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common saying was that this was a group that came down to work and found out our problems. It was very well taken and I would like to state from the viewpoint of management of the Company and in the position as Governor we appreciate the thought given, and I may say we learned a great deal. It was a highly successful trip in
Senator DWORSHAK. Governor, we certainly learned a lot about the problems confronted by you and so far as I am concerned I think you are making splendid progress in trying to solve many of the problems which have been more or less dormant for many years. I think it had a very salutary effect on the members of this subcommittee who were fortunate enough to make that trip, because in the past we have been dealing in sort of an intangible way with many of these problems. So far as I am concerned now I do have a very graphic understanding of the Panama Canal Zone and the various problems, and I think it will be very beneficial in helping to solve some of these problems.
Senator McClellan wants to.
Senator MCCLELLAN. I would just like to make this comment: That this recent visit by members of this committee to Panama gave me my first opportunity to get any firsthand information about it and I was very favorably impressed with the attitude I found on the part of the Governor and other officials of ours there in a sincere effort, as I sensed it, Governor, to bring that operation into the best economic situation possible. I realize that you cannot resolve all these problems immediately, but I think you have shown some progress, and substantial progress, in being able to reduce the number of employees while the traffic in the Canal is steadily increasing.
The thing that I observed that I think needs correction-and Senator Ellender has spoken of this
was the hospital situation. I think further savings can be effected there. I do not have the answer to the problem or any specific suggestion, but I do urge you to keep working on it to the end that the unnecessary expense that is being incurred now by duplication can be eliminated.
Senator DWORSHAK. Of course, Governor, in the past the committee had to rely almost entirely upon the information provided by our colleague, Senator Ellender, who had made previous trips to the Canal Zone, but he was the only member who had made such trips and now I think we all have a better understanding.
Senator ELLENDER. You do not think it was a junket, do you, General?
General SEYBOLD. No sir. The fact of it is it was the hardest working crowd we have ever seen.
Senator DWORSHAK. It did make us realize the way we are contracting these distances. Of course, we used the commercial airlines and had a slight layover at Miami, but I think the actual flying time was only about 7 hours between here and the Panama Canal Zone. That is something quite remarkable.
General SEYBOLD. I would just like to again assure the committee that it is a part of management to carry out the policies of the Congress and particularly the two committees, and we realize at times that we have the difficulties of implementing immediately. Many of these things require a timetable, but they will be done to the best of our ability.
Senator DWORSHAK. Do you have any other questions?
Thank you, Governor.
Senator DWORSHAK. The committee has received a letter from Senator Bricker, in which he refers to the permission previously granted for the insertion in the record of a statement by Mr. William M. Corry of Zanesville in support of the Dillon Dam, and he transmits a copy of that statement for the record. The statement will be placed in the record at this point.
(The statement referred to follows:)
STATEMENT BY WILLIAM M. CORRY, MANAGING DIRECTOR ZANESVILLE CHAMBER OF
COMMERCE, ZANESVILLE, OHIO I am here today speaking on behalf of an organization that has for years been the focal point of interest and appreciation of the far-reaching advantages of the flood-control program authorized by the Congress. Ever since the historic flood of March 1913–41 years ago—our area has been faced with the ever apparent threat of floods and the consequent destruction of property, stoppage of work and curtailment of expansion.
Thanks to the understanding of past sessions of the Congress, who authorized the fine network of reservoirs known throughout the world as the Muskingum Conservancy District, much of the danger from frequent floods has been lifted from our area. In the basic plan approval and authorization by the Flood Coptrol Act of 1938 a system of 15 reservoirs was authorized for the Muskingum Valley ; 14 of those have been completed and have for years more than many times justified their construction. We now come to the 15th and last reservoir in this system-known as the Dillon Reservoir, located on the Licking River in Ohio at the confluence of that river with the Muskingum River, about 6 miles above the city of Zanesville.
The Dillon Reservoir was selected for construction as a unit in the compre hensive flood control plan for the Ohio River Basin as authorized by the Flood Control Act of June 28, 1938.
The project, when completed, will be operated primarily for flood control to augment the existing 14 reservoirs in the Muskingum Basin and to provide needed additional flood protection to the cities of Zanesville, McConnelsville, and Marietta, and other towns and rural areas along the Muskingum and Ohio Rivers
The Dillon Reservoir project was considered in the development of the original comprehensive plan for the Muskingum Basin, and would probably have been selected for construction at the time the 14 existing reservoirs were constructed had funds been available to complete the system. The construction of the Dillon Reservoir project at that time would have required approximately one-third of the available funds and necessitated deferring several of the other projects. The Dillon project is definitely an integral part of the comprehensive plan for the Muskingum Basin.
The communities along the Muskingum River from Zanesville to Marietta. although protected to a considerable extent by the existing reservoirs, remain subject to a flood hazard because of the large uncontrolled watershed area and the possibility of a flood on the Licking River.
The authority for this project is in the Flood Control Act, June 28, 1938 (Public Law 761, 75th Cong.) approving the comprehensive plan for the Ohio River Basin contained in flood control committee Document No. 1, 75th Congress, 1st session, with such modifications thereto as in the discretion of the Secretary of War and the Chief of Engineers may be advisable. The basis for the authorization of Dillon Dam is contained in report 2353 of the flood control committee, dated May 13, 1938, which accompanied the bill. This report made the following statements:
"Since the submission of the report of the Chief of Engineers, published as Flood Control Committee Document 1 (75th Cong., 1st sess.), the War Department has continued its investigations and studies in the Ohio River Basin and the latest plans and estimates have been made available to this committee These recent studies confirm the soundness of the general plan for flood control in the Ohio River Basin which was set up in Committee Document 1 (75th Cong.. 1st sess.), although certain minor changes in detail were found desirable, and these have been made. The comprehensive flood-control plan was set up for the Ohio River Basin and provides for a system of 49 reservoirs on tributaries of the Ohio * * * and some 235 levee and flood-wall projects for the protection of cities, towns, and agricultural areas along the Ohio River and its tributaries * "
This report lists the 49 authorized reservoirs and revised by the Flood Control Committee is shown and includes Dillon Reservoir with the 1946 Flood Control Act. The 1946 Flood Control Act, approved July 23, 1946, made no change in the authorized Dillon project.
Project description calls for a rolled earth-fill dam, maximum height 118 feet, crest length 1,350 feet, reservoir total storage 294,000 acre-feet, of which flood-control storage is 279,000 and conservation storage 15,000 acre-feet. The reservoir extends 21.7 miles upstream. There is no power in the project.
The Dillon Reservoir will supplement the 14 existing flood-control and conservation reservoirs in the Muskingum River Basin, through control of approximately 29 percent of the now uncontrolled area above Zanesville. The reservoir will greatly decrease flood damages in the Muskingum Valley and will affect marked reduction in floods on the Ohio River. It will also provide additional conservation water for water supply, pollution abatement, navigation, and recreation, and wildlife benefits.
The flood-control benefits are along the Muskingum below the mouth of the Licking River, including the towns of Zanesville, McConnelsville, and Marietta, Ohio, and many cities and towns along 800 miles of the Ohio River from Marietta to Cairo. The Dillon Reservoir will reduce the crest of the 1913 flood by 4 feet at Zanesville, and will reduce the peak flow contributed to the Ohio River by 32,000 cubic feet per second.
The Dillon Reservoir will provide a conservation pool of 15,000 acre-feet extending a distance of 10.3 miles, a flood-control pool of 279,000 acre-feet extending a distance of 21.7 miles, or a total storage capacity of 294,000 acre-feet.
At the present time, the 14 completed flood-control dams in the Muskingum Valley control 4,287 square miles. The Dillon Dam will add a control of 748 square miles of drainage area. In other words, the existing reservoirs control 62 percent of the drainage area of the watershed. When Dillon is completed, it will raise that control to 73 percent.
Let us think of another comparison. A flood equivalent to the 1913 flood—one that reached a stage of 51 feet-would, with the present series of dams, be reduced to 37.8, but with the Dillon Dam, the reduction would be lowered to 33.8, a 4-foot drop, by this 1 dam alone.
The uncontrolled area above Zanesville, including the Licking River, is 2,572 square miles, which is 37.6 percent of the total area above Zanesville. The Dillon Reservoir with a flood-storage capacity equivalent to 7 inches of runoff will control 748 square miles, or 29.1 percent of the presently uncontrolled drainage area at Zanesville. It is estimated that the present average frequency of damaging floods at Zanesville, as modified by the existing reservoirs, is equivalent to one occurrence in about 10 years. With the Dillon Reservoir completed, this frequency will be reduced to one occurrence in 50 years.
It is proposed to maintain a conservation pool in reservoir during periods of normal flow in the river. This pool will have a capacity of 15,000 acre-feet, which is equivalent to 0.4 inches of runoff. During dry periods when stream flows are extremely low and the streams become polluted with domestic and industrial waste, it would be possible to alleviate these conditions by release of part of the conservation storage. These low-flow increases would be beneficial not only to the abatement of pollution in the Muskingum River at and downstream from Zanesville, but also in providing increased water supply for lockages at the Muskingum and Ohio Rivers navigation projects. The conservation pool could also provide for the propagation of game fish, a haven for migratory waterfowl, and recreational facilities such as camping, boating, and fishing for the residents in a wide surrounding area.
This project has been approved by the Corps of Army Engineers and has been authorized by Congress. There have been public hearings at which opponents have had an opportunity to present their views. The majority of the people by far have been in favor of the project.
Funds allocated to this project to date have been expended in connection with railroad relocations, lands, easements, and rights-of-way necessary therefore, and utility changes necessitated by the completed work.
By completing Dillon there will be control of 62 percent of the Muskingum drainage area, whose 8,040 square miles places it seventh largest of the 20 major drainage areas, 11,000 square miles or more, directly tributary to the Ohio River.
Certain low-lying areas will remain subject to some flooding under extreme floods even after construction of the Dillon Reservoir. It is worth noting, however, that even these low-lying areas will receive almost complete protection from the operation of the Dillon Reservoir. In fact, no flood of record subse
quent to that of 1913 would flood these low-lying areas, assuming the operation of the 14 Muskingum River Reservoirs and the Dillon Reservoir. With the 14 Muskingum Reservoirs alone on the other hand they have been flooded several times since the system was placed in operation.
The question of usability of land in Dillon Reservoir has been raised by some opponents of the project. In answer, we suggest a comparison with the Mohawk project, of which the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District has made such a fine show place. As Mohawk is adjacent to Dillon and controls a watershed of approximately the same size, is reasonable to assume that land in Dillon Reservoir would be affected by flood waters to about the same extent.
Mohawk Reservoir has a flood-storage capacity of 285,000 acre-feet and a net drainage area of 817 square miles. The highest flood-control capacity that has thus far been used in Mohawk Reservoir is 126,800 acre-feet of 44.5 percent of its capacity occurring on June 10, 1947. That flood inundated 4,968 acres of the total area of 7,950 acres. Dillon Reservoir has a total flood-storage capacity of 261,100 acre-feet, a drainage area of 748 square miles and a water surface area of 10,285 acres at spillway crest. Approximately 7,900 acres of the reser voir at spillway level are located in Muskingum County, the remaining 2385 acres being located in Licking County. If Dillon Reservoir had been constructed and in operation during the June 1947 flood and had stored an amount of runoff equivalent to that stored at Mohawk Reservoir, 44.4 percent of its capacity would have been utilized. The flood would have inundated 5,012 acres in the reservoir, of which approximately 4,212 acres would be in Muskingum County and the remaining 800 acres in Licking County.
Curves showing the frequency of filling of the Dillon Reservoir have been pre pared and the following tabulation lists pool elevation versus frequency of occurrence for various pool elevations in the reservoir:
1 Permanent pool. 3 Spillway.
The need for the completion of the Dillon project can be justified beyond doubt. Since the time that work was discontinued on the Dillon project, the need for its completion has been increased by the economic changes which have occurred in the Muskingum Valley during the past few years.
A look at the map enclosed will show that the area from the point of the confluence of the Muskingum into the Ohio at Marietta, to the point of the Dillon Reservoir above Zanesville, has added an unusual expansion of industry sparked by the building of a $40 million generating plant by the Ohio Power Co., a subsidiary of the American Gas & Electric system. This new plant is located below McConnelsville and adjacent to the Washington County line. This new facility combined with the Philco plant of the same company, located 10 miles below Zanes ville, provides 2 of the largest power generating plants in the Nation. These are within 30 miles of each other. This combined availability of power is the greatest single inducement to industrial expansion in this valley. The lower end of the valley toward Marietta has already attracted many new industries, such as the B. F. Goodrich Co. The Globe Iron Works has already started to build near the new powerplant.
The imperative need now is to complete the Dillon project so as to improve flood control in the upper part of the valley (the part from McConnelsville to Zanesville to the Dillon Reservoir) so that the possibility of flood-free industrial sites can become a certainty, and thus be made available to industries for new plants, the location of which will mean increased employment to the people of the area and increased tax valuation to the cities, counties, the State, and Federal Government. The increased taxes that would accrue from these new plants would add greatly to the increased benefits that justify the expenditure of Federal funds on the Dillon project.
This insuring of flood-free sites would, in a considerable measure add to the national plan for dispersion of industries as recommended by the Federal Gor.
ernment in their attempt to decentralize industrial locations and thus minimize the possibility of attack or destruction in time of war.
It will be noted that we have added increased emphasis to the particular region from the Dillion Reservoir to McConnelsville because of the current files now available for inspection which will show where prominent industries have shown interest in this area and have been retarded in their plans only because of the possibility of floods. Normal flood stages at Zanesville and McConnelsville are 28 feet and 11 feet, respectively. The major flood of 1913 crested at 51.2 feet at Zanesville and 33.2 feet at McConnelsville. The already completed 14 reservoir system would reduce such a flood to 37.8 feet at Zanesville and 19 feet at McConnelsville. With the Dillon Reservoir also in operation, the crest of such a flood would be reduced to 33.8 feet at Zanesville and 14 feet at McConnelsville.
Since the close of World War II Congress has appropriated $8,503,800 for this project. The appropriations by years are: 1946. $1,000,000 | 1950
1, 277, 600 1947. 2,000,000 1951.
926, 200 1948.
2,000,000 1949_ 1,300,000 Total------
8, 503, 800 During the past 2 years the project has been dormant due to Federal Government restrictions. During the time that no work has been done, the obvious and to be expected deterioration has occurred from natural causes. Photographs are available showing the unusual erosion that has taken place. To continue this project in the dormant stage can only add to the erosion and deterioration and thus increase the cost of rebuilding and refinishing the work and foundations already completed.
Already completed are the Nashport Dike and the construction of a railroad right-of-way for a distance of 19 miles in the Licking Valley.
The $2 million requested at this time will make possible the completion of the railroad relocation. The completion of this relocation would enable the Federal Government to release itself from the maintenance costs and other incidental expenses which must be borne by the Federal Government until the railroad phase of the project is completed and turned over to the railroad company who then will assume the regular maintenance expenses.
With the railroad phase completed it would be possible to proceed with the building of the dam itself, along with the dikes planned at Pleasant Valley, Black Run, and Township Hall. The latter two are relatively small projects.
STATEMENT BY WILLIAM M. CORRY If this appropriation is granted, work could start this summer to restore the damage caused by the elements during the past 2 years. Three bridges for which the steel has already been fabricated would be ready for erection as soon as the preliminary work was done.
This would make it possible for the B. & 0. Railroad to start operating late in 1955 over an elevated right-of-way which would place the tracks above the high water line of the flood-control reservoir.
It is easily apparent that the number of jobs that would be available through this project (estimated between 1,500 and 2,000) would provide a much needed and certainly proper cushion for the declining employment that has struck this area in the same manner that it has affected other parts of the State and Nation.
Today there is a great public cry for economy. To this philosophy we subscribe wholeheartedly. However, economy, in our way of thinking, is not the stopping of spending on projects already started—but economy, we believe, is the matter of spending wisely. It is impossible to understand how the best interests of the people can be served except by continuing this project and the gearing of every facility to its total early completion. To leave it dormant, poses an obvious and unsightly example of waste and expected deterioration. To complete it would provide an outstanding example of the completion of a project of flood control that would protect the lives and property of the citizens of the area, and at the same time add to the opportunities for economic independence for the people in the manner befitting and in keeping with a businesslike ap proach, and the fulfillment of promises and plans made and approved for the many past years.
Senator DWORSHAK. I would like to place in the record a letter and attachments from Senator Paul H. Douglas concerning the need for survey funds for the Saline River Basin in Illinois.
(The material referred to follows:)