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"Cabiri." Their worship was mysterious, and therefore regarded with awe. See Schömann's Antiquities of Greece, p. 11.

148. hic idem, this same poor man.

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si toga sordidula, if his toga is a little soiled. Sat. i. 96.

calceus alter, one of his shoes.

See note on

See note on Sat. i. 119.

153. inquit, says the manager or designator of the games. Martial several times mentions Leitus under Domitian.

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v. 25, 1-2, Quadringenta tibi non sunt, Chaerestrate, surge. Leitus ecce venit; sta, fuge, curre, late."

154. de pulvino surgat equestri. Roscius Otho, in 67 B.C., had passed a law (lex Roscia) that the fourteen front rows in the theatre should be confined to members of the Equestrian order, i.e. to those possessed of 400,000 sesterces. Domitian had specially re-enforced the law, Suet. Dom. 8. The honourable but poor citizen had to make way for low-born parvenus. Conf. Mart. v. 25, 1; Liv. Epit. 99.

155. legi, i.e. the Roscian law. Conf. Cic. Phil. ii. § 44, and Sat. xiv. 323.

157. praeconis. For the contempt in which praecones were held, see note on Sat. iii. 33.


158. pinnirapi. The word is not found elsewhere. pinnirapus (lit. feather-snatcher) was a gladiator, evidently, as the name implies, opposed to another who wore a crest. Now, we learn from Varro that the gladiator called a Samnite wore a helmet and crest, as well as a large oblong shield and short sword. The Samnite usually fought with the retiarius, who is here humorously called pinnirapus. He wore only a short tunic; in one hand he held a large net (rete), and in the other a trident (fuscina). With the net he tried to envelop the head and shoulders of his antagonist, whom he would then pierce with the trident; if he missed his throw, he ran round the amphitheatre, followed by the other, who was hence sometimes called a secutor. See note on Sat. viii. 200.

lanistae, a trainer of gladiators.

161. sarcinulis impar, "no match for the fortune of the bride." Conf. Mart. ii. 11, 8, "Salva est et uxor sarcinaeque," and Sat. vi. 146, "Collige sarcinulas.”

quis pauper scribitur heres? The poor man would not have the means of paying court and making presents to the rich and childless, as the Roman legacy-hunters were in the habit of doing.

162. quando in consilio est aedilibus? It was the custom for the praetors, praefecti, and aediles to invite their friends to their various courts as assessors. This was probably regarded as a compliment rather than the means of making money. The aediles were at this time mere police magistrates, and yet even they would never invite a poor man. Conf. Plin. Ep. v. 1, 5.

163. debuerant olim. "Olim' carries the mind back to a past time, and the pluperfect means that at that time the duty had long lain upon them."-Macleane. No doubt an allusion

is made to the secession to the Mons Sacer.

tenues. Conf. Sat. vii. 80, 145; viii. 120; xiii. 7.

166. hospitium miserabile, miserable lodgings. The poor generally lived in the cenacula or garrets. In Caesar's time the price of lodgings in Rome was four times as high as in the other Italian towns. See infra, lines 224-5.

magno (sc. pretio).

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167. frugi cenula. frugi is used as an indeclinable adjective. It is really a dative case from frux, and meant "good or fit for fruit" (frugi aptus), and so economical, frugal." Rarely it is found accompanied by an adjective, as "permodestus et bonae frugi." Cic. ad Att. iv. 8, 3.

168. Fictilibus, things moulded by the hand, and so earthenConf. Sat. xi. 108.


169. Marsos mensamque Sabellam, representatives of simple country life. The words are imitated from Vergil's "Marsos pubemque Sabellam," Georg. ii. 167. Conf. also Sat. xiv. 180.

170. veneto duroque cucullo, with a coarse sea-green hood. The cucullus was worn over the lacerna. The sense is that a man who at Rome would disdain to eat off earthenware, when in the country and his country dress would see no disgrace in it. In the cities the men rarely wore anything on the head except for the sake of concealment. Juvenal, in Sat. vi. 118, speaks of "nocturnos cucullos." Conf. Sat. viii. 145.

172. nisi mortuus. Freemen were dressed in the toga for burial. Conf. Mart. ix. 58, 8, "pallens toga mortui tribulis." In the country the tunica was worn; hence Martial, speaking of country life, says "O tunicata quies." The "toga rara is spoken of by Martial, x. 47, as one of the things "vitam quae faciunt beatiorem." Conf. Sat. xi. 204.

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Ipsa dierum festorum maiestas, "even the high solemnity of festal days." Ordinary working days were fasti dies. Days on which no work might be done were nefasti, or with reference to the feriae, festi. In the country holidays might be rare occasions; at Rome the necessity of keeping the

idle mob amused was making the holidays out of all proportion to the working days. Conf. Tac. Ann. xiv. 20, and Liv. vii. 2.

175. notum exodium, the familiar farce. It had been often seen before. The exodium was an interlude generally acted between the "Atellanae fabulae." So in Sat. vi. 71, "exodium Atellanae."

176. personae pallentis hiatum. The masks used for these exodia were made with a wide gaping mouth to represent a grin. Notice the history of the word persona-(1) a mask, (2) the character represented by it, (3) any character or person.

infans, conf. infantia, supra, line 84.

177. aequales habitus, no distinctions of dress.

178. orchestram, the space between the stage and the rows of seats rising in tiers one above the other (cavea or cunei). The senate (in a country town they would be the decuriones) sat in the orchestra; the knights in the fourteen front rows of the cavea.





clari velamen honoris, "as a dress for their noble office." This is somewhat ironical.

179. tunicae. See supra, 1. 173, note.

181. aliena . . . arca, conf. the expression

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aes alienum."

182. ambitiosa paupertate, "in a poverty that is yet full of show." ambitio (ambi eo), a canvassing for office, comes to mean desire for honour or notoriety; ambitiosus is connected with this meaning.

Omnia Romae cum pretio, "everything at Rome has to be paid for." When Jugurtha said "Omnia Romae venalia esse," he meant that everything, including honour and good faith, was for sale at Rome.

184. Quid das, i.e. to the nomenclator, who kept the names of those entitled to appear at the salutatio.

These lines describe the difficulties and affronts to which clients were subjected by the slaves of the rich patrons. However pressing their business might be, unless they bribed these

slaves, already over-pampered (culti), they were put off with the excuses mentioned in line 186.

185. clauso Veiento labello. If they were admitted, the chances were that the great man would take no notice of them. Fabricius Veiento, praetor in 55 A.D., was banished by Nero for selling public appointments, Tac. Ann. xiv. 50. We find him, however, a successful informer under Domitian. See Sat. iv. 113. Plin. Ep. iv. 22; ix. 13, 13.

186. "Ille metit barbam," etc. amati goes with both barbam and crinem. The first down shaved from the chin was offered to some god. So, too, when a youth assumed the toga virilis, his long hair was cut off and similarly offered. These are reasons given by the doorkeeper for not admitting the client without a fee, who was thus in this dilemma: he must either go away, and so give offence by not being present on this interesting occasion; or he must fee the porter, and so practically buy the liba or cakes which were prepared for the visitors. This is why they are called "venalibus,' "which can only be got by paying a fee." Others understand it of cakes brought as presents to the favourite slave (amatus), and which he sells.

187. Accipe, et istud fermentum tibi habe. These words are difficult, but Holyday's rendering, quoted by Prof. Mayor, is excellent. “Take the cakes," says Umbricius, “but add just rage, as leaven to them." This exactly brings out the double meaning of fermentum (fervimentum).

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189. peculia, strictly all property owned by the slave belonged to his master. Quodcunque per servum adquiritur, id domino adquiritur. He was, however, sometimes allowed to keep a few cows of his own (peculium, from pecus), and then other kinds of property. Enough was often accumulated in this way to purchase his freedom. Trace how our word "peculiar" is connected with this.

190-2. Praeneste, in Latium. Volsinii, in Etruria. Gabii; between Rome and Praeneste. Tibur, in Latium on the Anio, a favourite abode of Horace, who calls it "supinum," sloping upwards, Od. iii. 4, 23. Praeneste is possibly a superlative form, from a supposed Prae-no, meaning "the city on the highest, prominence." By its form it is, like Caere and Bibracte, neuter, and is so used in Horace, Od. iii. 4, 22, and generally both in prose and poetry; but Juvenal and Vergil, Aen. viii. 561, make it feminine in the ablative, according to its meaning, as the name of a city.

194. magna parte sui.

So many buttresses are needed that they form a considerable part of the city. Conf. Sat. xii. 110,

"partem aliquam belli.”

195. vilicus, the bailiff or landlord's agent.

veteris, i.e. long neglected, and at last just plastered over.

197. incendia. Owing to the narrow streets and crowded insulae, fires were very common at Rome. The cohortes vigilum had the special function of guarding against them.

198. poscit aquam, he ought to have had it since the law provided, "ut aquam unusquisque inquilinus in cenaculo habeat," Dig. i. 15, 3, § 4.

frivola, his paltry furniture.

199. Ucalegon (ovк åλéywv), taken from Vergil's "iam proximus ardet Ucalegon," Aen. ii. 311, to express a neighbour who was probably the tenant of one of the lower stories (tabulata) of the insula. tibi, ethical dative: "you may see."


Hor. Ep. i. 18, 84, "Nam tua res agitur paries cum proximus ardet."

200. trepidatur, the tumult is begun.

201. quem tegula sola tuetur. Conf. note on cenaculum, supra 1. 166.

202. reddunt, place year by year.

203. Codro, any poor man.

Procula minor, too small for a Procula. wife, but some well-known dwarf of the x. 140.

Procula was not his time. Conf. Sat.

204. ornamentum abaci, as an ornament for his sideboard. The abacus was usually made of marble, and was used to display costly plate upon. Horace, in a similar passage to this, calls it his lapis albus," Sat. i. 6, 116.

205. cantharus, a tankard with handles.

sub eodem marmore Chiron, a figure of Chiron which was probably a support of the marble abacus.

206. iamque, moreover.

207. divina... carmina, i.e. of Homer or other great poets. opici, barbarian. The Opici were an ancient race in Italy,

from whom the Sabellian races were descended. The word is here used in contrast with Graecos. Prof. Mayor has collected a number of passages which show that the word was commonly used in this sense. Mommsen, Rom. Hist. vol. i. p. 13, points out that omikós is a term used by early Greek writers to denote all the Latin and Samnite stocks. Conf. Sat. vi. 455, "opicae amicae.' 212. Asturici, some rich man.

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horrida mater, "the matrons go dishevelled." Conf. Tac. Ann. iii. 2, atrata plebes."

213. differt vadimonia praetor, puts off the days for appearing, i.e. proclaims a iustitium. vadimonium was the giving of security to appear in court on a certain day.

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