has achieved the greatest conquest under the most disgraceful servitude since 1789. It never appeared with which they had erer submitted to; under more distinction during the whole cene the necessity of conforming to the maxims, and almost to the orders, of two or
The portico at the entrance of the an. three artists, who could only form dis- Legislative Body); the two buildings in the
ciene Palais Bourbon, (now the palace of the ciples of greater mediocrity than them- square of Louis XV. (the I'lace de la Conselves.. But they were the distributors corde); the great theatre at Versailles; and of employment and honorary titles; they the first court of the Palais Roya:. ALONTHLY MAC, No. 196.
162 Progress of the French Fine Arts, &c. since 1789. [March 1, tury, in its relations with architecture; but no historical monuinent bad been and the grand basso-relievo) of the Pan- entrusted to it when the minister of the theon, as well as those lately executed home department (M. Cretet) charged it in the court of the Louvre, and the or- . to consecrate one of the great events of , naments of the triunphal arch of the your Majesty's reign.* Engraving on Carousel, are incomparably superior to precious stones, and that of medals, all the sculpture of the kind, since the which form two branches of the same art, age of Louis XIV. and even under the are, however, the most durable deposireign of that prince. The art of the taries of history, and on that account statuary is therefore also in a state of deserve to be improved as inuch as posprogression.
sible. Amongst the wishes which we are au- Architecture has suffered more from thorised by your Majesty to submit to the revolution than the other arts. It you, is this : that an error, which would had been attacked even in its prmciples shortly become an abuse very prejudicial by a crowd of men, constituting themto sculpture, may not be allowed to ex- scives architects without the study inlond any further; that of submitting it dispensably necessary. It appeared with to ideas foreign to the subject, and fonour on public festivities alone. If which, not being conceived in the spirit these were not all worthy by their object of the art, could only produce discor- to assemble and to collect a great peodauces, inore or less offensive. The ple, they were for the most part remarkinore prudent it is to require that sculp- able for the dispositions of the architects. tors should conform to the general sys. Some have left recollections, which in tem of a monument, the inore necessary every point of view are renewed with it is that they should be at liberty to dis. pleasure: such was the triumphal fête, pose their subjects according to ihe con. at which the master-pieces of the arts, ception of the statuary; for every art recently conquered by you, Sire, aphas its poetics, its principles, its' lan- peared in the Champ de llars, there to guage, its means, (we mighit say its con- receive the homages and acclamations of science, which must be respected, to three hundred thousand Frenchmen. avoid introducing disorder by consound
Alter the invasion of ignorance, aring the styles.
chitecture was threatened with being Engraving in medals, which remained confined only to the agreeable; a taste far behind sculpture, though it should which, if ericouraged, would have prohave kept pace with it, had approached duced a deviation from the grand style it in 1789. One artist only showed more
to which the art should tend. We have koowledge of design, particularly of the exerted oui selves, as well as the profestalent of a statuary, which must be found sor of the school of architecture, to rein an engraver of medals. * During the strain the young artists by the influence revolution, a new engraver, still more of public competitions; and our zeal has distinguished, added to our Popes. We not been unsuccessful. The last great bave Jost hiin, and the former las ceased prizes have been adjudged to works of a to produce works before the usual aye of grander character. inactivity. Both leave a void in the As to great monuments, it is not to be art, which however söill possesses some
expected that since the year 1789, a able men, whom we shall quote hereafter; nation without a government, shaken by but it does not appear to have made that long and violent convulsions, could have progress, which inight bave been ex- decreed any, France, Sire, will be jupected froin the great number of medals debted to your reign for them. executed within the last ten years. We Engraving on copper is ranked amongst apprehend that too much precipitation the arts of design, of which it translaies is the cause.
and multiplies the conceptions. It was Aš to engraving on precious stones, it not revived with the French school, lehas been totally forgotten: some indivi- cause it had been left without considerduals have applied for a few portraits; ation, and without great models; because
there was no necessity that engravers M. Dupré, who announced himself as
should excel in design. The whims of carly as the year 1776, by the inedal of the taste and fashion kept it alive ; and if Independance of America.
some engravers sought for glory, they t'Rambert Dumarest, who died a member obtained it from foreigners. or ile Institute in 1005, was not nuiiced indl 6795.
* The peace of Tilsit.
A Frenchman and an Italian had in. signy, the happy, fruitful, and witty troduced into England, about the middle genius of Grelry, seduced without obof the eighteenth century, the art of stacle; and was an honour to France, copper plate cu graving, which was while irksoineness was seated at the flouri-biny in France during the seven- Lyric ibeatre, and almost insuperable teent; and those two foreigners cansed shackles iimpeded composers who could it to prosper in London, while the coun. have brought about a better taste. try of Audran, Edelinck, Nantueil, In 1774, Gluck, four years after, Poilly, Masson, Drevei, &c. scarcely Piccini, and in 1783, Sacchini, fortucounted two or three engravers whom it nately took possession of the scene. could acknowledge. *
Their success had nothing national in it, In 1789, the only engravings of any besides a just admiration, and the im. consequence executed in France, were pressions made by the animated and long the galleries of the Palais Royal, and debates, carricd on by the warmest pare that of Florence. Since that period, and tisans of the German and Italian schools. particularly since you, Sire, hold the Hence, however, results the fact, that the reins of government, we shall have to French are not insensible to the beauty quote a great number of magnificent of music, as it has been pretended. It works which occupy the art advantage. is to be observed, likewise, that Pbilidor ously, both for itself and for commerce. and Gossee bad, before she arrival of The greater part of these undertakings Gluck, attempted to substitute, in the is cive to the encouragements given them room of the trailing inelopæa, which hy your Majesty One alone has con- constituted the old French singing, the siautiy occupied upwards of a hundred aniinated tones of the passions, and thing artists for the last eight years.t
they were applauded. * In order to finish The view of the progress or of the the view of inusic in 1789, we have to decline of music, cannot be traced with state that a jew years previously, * a the same precision as that of the other school for singing had been established arts, because its productions are from a persuasion that the theatre could placed in the same aspect, and under never be subjected to the art, unless the ihe 11 fluence of a single cause.
only means which can insure success It bas not followed the same line, on were employed, namely, sound instructhe great theatre of the Coinic Opera. tion. But that school was peither On this last, the natural grace of Mine grandly conceived, nor ably organizert;
and when it was destroyed as a royal Vivarez, born in France; and Bartoluzzi, establishimcut, in 1790, it had already in Florence, very able engravers : the former passed under the influence of the opera, in landscape, the latter in history. Before which it was intended to regenerate. them, England possessed tut one engraver Such was the state of dramatic mosic worthy of notice, John Smith and his was the black manner. The two foreigners formed
in Fian:re, when the political revolution some native t,leats; 0:e of whom, Wuollet,
coinmenced. a pupil-of Vivarez, is justly celebrated.
+ The descriprion of the Napoleon Mu. Philidor, in his Opera of Ernclinde, perseum, due to M. M. Laurent, and Robillard. formed in 1767, and Gossce in Sabinus, acted Peronville. The other works will be quoted in 1773. in the general view, under the article En. + In 1783, the Baron de Breteuil, estab. graving.
lislied the school for singing and declamation.
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.
Including Notices of Works in Hund, Domestic und Foreign.'
Authentic Communications for this article will ulways be thankfully received. IT T is in contemplation to publish a new ving Fuller, the consequence would natu
and handsome edition of " Fuller's rally and very properly be A total inilure Worthies,” under the sanction of in the speculation. Ii is not hy this asthe association of booksellers, who sertion intended to say that he is faulio are presenting to the public improved less; but such is bis general accuracy, and uniform editions of the most valuable and so pleasant are bis excursory digresof our English Chronicles. If any one sious, that it will be highly proper to conhad the presuinption to atteinpe impro- sider him so strictly as an English classic,
164 Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. [March 1, as not to admit a single alteration into author of Monographia Apum Angliæ, the text,but rather to insert, in briet notes, and Mr. " . SPENCE, F.L.S. are engasuch trifling errors as may be detected. ged in preparing an Introduction to EnAny nutes or corrections, or any hints on lomology, which is in a state of considerthe subjcct, that the admirers of Fuller able forwardness. The plan of the work may have the goodness to send to Messrs. is popular; but without overlooking Nichols and Son, Printers, will be thanke science, tuine technical and anaiomical fully received; and duly noticed. departments of which, much new Datter
An important national work will be will be contributed, its object, arier obpublished about the Easter recess, under viating objections, and removing prejuthe title of County Annual Archives. dices, is to include every tung uselul or Hitherto the annals of each county have interesting to the entomological stulent, been entirely lost to the public, and any except descriptions of gencra and species, one desirous of referring to any particular which are foreign to the nature of such event or proceeding in the county in
a work. shach he resides, has no means wherever The new East India college, at Haileyof gaining such information, however in. bury, Hertfordshire, was a few months teresting it may be to himself or impor- since completed. It is a very neat and tant to the public. As the County Ar- landsome structure, composed entirely chives is intended to supply ibis deside- on the Grecian model, atier the designs ratum, the contents of each annual vo.
of Mr. William Wilkins, jun. It conJune will be arranged under the names sists of four sides, forming a quadrange, of the counties to which they respectively with a well-proportioned square in the belong, and the subjects classed under
The principal front, of freefive general departments: 1. Public Bu- stone, faces the east, and commands a siness. 2. Civil and Criminal Jurispru- distant view of the high north road, from dence. 3. Political Economy. 4. Chro- which it has a very beautiful appearance. nicle. 5. Biography.
In this front are the chapel, dining-ball, Mr. BENJAMIN THOMPSON, of Notting, and library; the kitchen and offices comhain, has in the press a Translation of posing one wing, and the Principal's M. Lasteyrie's Account of the Introduc- apartinents the other. The other three tion of the Merino Race of Sheep into sides contain separate apartments for 120 the several Countries of Europe where students, having a recess for a bed, and they are naturalized. The work is ac. a closet for books, in each, so that every conpanied wit! notes relative to the mode student has a commodious apartment to of inanaging this valuable breed, which bimself. The centre and wings of these the translator's experience has enabled three sides of the quadrangle, also conhim to supply.
tain houses for the professors, and seveIų has long'been matter of surprise to ral lecture-rooms, besides the various foreign naturalists, that although in this offices necessary for the college-serrants, country botany has been cultivated with &c. The grounds belonging to the colo a zeal and success which leave nothing lege are now laying out agreeably to a to desire, scarcely any attention has been plan of Mr. Repron, and when comhitherto paid to the sister science ento)- pleted, will, together with the building, be mology; so that while the vegetalle pro- a great improvement to that part of the ductions of the Britishi isles are for the county; while the institution itself will most part well known, and accurately be a lasting memorial of the zeal of the described, not a third of our numerous East India Company in the cau.e of litribes of insects have been noticed or Lerature and science, as well as the source enumerated. This neglect is, doubiless, of benefit and advantage both at home principally to be attributed to the want and in India. The nomination of st11of a popular and comprehensive elemen- dents to the college is rested in the ditary work, alapled to the present im- rectors, and is, in fact, a virtual appoint: proved state of the science, To supply ment as writers. The terms of admisthis desideratum, and facilitate the study, sion are 100 guineas per annum. The in Britain, of a department of natural students wear an academical habit, and history, singularly amusing and justruc- are subject to college discipline and retive; abounding in objects striking in their strictions. Their fourth annual examishape and structure, splendid in deco. nation took place on the 21st December, ration, and in the bighest degree inter. when the prizes were distributed as fola esting in labiis, manners, and economy; lows: the Rev. W. KIRĖY; A. B. F.L.S. To Mr. Robert Anderson, the certificate of