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12 Lyceum of Ancient Literatuře.-- No. XXV1. [Feb. 1, dom; that nothing but virtue deserves race, in his Odes, is the only author our admiration, and that, without it, who has shown the compass of the Latin there can be no true or rational freedom. language, in all the variety of composiHe has proved himself a master in the tion. This renders it a task of considermost difficult part of human conduct, that able difficulty to imitate him, with any of advising owners, which he always does degree of ease of elegance. He has a with great sincerity, but without the ap- mode of expression peculiar to himself, pearance of premeditation. By this me. which sometimes battles every attempt to ihod, the advice had a better effect upon convey bis meaning into the idion of any. the person who received it, because modern language. There are few poets of there was no affectation of superiority whoin versions have been more frequently in him who gave it. Had this been vi- atteinpted: no one, perhaps, bas had sible, it would only have offended that less justice done to him; and it is the inherent pride in our nature, which more extraordinary, that his lesser Odes, makes every man so unwilling to acknow. I mean those that treat of humbler suhledge, or be told of, luis faults. For in- jects, have been uniformly found the stance, when writing in praise of mode most difficult : witness the 9th of ration, he addresses himself to an ambi- lib. 3, the favourite Ode of Scaliger. tious man,
shows him the danger of bis Those who will be at the pains to exa. darling passion, and the charms of con- mine it, will find it's peculiar merit to tentment. Thus, without touching his consist in the delicacy, brevity, and sim. foible, by descending to particulars, he plicity, of the expressions; the beautifuldemonstrates to the person addressed Order of the words, and the harmonious the danger of the measures he pursues. sweetness of the numbers. This little The 10ih Ode of lib. 2, to Licinius Mu. Ode, though of all others, perhaps, the ræna, is a fine example of this. Muræna most laboured at, has been the worst was brother-in-law to Mecænas, and, executed. Its beautiful and unaffected through bis interest, could have little brevity sets translation at defiance; and doubt of being promoted. But this would is a model of that perfection of style, not satisfy his restless ambition; nor which La Bruyere admired, the art of could the seasonable advice of Horace using the one proper expression, which prevent him from entering into a conspi- can alune be right. racy with Fannius and others, wbich cost Creech, who had done ample justice him his life.-In the 15th of lib. 1, to the philosophic verse of Lucretius, where he represents Nereus as declaring lost all his laurels by his attempt upon to Paris the deplorable fate of Troy, Ilorace. He has also been fatal to the wbich will attend lis rape of Helen, he reputation of some others. The version warns Antony not to give himself up to of Francis is, upon the whole, the best the charins of Cleopatra, which must executed : in some parts of the Odes, he inevitably end in his ruin; and in the is highly Horatian; moral, without bepreceding Ode, he, by a beautiful alle- ing dull; gay and spirited, with progory, exhibits to the Romans all the ca- priety; and tender, without being lanlamities of their civil wars, and exhorts guid. Some of the imitations of Dunthem to peace. Having inclined, as we combe are spirited and elegant; but, in observed at the close of our last Number, general, he is inferior to Francis. to the Stoic philosophy, towards the Quinctilian has said, indeed, that he latter part of his life, he consequently would not have the whole of Horace in
armed himself with their principles terpreted; and he alludes to the Odes, against the fear of death. Thus he de- rather than to the Satires. This caution scribes his wise man as braving adver- will appear singular, and would, at least, sity, and expecting mortality to put an have seemed to be equally applicable to end to any inisfortunes that may befal the rest of his works. Creech gives this him. This is done allegorically, under reason;
" which," he says,
must be the characters of Pentheus and Bacchus ; taken from the design and subject matter that is, the wise man will then display the of the poems. To describe and reform a same courage which Bacchus did in his vicious inan, necessarily requires some answer to Pentheus, in a tragedy of expressions which an ode cannot want, Euripides.
The paint which an artist uses must be We shall close this general account by agreeable to the piece which he designs, a few remarks upon the difficulty of Satire is to instruct, and that supposes a translating this interesting poct. Hoc knowledge and discovery of the crime
while Odes are made only to instruct and the discovery, of which these pages treat, to please, and therefore every thing that is not by any ineans su ancient as many witcods in them is unpardonable.". hare imagineil.. However numerous the
To enumerate the various editions of admirers of this fragrant Otlur may be Horace would more than fill the columns in Europe, as in Asia, I wish to pay it we have already occupied. We can
thus my public hoinage. A verse from therefore select only a few even of the Hafiz, the Persian Anacreon, will not be best.
here misplaced : Horatius, 410. Editio Princeps, sine anno, loco, vel typographi indicio.
“ Hafiz ! woesal :-gul tulbee bem:chu lulbulan, Avo. Ferrar. 1474.
“Yan Kun jedai Kbak i rab-i-baghban i.gul. fol. Mediol, ditto.
“O! Hafiz, thou desirest like the Nightfol. Venet. 1478, 1433, 1490. ingale the presence of the rose! let thy very
apud Ald 1501. soul be a ransom for the earth, where the fol. illustrated by 80 commenta- keeper of the Rose-garden walks !" tors. Basil, 1580. Of this edit. Dr. Harwood says, “ that it con
In this couplet, be alludes to the loves tains the observations and remarks of the Nightingale and the Rose, which on Horace, which were made by have been celebrated by so many poets the great scholars of that illus. of Arabia, Persia, and Turkey. trious age--the glorious age of the The word Ottar, or A'thr, used by the revival of literature; as well as Asiatics, to express the essence of roses, the criticisms of the old commen- is originally Arabic; and signifies an tators, Acron, Porphyrion, &c.” aromatic odour, or pertuine in general; 4to. Cruquii. L. Bat. 1593. Cru- it is derived from Allara, or A'thuru, (10 quius is considered one of the best perfuine one's-self,) &c. and it seems to
commentators on Horace. Horatii Opera, a Dan. Heinsio, 12mo. Elz.
have some athinity with another Arabic L. Bar. 1629.
work, Katara, (to drop, or distil by in usum Delphini, 410. Paris, drops, &c.) and to the Hebrew Keir, 1691.
(he has perfumed, &c.) The Chaldaic Horatius, cum notis víriornm, 8vo. Lug. word Katura expressed eleven kinds of
Bat. 1653, 1658, 63, 68, 70, aromatics, which the Jews burned in
and Castelli Lexicon Heptaglott, ad Baxter, 8vo. Lond. 1701, 1725.
.) As to the resemblance Gesneri, Lips. 1752, 1772. which Mr. Weston, in a work which I
Oservationibus Zew. shall hereafter quote) imagines be vas nii, 8vo. Lips. 1788-1802. Hora:ii Opera, 19mo. Glasg. 1744, called and the European odour, I leave it for
found between the Arabic word Ottar, the immaculate edition. Horace, by Watson, Lat. and Eng. 2 vol. my readers to determine on the etymo8vo. Lond.
logy. I must here remark, that Bowers by Francis, with the orig. text.
in general, and roses from their peculiar 4 vol. 12mo. 1747. 4to. 1749.
exceilence, are termed in Arabic, ward; The edition by the late Gilb. Wakefield, is and in Persian, gul; bụt the ollar is not executed with uncommon accuracy and ele- to be confounded with the gulub, od gance.
rose-water, which is simply the product
of roses, distilled with water, according for the Monthly Magazine. to a process well known to all pertuiners, ENQUIRIES into the discovery of the both of Europe and Asia ; this, indeed,
ESSENCE of Roses; translated from the is the previous and indispensable preRECHERCHES SUR LA DECOUVERTE DE paration for obtaining the essence, or L'ESSENCE ROSE, of MONSIEUR ottur ; for after a certain quantity of LANGLES, MEMBER of the NATIONAL roses has been so distilled, (as Colonel INSTITCTE, Keeper of the ORIENTAL Polier indicates in the first volume of MANUSCRIPTS, &c. &c.
Asiatic Researches,) the rose water is PROM the title of this little essay, it left exposed to the cool air of the night ;
and on the next day, a very inconsiderproach of having devoted my time to able portion of oltar is found congealed - frivolous researches , but my object bas on the surface of the rose water. It may
been to correct an error very frequent be easily supposed, that the quantity of among Orientalists; and to prove that essence depends much on the quality of
( .קטר vocem
בלתי בשמן רענן
14 Enquiries into the Discovery of the Essence of Roses. [Feb. 1, the roses; those of Shiraz, Kirman, and cannot be traced back (wo Hundred Cashmere, are particularly celebrated, years. as the following quotations will prove. In this opinion, I dissent very much
The learned Kämpfer, (in bis Ameni. from many ingenious men; and amougst taies Erolica, page 374,) inforins us, others from Mr. Weston, who, in his that “the roses of Shiraz yield on dis- Specimen of the Conformity of Lantillation, a thick substance, resembling guages, &c. page 113,) expresses his butter, called attar gul; and this oil is belief that the otiur, or essence of roses, purchased for its weight in gold, and is is the oil with which the Psalmist desires unequalled in sweetness and fragrance; to be anointed, because he styles the oil which shows, that the roses of the ter- green.-Psalm xcii. 10. ritory of Persepolis, are of the hottest nature.” The same traveller adds,“that Dclibutus sum in vleo viridi. sandal-wood gives additional strength to Nothing can be more vague than this the perfume;" and this observation is epithet; since many kinds of oil are of confirmed by Colonel Polier, who re- that colour, and since the ottar is not marks, however, at the same time, that always green: besides, it is not certain this addition reduces the value of the es- that the Hebrew epithet pawn should be sence. The use of sandal-wood succeeds, understood as expressing any particular better in the composition of simple rose- colour; and the Septuagint have renwater, which according to the ingenious dered it by the Greek word nions, fut; Anquetil du Perron (see his Zendavesta, (the English version says, “I shall be vol. i. 525, &c.) is styled Sundali gulab, anointed with fresh oil.") I shall not or, if we may so translate it, rose-water here detain my readers by a long digresof sandal. In the first volume of Lin- sion, in which it might be proved that schoten's Voyages, (pp. 125-126) we the Hebrews, as well as the Christians, read, that the sandal-wood itself pro- employed only common oil, and not perduces an odoriferous oil.
fuines, in the consecration of their kings. The roses of Kirman are described; But, in support of my opinion on the by Olearius, and other travellers, as won- recent discovery of the ottar, I shall adderfully abundant, and a very delightful duce both negative and positive proofs; water is said to be distilled from them, and I hope to demonstrate, that it was which forms a considerable branch of not known before the year 1021 of the commerce in thât country; but those Mohamedan, or 1612 of the Christian, writers have not made any mention of æra; my negative proots are derived the essence.
from the silence of Eastern, and of EuThe most exquisite roses of Asia, ap. rupean writers, prior to the epoch abovepear to be those of Cashmere ; and Mr. mentioned. Forster, (in Journey from India to Pe- In the works of Hafiz, and of Sadi, tersburgh, vol. ii. page 15, quarto edi- we find frequent mention of the gulub, or tion,) says, “I may venture to class in rose-water; none of the ollar, or essence, the first rank of vegetable produce, the Sherifaddin Ali Yezdi, who wrote, a Hise ruse of Cashmere, which, for its brilliancy tory of Tamerlane, ofien describes the "and delicacy of odour, bas long been perfumes lavishly expended in the enproverbial in the East; and its essential tertainments given by that Tartar cone oil
, or ottar, is held in universal estima- queror, and liis children; but the histotion.” Indeed, long before the publication rian is silent on the subject of the oltar, of Mr. Forster's Travels, we had learned The Ayeen Akbery, or Commentary from Monsieur Anquetil du Perron, that of the Grand Mogul Akber, translated by the best species of rose was produced in Mr. Gadwin, of Calcutta, contains a Cashmere.
chapter on the regulation of the Imperial Roses are found in great abundance Perfumery, in which various preparupons also in Syria, l'aiume, and the different of roses are noticed, without any mnemion provinces of the Barbary states; and an of the essence. This work, the Ayern essence is extracted from them, but Akbery, was composed in the year of our much inferior to that of Persia, and of æra, 1569; and consequently, forty-two Cashmere. One would scarcely imagine years before the date that I have as. that a process, at once so simple, and so signed to the discovery of the otlar. universally known throughout the East, As to European travellers, I can ven. and even on the coasts of Western tnre to affirm, that of those who visited Africa, and which is the result of another Persia and Hindoostan, and whose oarprocess in use, from time immemorial, ratives prior to the seventeenth coutury
have been collected by Hackluit, Pur- Princess Nour-jehan first called the Oi. chas, De Bry, Melchisedec Thevenot, tar of Jehangir, (in complinient to the Bergeron, Churchill, Harris, &c. not one Emperor) and other perfumes of a more has spoken of the essence of roses: many moderaté value, and within the attainof them describe the rose-water as, a ment of persons of small fortune, are of most pleasing perfuine, and in terms her and her mother's invention." The 'which prove their ignorance of the other succeeding chapter, entitled, History preparation.
of the Seventh Year of Jehangir's Reign, But a positive proof of what I have and of the Festival of the New Yeur, asserted, is derived from the annals of &c. begins with some particulars more the Moghul Empire, of which the authors precise and satisfactory than the passage were perhaps witnesses of the facts above given:-"At the coinmencement that they relate.
of this festival, the mother of Princess We shall begin by consulting a History Nourjehan, having presented soine esa of the Grand Moybuls, written in the sence of roses which she had extractes, Persian language by Mohammed Has- and the Emperor having approved of it, 'bem; an important work, entitled, he thought proper to bestow on the dis* Tarikh Montekheb lubab, or The au- covery his own august name, and it was thentic Abridgment of Chronicles.” called Ottar Jehangiri; and to the price This, which is preserved ainong the ma- cess he gave a necklace of pearl, worth nuscripts of the National Library, in thirty thousand rupees; it is indeed a Paris, passes rapidly over the reigns of wonderful discovery, for nu pertume Timur, and his descendants; and in can equal it; and its vivitying odour is 'fact, commences with the account of grateful to angels, genii, and men. The · Baber, who in the year 1526, conquered author of this work recollects, that the Hindoostam; and it ends with the year price of good Ottar Jehangiri, until the 1677; when Mohammed Shah was on iseginning of the reign of Auluingir, (who' the throne. The discovery of the oltar now 'resides in Paradise) was eighty of roses is twice noticed in this History, rupees for a tolah; whilst, in our tine, and in the most unequivocal manner: this same essence has fallen in price to first, in a chapler entiiled, Marriage of eight or nine rupees per tolah." the Princess Nour Jehan, with the In- Those two quotations agroc perfectly habitant of Paradise, (that is, the lately with the following passage, from the Misdeceased) Jehangir, the Intentions and tory of Flindostan, compiled in English Discoveries of the Queen of the World, by Mr. Gladwin, from numerous mate
c. This Princess, Nour Jehan, (a title rials collected with much labour and exsignifyinry, Light of the Universe,) was the perse, during a residence of twenty-three celebrated beauty called also Mihr 'al years in India. “The mami:er of making - Nesa, (or the Bright Sun of Women.) the ottar," says this ingenious writer, She inspired the Emperor Jehangir with was at this time discovered by the so violent a passion, that to possess her mother of Nourjeban. The otuar is an charms he contrived the assassination of essential oil of roses, which floats in a her husband; she even exercised the very small quantity on the surface of sovereign power, during the space of six distilled rose-water, whilst yet warm; and months; and money was coined in her it is coilected by means of a little bit of name: but we are not authorized in at- cotton fastened to the end of a stick; it tributing to her (as is generally done) is the most delightful of all perfumes, those rupees which bear the signs of the and in fragrance equals the new-blowu zodiac; for although struck under the The Emperor, as a reward for the reign of Jehangir, they have quite a dif. invention, bestowed on the lady a neckférent origin. This fascinating woman, lace of most precious pearls; and the who employed every art to secure her Princess Selima Sultana, (one of the influence over the monarch or Hin- widows of Akbar,) gave it ilie name of doostan, introduced many innovations in Oltar Jehangiri. the female dress, and we nay say, in- Thus have the Eastern authors, in my venied fashions, a circumstance before opinion, cleared up every doubt as to unknown in Asia; on this subject, the the epoch, and the author of this dischapter above quoted, contains many covery; but none of them have indicated curious details: but it will be sufficient the manner in which the discovery was to extract one passage, relating to the made: this, however, we learn from an object which engages our attention. European traveller. Manucci, a playa 16. The Essence of Rose-water which wie sigian ut Veuice, wuring a residence in
Account of Jane Stuart.
[Feb. 1, India of forty years, enquired much into ded at Wisbech, in Cambridgeshire. Ic the annals of that empire; and composent is to be regretied that few memorials rean bistorical work of considerable mag- main other; but two ancient and respectuitude, adorned with well-executed ini- able inhabitants, now deceased, have reniatures. This work, of wasich the authen- lated to the writer of this the followiug ticity cannot be disputed, was translated incidents:- When she first came, she and abridged by Catrou, under the title sought employment by standing (as is of a "General History of the Mogul usual with labourers at this day who want Empire, from its Foundation to the pre- work) on or near the foot of the bridge, sent Time;" and among the curious where, in hay-time and barvest, the farin. anecdotes collected by Manucci, is one ers resort every morning to hire. She which throws great light on the subject selected for her abode, a cellar in a part of this essay. It is natural to imagine, of the town called the Old Market, where that the adulterous amours of Jebangir she spun worsted; to dispose of which, with Nourjehan form an interesting shie regutarly had al stall on the marketportion of the Emperor's bisiory; it was day. Being once thus employed, she reat a feast given by the ambitious female cognised by the arms and livery, a coach to her illustrious lover, that the essence and attendants going to the principal inn, of roses was discovered. Amidst the (the Ruse and Crown,) near to which her varieties of luxury displayed on that oc- stall stood, upon which, she inimediately Casioa, the priocess had contrived that packed up her worsted, retired to her rose-water should flow in a sinall canal cell, and carefully concealed herseit. throughout the gardens; whilst the Em- The owner, who was said to be the Duke peror walked with her along the borders of Argyle, endeavoured to find her, but of the canal, they perceived a kind of without effect. The house under which scum, floating on the surface of the water; she lived has been since rebuilt, and and when it approached the brink, they part of it is now occupied by the Lady gathered and examined it; and this was Mary Knollis, aunt to the present Earl of a substance produced by the sun, froin Banbury. She constantly attended, the rose-water. All the court agreed in when in health, the ineering of the Society acknowledging, that this vily substance of Friends in Wisbech; was humble and was the inost exquisite perfume known exemplary in her conduct, well esteemned in India, and all course of time, art en- by her neighbours, invariably avoided all deavoured to imitare what had been at conversation relative to her family contirst the offspring of accident, and of nexions; aud when in the freedoin of nature."---(Iistoire Generale des Mo- intercourse, any expression inadvertently gols ; tom. 1. S26.)
escaped, leading to an enquiry, she stopThese particulars are by no means un- ped short, seenied to regret having disworthy of credit; for Manucci arrived in closed so much, and silenced further reIndia, during the reign of Shal.jehan, search. She read the New Testament son and successor of Jehangir, whilst thé in Greek; but even this circumstance was recollection of these circumstances was, discovered accidentally by an unexpected no doubt, still fresh in the memory of se- call: was fond of birds, which were fre. veral persons. The essence had been, for quently allowed to leave their cages, and a long time, observed to swim on the sur- fly about in ber apartment. When near face of distilled rose-water; but in so eighty, she had a new set of teeth. She small a quantity, that no one had thought died (according to the Friends' Register) of collecting it; a fortunate accident in- ." the 12th of 7th mo. 1742, aged 88," spired the idea; the discovery being once and was buried in the Society's grave-yard made, (like most others) appeared so sim. at Wisbech, where, out of respect to her ple, that we are astonished that the ottar memory, box has been planted round her was not found by the first chemist who ap- grave, with her initials, age, and date, plied his alembic to experiments on roscs.
which still remain to mark the spot of hier interment.
Your's, &c. A. To the Editor of the Alonthly Magazine.
For the Monthly Magazine.
ANÉ Stuart, the extraordinary cha- LETTERS descriptice of CHELTENHAN, JA racter of whoin some account is
and its VICINITY. given in the Monthly Magazine for Octo.
LETTER III. ber last, supposed to be a natural daugh
Cbeitenbam, July 27, 1808. ter of King James II. after renouncing
MANKS to the favourable state of the world and splendour of courts, resi. 3