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Hubert Work, Secretary

United States Geological Survey

George Otis Smith, Director

Water-Supply Paper 499

THE PAPAGO COUNTRY, ARIZONA

A GEOGRAPHIC, GEOLOGIC, AND HTDEOLOGIC RECONNAISSANCE
WITH A GUIDE TO DESERT WATERING PLACES

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CONTENTS

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Page

Physiography---- -- 79

Influence of aridity--------------------------------------------- 79

Mountain slopes------------------------------------------------- 80

Determining conditions–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– SO

Grades of mountain slopes----------------------------------- 81

Cliffy slopes--------------------------------------------- 82

Boulder-controlled slopes--------------------------------- 82

Rain-washed slopes______ - -- 86

Canyon cutting---------------------------------------------- S6

Headwater basins------------------------------------------- 89

Minor erosional features------------------------------------- 90

Mountain pediments - ------------- 93

Character--------------------------------------------------- 93

Concealed pediments––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 97

Coalescing pediments---------- ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 97

Dissected pediments------------------------------------------ 90

Valleys---------------------------------------------------------- 101

Structural origin of valleys---------------------------------- 101

Processes operating in the valleys---------------------------- 102

Features of the valley floors--------------------------------- 102

Drainage ---- - - -- 102

Axial streams----------------------------- -------------- 103

Tributary streams--------------------------------------- 104

Adobe flats---------------------------------------------- 106

Playas-------------------------------------------------- 106

Wind deposits------------------------------------------- 106

Terraces ---------------------------------------------------- 107

Terraces of Gila River----------------------------------- 108

Terraces of Altar and Santa Cruz valleys------------------ 109

Terraces in the interior valleys--------------------------- 114

Geologic and physiographic history----------------------------------- 114

..", Pre-Tertiary episodes-------------------------------------------- 114

Tertiary landscape----------------------------------------------- 115

Pleistocene and Recent time-------------------------------------- 117

surface water------------------------------------------------------- 118

Streams as watering places--------------------------------------- 118

Streams in general------------------------------------------- 118

Intermittent and interrupted streams-------------------------- 119

Ephemeral streams------ ----- ----- 120

Lakes and ponds------------------------------------------------- 120

Charcos -------------- 121

Rock tanks------------------------------------------------------ 123

Definition --------------------------------------------------- 123

Rock tanks away from stream channels----------------------- 124

Rock tanks in stream channels------------------------------- 124

Physiographic relations of rock tanks------------------------- 127

Falls due to differing resistance of rocks to erosion____________ 127

Falls due to changes in stream grade-------------------------- 120

Falls due to renewed uplift----------------------------------- 131'

Sand tanks------------------------------------------------------ 134

Surface water—Continued. - Page

Direct utilization of rain water---------------------------------- 136

Rain water shed from roofs---------------------------------- 136

Water catches--------------------------------------------- __ 136

Use of water catches------------------------------------ 136

Construction of water catches---------------------------- 139

Area of water catch required.----- ------------------------ 139

Sanitary considerations---------------------------------- 140

Reservoirs ------------------------------------------------------ 141

Purposes---------------------------------------------------- 141

Reservoirs in the mountains and foothills_-______––––––––––––– 148

Reservoirs in the plains and valleys-------------------------- 144

Construction of reservoirs------------------------------------ 147

Protection of the embankment-------------------------------- 148

Diversion dams and protection of spillway channels__________ 149

Débris-filled reservoirs and artificial springs___________________ 151

Advantages---------------------------------------------- 151

Methods of construction---------------------------------- 151

Ground water------------------------------------------------------- 153

Source and amount of ground water------------------------------ 154

Vegetation as an indicator of ground water_______________________ 156

Quality of ground water------------------------------------------ 157

Methods of analysis------------------------------------------ 157

Computations------------------------------------------------ 158

Classification------------------------------------------------ 15S

Potability of waters––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 159

Springs---------------------------------------------------------- 161

Fracture springs--------------------------------------------- 161

Fissure springs---------------------------------------------- 164

Water in the crystalline complex---------------------------------- 167

Water in the sedimentary rocks___________________________________ 172

Water in the Tertiary volcanic rocks______________________________ 173

Water in the alluvium------------------------------------------- 176

Character of the alluvium------------------------------------ 176

Depth of the alluvium---------------------------------------- 179

Depth to water in the alluvium------------------------------- 180

Shallow wells in the alluvium -- --- 180

Deep wells in the alluvium----------------------------------- 185

Ground-water conditions by areas--------------------------------- 18S

Western portion --------------------------------------------- 188

Location, topography, and geology------------------------ 188

Mountainous areas -------------------------------------- 189

Gila Mountains ------------------------------------- 189

Tinajas Altas Mountains----------------------------- 189

Sierra de la Lechuguilla------------------------------ 190

Copper Mountains----------------------------------- 100

Cabeza Prieta Mountains---------------------------- 190

Tule Mountains ------------------------------------- 191

Pinta Mountains ------------------------------------ 192

Mohawk Mountains---------------------------------- 192

Aguila Mountains------------------------------------ 193

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