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of the blood, oxygen, hydrogen, electricity, galvanism, gaslight, steamboats, daguerreotypes, magnetic telegraph, 54. Arts and sciences abridge labor and give leisure, 55.
56–61 Evils resulting from disobedience to the laws of gravitation, 56. Animals adapted to their mode of life, as the monkey, goat, birds, camel, fish, etc., 57. Animals guided by instinct-Man endowed with intellectual powers to direct him, 58. Inactivity of mind in society-Uses of calamities, 60. Consequences of a suspension of the laws of gravitation, 61.
62-71 FEELINGS exist and act distinct from intellect-Definition of an organized being, 62. Laws of an organized being-Result of obedience to these lawsHealth of New Zealanders, 63. Organized system of man admits of health and vigor during the full period of life-Requirements of the organic law, 64. Study necessary to enable man to obey the organic laws, 65. Objection to the practicability of such study-An organic law, all our functions shall be duly exer. cised, 66. The brain, its parts, and how exercised-Use of education, 67. Effect of exercise of the brain upon the body, 68. Mental stimulus-Natural laws in. fringed, by whom, 69, 70. Superiority of organic laws-Idleness not a source of pleasure, 70. Cause of sickness, pain, and premature death, 71.
CHAPTER XI. THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED
71-76 OUR faculties act instinctively, 71. Theoretical and practical knowledge widely separated, why so, 72. Effect of advice without reason-Effect of knowl. edge upon the mind, 73. Dr. Johnson's definition of principle-Carrying Mr. Owen's views into practical effect, 74. Independence of the different laws of the Creator-Condition of a long and healthy life, 76.
CHAPTER XII. ORGANIC LAWS-DEATH
• 76-84 FORCES that change in organic bodies-Death the result of the constitution of organized beings, 77. Effect of this law in the vegetable world-Philosophy can not explain why death was instituted, 78. Violent death not benevolent, but leads to beneficial results-Herbivorous animals prolific-Carnivorous animals destroy them-Nature åverse to inflicting death hy starvation, 79. Herbivorous animals existed before carnivorous—Animals inflict death in the least painful manner, 80. Few animals die of old age-Man alone permitted to run the entire course of life-Old and decrepit animals useless to posterity-Man's mode of putting animals to death less tender than that of beasts, 81. No process insti. tuted by nature for repairing injuries sustained by objects governed exclusively by the physical laws-A remedial process established under the organic lawWe can not always know the connection between disease and the cause, 84.
84-90 MANKIND live in neglect of moral law-Ignorant people suffer from trangressions of God's laws, 84. Cause of the low conceptions of God among the Greeks and Romans—The works of creation and the character of the Deity legitimate objects of our higlieet powers-lernicious effects of teaching children to admire the history of the Greeks and Romans-The world arranged on the supremacy of the moral sentiments and intellect-Advantages of obedience, 85. Three conditions required by the moral and intellectual law to insure its rewards--Knowledge of laws necessary to obedience-Physical laws taught by philosophy-Business of the political economist, 87. Men can be taught the sciences which expound the natural laws, 88. The only obstacle in the way of this is want of desire for knowledge-Attention to study and observance of the natural laws saves time to business men, 90.
CHAPTER XIV. THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED
90–98 In what happiness is supposed to consist- The consequences of such a belief, 90. Cause of the want of success in the professions, 91. Difficulty of tracing the operations of the intellectual laws in social life, 92. The social law--Advais. tages resulting from it, 93. Advantage of obedience to the intellectual lawWhy men suffer the penalties of the natural laws, 94. Selecting partners in business, 95. General objects of pursuit of the inhabitants of Great BritainMachinery, aids derived from science, 96. Labor followed by rewards-Scot. land, its improvement, 97. Manufacturing class of Great Britain, 98.
CHAPTER XV. THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED
98-106 LABORING population of Great Britain, 98. Labor necessary to the enjoy. ment of life, 99. Comm«rce, agriculture, and manufactures adapted to man's nature-Effects of too much labor, 100. Inventions, how regarded by some The ultimate end of mechanical inventions, 101. Inventions save time for moral and intellectual improveinent, 102. Ilow political ecuncmitz hate spus ceeded—In should lioil liig bodily, and increise hie mural and intelic, tual
occupations, 88. The first effects of mechaniem, 103. Consequences of depart. ure from the moral laws--Chief occupations of the British nation, 104. Causes of the oscillations of fortune-Agonies of the heart in ruin-Fixed principle of action essential to human happiness, 105. Attempts to fill up the void of lifePunishments of those who neglect to educate their higher faculties-Great men contrasted, 106.
CHAPTER XVI. PUNISHMENT AS INFLICTED UNDER THE NATURAL LAWS
107-114 Every law presupposes a superior-William Tell, 107. Penalty for violation of law, when just, 108. The Creator never acts from selfishness-Every natural law instituted for adding to enjoyment-Object of punishment-Effects of punishment on our facu!tice-Organic bodies liable to combustion, 109. Effects of intense heat upon the human body-Mode by which man is preserved from the dangers to which he is subjected by fire-Advantages of combustionDanger of its excessive action, 110. Man's condition if the nerves could feel no pain from excessive heat, 111. Benevolence of the law of combustion-Opium, its qualities and effects on the nervous system, 112. Advantages of the drug, 113.
CHAPTER XVII. THE SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED .
114-120 Divise punishments founded in benevolence-Object of pain in diseaseBroken limbs, 114. Pain in a flesh-wound, Benefits of pain-Why the infliction of pain is approved; 115. Object of punishment-Application of this to the moral and intellectual law-Physical and organic laws affect animals alsoAnimals endowed with propensities impelling them to act–The dog and cock, examples, 116. Animals inflict punishment for aggression, 117. They make no inquiries into the consequences of their punishments-Judges and jurors, 118. Punishments inflicted by men, 119. World arranged in regard to animals and to man-History of the world filled with crimes and punishments, 120.
CHAPTER XVIII. MORAL ADVANTAGES OF PUNISHMENT
121-125 WISDOM, benevolence, and justice discernible in the natural laws–Punishment endured by one warns others-Causes of pain and sorrow—Their direct and indirect objects, 121. Why punishments fail of correcting the conduct and warving some persons from a similar course-Some opposed to inoculation for the cow.pox-Dispensations of Providence, 122. Bishop Butler's views on natural calamities–Many make themselves miserable-Our sufferings owing to our own follies, 123. Slight wounds sometimes cause inflammation and death -The light for regarding physical accidents—Their indirect results, 124. Penal. ties of infringing the moral law-Opposition to the moral law against the course of nature, 123.
1. To enable us to form a just estimate of our duty and interest as the rational occupants of this world, we may inquire briefly into the constitution of external nature, and of ourselves.
2. The Creator has so arranged the external world, as to hold forth every possible inducement to man to cultivate his higher powers, nay, almost to constrain him to do so. The philosophic mind, in surveying the world as prepared for the reception of the human race, perceives in external nature a vast assemblage of stupendous powers, too great for the feeble hand of man entirely to control, but kindly subjected, within certain limits, to the influence of his will.
3. Man is introduced on earth, apparently helpless and unprovided for as a homeless stranger ; but the soil on which he treads is endowed with a thousand capabilities of production, which require only to be excited by his intelligence, to yield him the most ample returns. The impetuous torrent rolls its waters to the main; but as it dashes over the mountain-cliff, the human hand is capable of withdrawing it from its course, and rendering its powers subservient to his will.
4. Ocean extends over half the globe her liquid plain, in which no path appears, and the rude winds oft lift her waters to the sky; but there the skill of man may launch the strongknit bark, spread forth the canvas to the gale, and make the
1. What is necessary that we may know our duties and real interests ?
2. What has the Creator arranged to induce man to cultivate his higher powers ?
3. In what condition is man introduced on earth? What is said of the soil on which he treads ? How does man make the elements his servants ?
4. What are the advantages of the ocean? What gives man power to control the laws of nature ?