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National Water Summary Program
The U.S. Geological Survey has established the National Water Summary Program in response to recent concerns about an impending water crisis and an increased public interest in the condition of the Nation's water resources. In addition to preparing a national water summary report annually, the Program will describe the geographic extent and severity of water issues and will develop and maintain maps and statistics that describe the condition of water resources in the context of specific issues.
In )anuary 1984, the Survey published Notional Water Summary 1983— Hydrologic Events and Issues, WaterSupply Paper 2250, the first in the planned series of reports to discuss changes and trends in the availability, quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources. These reports have been designed to organize and present water information to aid in the analysis and development of water policies, legislation, and management actions by the Congress and Federal and State officials and to increase public understanding of water resources.
National Water Summary 1983 consists of four parts: A discussion of the hydrologic cycle and how man influences the movement and quality of water as it moves through the cycle; a review of recent hydrologic conditions—precipitation, streamflow, flooding, and droughts—from January 1982 through August 1983; a hydrologic interpretation of four categories of water issues—water availability, water quality, hydrologic hazards and land use, and institutional and management issues; and a State-by-State discussion of water issues in each of the four categories, highlighted by color-coded maps that show the location and extent of the issues.
A number of water issues that have nationwide significance emerged from the State summary section:
• Short-term vulnerability to drought of
surface-water supplies and shallow ground-water supplies;
• Concerns about the reliability of
water supplies as competition for
• Declining ground-water levels
associated with increased use of
• Need for improved control of surface
water pollution, especially nonpoint sources of pollution, such as runoff from agricultural and urban areas;
• Prevention of ground-water
contamination and the mitigation of
• Potential effects of acidic
• Chronic problems of flooding;
• Effects of resource development,
especially coal mining and low-
• Development of water allocation and
reallocation procedures. More than 8,000 copies of National Water Summary 1983 have been distributed to Federal. State, and local agencies, the Congress, the Water Resources Research Institutes, and other members of the water-resources community. News coverage of the Summary was nationwide, and reviews appeared in local. State, and national newspapers and newsletters and on national network television. The favorable response to the report was due, in part, to the State-by-State presentations that one newspaper referred to as "an unprecedented Stateby-State assessment of U.S. water supplies." The National Water Summary also was displayed prominantly as part of the Geological Survey's exhibit at the Louisiana World Exposition.
One of the exhibi! panels on water information exhibited at
the World's Fair in New
The theme of the Louisiana World Exposition in New Orleans, The World of Rivers: Fresh Water as a Source of Life, presented an opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey to demonstrate the importance of current streamflow data to present and potential national water-resources issues. Highlights of the Water Resources Division exhibit, "Measuring U.S. Water Resources," on display in the Great Hall of the Convention Center May 12 through November 11,1984, were
• A display of satellite telemetry that demonstrated the latest electronic technology in making current hydrologic data available to users; visitors to the exhibit could select current and historical streamflow
data and obtain a computergraphics streamflow display of one representative stream in each State;
A hands-on slide presentation for water use in each State;
Panels that described why the Geological Survey collects water information, how the information is collected, and how it is used to define and manage water-resources problems. These panels also featured the National Water Summary 1983: and
Panels that showed water issues of the 1980's and provided information on ground-water mining, floods, and acid precipitation.
The U.S. Geological Survey has conducted international activities as an extension of its domestic programs since about 1940. Authority for Survey participation in foreign studies derives from the revised Geological Survey Organic Act, the Foreign Assistance Act, and related legislation. Principal objectives of the activities are
• To help achieve domestic research
objectives through the comparative
• To obtain information about existing and
potential foreign resources of interest to the United States;
• To develop and maintain relations with
counterpart institutions and programs which will facilitate scientific cooperation and exchange; and
• To provide support for the international
programs of other Federal agencies including those of the U.S. Department of State that contribute to foreign policy objectives.
Major Programs And Activities
International programs of the U.S. Geological Survey are usually of two general types. The first is technical assistance to other countries and international organizations utilizing funds from other Federal agencies, from international organizations, or from foreign governments as authorized under the Foreign Assistance Act and related legislation. The second is bilateral or multilateral scientific cooperation with foreign counterpart organizations under Governmentapproved cooperative agreements to achieve common research objectives utilizing funds appropriated for Survey research and funds or other financial resources made available by the cooperating countries or organizations.
Many related activities that form integral parts of the programs commonly stem from the international work; for
example, institutional development, exchange of scientists, training of foreign nationals, and representation of the Survey or the U.S. Government in international organizations, commissions, or associations.
During fiscal year 1984, the Geological Survey continued its formal training courses for foreign nationals.
Course title Number of attendees
22nd International Remote
Sensing Workshop 10
23rd International Remote
Sensing Workshop 7
Techniques of Hydrologic
Geologic and Hydrologic
Hazards Course 42
In addition to the scheduled training courses, the Survey provided or arranged for on-the-job or academic training for 167 people either at Survey facilities or at other organizations on behalf of the Survey. The 250 trainees (including those in the formal courses) represented 55 countries; 66 trainees were from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Survey also continued to arrange programs for visiting scientists. Through these programs, 106 scientists from 25 countries conducted cooperative research at the Survey or Surveyselected institutions; 25 scientists were from the People's Republic of China.
Programs active during fiscal year 1984 are summarized in the accompanying table. The more significant highlights of fiscal year 1984 are described below.
During 1984, the Survey developed a program supportive of the President's Caribbean Basin Initiative. The program proposes cooperative scientific research with counterpart agencies in Caribbean nations that will enhance the economic conditions and improve the health and safety of the people. The proposals are largely extensions of domestic studies such as the Strategic and Critical Minerals Program, the Geologic Frame
International scientific activities conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal year 1984, listed by country or region
Technical Assistance Activities
Bangladesh Training of Geological Survey personnel.
Colombia Stream-flow modeling related to dam operations.
Costa Rica Coal-resources assessment.
Dominican Republic Reconnaissance of Jayaco concession.
Egypt Technology transfer and personnel training; remote sensing.
El Salvador Earthquake hazards reduction.
Guinea Earthquake damage assessment and mitigation.
Indonesia Volcanic research and hazards mitigation; peat-resource
Jordan Seismic systems; ground-water resources; geothermal resources.
Kenya Regional remote sensing facility; Landsat imagery.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geologic mapping and mineral-resource assessment; hydrologic
studies; Landsat image quadrangle maps.
Latin America Earthquake disaster mitigation in Andean region.
Madagascar Mineral-resource project development.
Morocco Landsat image base map compilation.
Panama Earthquake hazards reduction.
Paraguay Hydrologic hazards related to floods.
Peru Mineral-resources assessment; flood hazards in Cuzco.
Philippines Geoscience map publication assistance.
Portugal Geothermal resources; seismic hazards, San Miguel Island, Azores.
Senegal Hydrogeology of Senegal River alluvium related to dam
construction. Southeast Asia Earthquake engineering and hazards mitigation; engineering
seismology. Thailand Lignite research; map publication assistance; mineral deposit and
natural gas symposia.
Tunisia Remote sensing; Landsat image mosaic map production.
Venezuela Hydrology and water resources of Orinoco Basin.
Worldwide Global seismic network; geologic and hydrologic training programs;
conventional energy-resources identifications.
Scientific Cooperative Activities
Antarctica Topographic mapping; marine geological and geophysical surveys.
Bolivia Subvolcanic intrusions related to ash-flow tuff terranes and tin
Brazil Magnetotelluric surveys; river sediment studies.
Canada Strategic minerals inventory; seafloor mineral exploration; borehole
geophysics; continental deep seismic reflection.
Chile Volcano studies.
Colombia Mineral-resources assessment; geochemical exploration.
Costa Rica Geothermal-energy consultation; magnetic observatory
Dominican Republic Offshore shelf studies.
France Marine hydrothermal mineralogy; geophysics.
Germany Strategic minerals inventory; marine seismic studies of continental
margins; radioactive waste; petroleum-resource assessment;
Greece Geochemistry of petroleum.
Hungary Seismic stratigraphy, reflection seismic, electromagnetic,
mineralogic, paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies.