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public conviction of which sin scarcely injures their popularity; we are convinced that his zeal misleads him. It is scarcely possible that a population not generally depraved or degraded (like the anabaptists of old) should continue to yield allegiance in spiritual matters to sanctimonious profligates careless of disguising their crimes, or to vicious hypocrites, when their hypocrisy and real vice are exposed. That may happen in special cases; but, in general, the successful Tartuffe must affect morality as well as unction.
In examining the feelings and motives of these Men, it would be unjust to pass over evidence afforded by one of themselves. Alexander Campbell, a crofter in poor but not uncomfortable circumstances, in the island of Luing, was a leading Man in the north of Argyleshire, in the early part of the present century. His reputation for sanctity was very high, and the people of his district regarded his sayings as dictated by positive inspiration.' He himself does not assert so much, but he nevertheless has thought it his duty to leave 'a dying testimony of what God has done for his soul,' as well as a record of his acts and opinions, for the guidance of posterity. While yet alive he had put forth (Printed for the Author.' Glasgow, 1826) The Dying Testimony of Alexander Campbell, late tenant in Kilchattan, parish of Luing'-leaving a blank for the date of his death, which in the copy we have used is filled in-9th November, 1829. Alexander's style and grammar are very bad--perhaps English was not his native language-and it is not always easy to gather his precise meaning. He does not propose to write a history of his life, but we gather a few of its events in passing.
'I was born August the 10th, or thereabouts, 1751, of honest parents, John Campbell and Margaret Campbell, of the family of Calder, tenants in the town and parish of Kilchattan, Luing. And as the word of God saith, Watch therefore, for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come, Matt. xxiv. 42. In time past I was a cross boy, yet after all it was observed of me that I was not given up to play as other children, for it was observed of me also that, when other children would be breaking the Lord's Day in playing, I would be musing, of praising as it were of religion way, and they would in a mocking way say to me, "Put on the preaching eyes now;" for ever since I was a boy I had pangs of spirit, and conviction, that pricked my heart and conscience what to do, that I would be rolling myself in bed, as these were pricked in heart, Acts ii. 37, that pressed and tormented me to feel such blasphemous injections against God, feeling myself at enmity to him, Rom. viii. 7. ...
I stressed my hand by plastering the wall of the house, and I went to a physician to see if he could do anything for my hand, but it was for the worse, as the woman, in the Scriptures, who had the bloody issue, that suffered many things of many physicians, but was nothing
the better, but rather worse, Mark v. 25, 26; so it was my case also, and my nature was to be avenged on the apothecary's clerk that gave me the medicines, for I was exceedingly the worse of them ever after, for these forty-seven years ago I have been troubled with a coldness in my loins, and my head, and whole body, that I could not be kept warm by clothes when I would warm my one side at the fire the other would be cold; so that I may say, In thy cold who can stand?-Psalm cxlvii. 17. I was for being avenged on the apothecary's clerk, Malcolm M'Vicar, Balmanno's shop, Glasgow-but in the mean time this Scripture was impressed on my mind to forgive him, and that I would heap coals of fire upon his head, Rom. xii. 19, 20, 21.
As I had no rest of conscience, I thought of giving a hint of my case to the schoolmaster of Killichattan, parish of Luing, James M'Intyre, he being more pious than some others, to see what he would say of my case, but he only made a sport of me. As soon as I gave him a hint of it, he cried on a vain lad, one of my neighbours, Duncan Campbell, smith, as he was passing by, upon the Lord's Day, to come and get sport of me; therefore I repented that I had given him a hint of it; and as the Scriptures saith, tell it not in Gath, lest the uncircumcised triumph, 2 Samuel i. 20. Cast not your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet and turn again and rend you: Matt. vii. 6. When the vain lad came in, then he told him of my case, and he made sport of me also. I went to Mr. John Smith, the minister of the parish, to see what he would say to my case. He told 'me only to remember my Creator, that was all he said of my case. An old woman could have given me the same answer if I had given her a hint of my case as I did to him; she would say remember thy Creator also. But there was none in the country could suit my case of conscience, and that I could rely upon, that would show me the marks of the people of God, but only a pious blind man that was ordered to go through the parish to examine the people by questions; and he said to me, that he did not know of any that could answer my case of conscience, since there was not such a one in the country as the late schoolmaster, John Campbell; that, if he were in the country, he would answer my case of conscience. Then I wrote to him frequently of my case, and he answered me exceedingly well, though the schoolmaster and the minister could not do it, as they had not exercise of conscience as he had.'
His care for his conscience soon turned into an eager concern for the soundness of the doctrine generally preached to the people. As I came to the light of the workings of effectual calling, I saw that the ministers did not preach of the new-birth, or comfort the people of God.'
He discovered that the Established Church of Scotland is of popish, Erastian principles.' The 'prelacy of the High Church of England' was no better. Patronage seemed to him, at first, the root of the evil. He got into trouble by protesting against the placing of a minister, and he and a small party fixed their
protestation on the church door, each man driving a nail in testimony of his adherence. He was charged with the fact and admitted it. I also said that Mr. Donald Cargill excommunicated Charles the Second, and Dukes, and General Dalzel, &c., and they did not die a natural death. Mr. Campbell of Esdale said that Cargill did not suffer a natural death neither. I said to him-Ye may as well say that Christ suffered not a natural death also.' Alexander and his followers then 'came out from among them, and were as sheep without a shepherd.' It was not easy to find a sheepfold constructed to his mind.
'I saw it to be a duty to protest against the Established Church of Scotland, that its principles were false-as all tolerated sects are false in the principles they hold, in doctrine, worship, discipline, and government; and though they differed in head from the Erastian Church of Scotland, yet they were joined to it in tail. And they are also as other tolerated sects, of other gods, evil worship, and therefore we are to take heed that we are not ensnared by following them. That it was robbing of God's absolute power by tolerating King George the Third to the government of Britain, like Uzziah. So therefore I thought I would put in my testimony against hearing any of the tolerated sects, as well as against the Church of Scotland.'
For a time Alexander and his companions were contented with private meetings, but some of them thought they had found what they wanted in the sect which calls (or called) itself Reformed Presbyterian,' and he agreed to join that body, having first stipulated for liberty to reprove their ministers,' which was conceded.
There was no absolute perfection, however, even in the 'Reformed Presbyterians,' and Campbell was not a person to submit to any compromise of opinion. To abstain from work upon the fast-day appointed by the Established Kirk was complying with unlawful authority,' and their new minister was rebuked for advising it. 'When that unlawful war commenced between Britain and France, and we were called to courts anent being volunteers, then we had meetings anent that whether it was our duty to go to their courts. A subject of great discussion amongst them was, whether or no it was allowable to have recourse to law in defence of property. This was settled by a reference to the constitution of their sect, which allowed it in cases of necessity. Campbell took up his testimony against their false principle, and again 'came out from amongst them; and from thenceforward was not enthralled by any confession of faith, nor declaration of adherence to any particular church or sect. His influence over a wide district seems only to have been increased by these crotchets and vagaries; but in the peaceful absolutism of his reign there is nothing to record. He was reverenced and feared while
alive, and canonized afterwards. It is affirmed that on the night of his death, some of his followers, looking towards his house, saw his soul carried upwards into heaven in a fiery chariot. But the authority on which we record this carefully adds, that 'many of the inhabitants of that district disbelieve it.' His 'Dying Testimony' appears to us so curious, that we shall transcribe as much as is at all fit for publication. Even in what we give, the readers of Burns will see sufficient coincidences with Holy Willie's Prayer :
"I as a dying man leave my testimony against those who tolerate all heretical sects. I also bear testimony against the Church of England for using their prayer book, their worship being idolitrous. I bear testimony against the Popish Erastian patronising ministers of the Church of Scotland. This is a day of gloominess and of thick darkness. They are blindfolded by toleration of popery, sectarianism, idolatry, and will-worship.
'I as a dying man leave my testimony from first to last against the Reformed Presbytery; they are false hypocrites, in principles of adherance to the modern party, who accept of indulgencies in as much as that they are allowed to apply to unjust judges. They throw their malitia money into one purse with the Church of men; they in case of necessity bow to the image. It is evident they are not reformed when they will not run any hazard to a constitution according to Christ.
I leave my dying testimony against my brother Duncan Campbell, by the flesh, and his wife Mary Omey, on account of a quarrel between their daughter and my housekeeper, having suminoned her before a justice of the peace, who, having heard the case, did not take any steps against her. I therefore testify against them for not dropping the matter, as I did all that was in my power to do this. There is no agreement between the children of the flesh and spirit, as Paul
I leave my testimony, as a dying man, against Duncan Clark, in saying that my brother's cow was not pushing mine; he was not present and therefore could not maintain it before judges. And my brother took his son who was not come to the years, and got him to declare along with them. They would not allow my house-keeper to have the same authority in neighbourhood with them, as she was not married; and that is contrary to the word, Better to be as I am, as Paul said.
"I as a dying man leave my testimony against the letter learned men, that are not taught in the college of Sina and Zion, but in the college of Babylon, 2 Cor. iii. 6, Rom. vii. 6. They wanted to interrupt me by their letter learning, and would have me from the holy covenant, Luke i. 72, and from the everlasting covenant, Isaiah xxiv. 5.
'I as a dying man leave my testimony against King George the Third, for tolerating all denominations in the three kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland, to uncleanness of popery, and as he him
self reigned as a pope in all these three kingdoms, that his Churchmen trample under feet a covenanted land married to the Lord to the last posterity, that they will not have Christ to reign as head and king of the Church, Isaiah ix. 6, 7, and ought to have supremacy all in all, Eph. i. 22; Col. i. 18, and not mortal man as king of the Church and State, to the ruin of the souls and body of the people.
'I as a dying man leave my testimony against paying unlawful tributes and stipend, either in civil or ecclesiastical courts, not according to the word of God, Confession of Faith, second reformation covenants, &c., if otherwise they shall receive the mark of the beast, Rev. xiii. 17.
'I leave my testimony against covetous heritors, who oppress the poor tenants by augmenting the rents, as John M'Andrew that was in Ardmuddy, that he fell over a rock, and judgment came upon him and he died, and Robertson and M'Lachlan, surveyors, that caused Lord Bredalban to augment the land, and oppress the poor, and grind the face of the poor tenants. Oppression makes a wise man mad, Eccl. vii. 7. And it is a double sin of George the Fourth, as in his Coronation oath he is bound not to suffer the poor to be oppressed, nor had Nehemiah, as he feared God, Neh. v. 7. Suffer not the subject to be oppressed, for by mercy and truth iniquity is purged; and by the fear of God men depart from evil.
'I as a dying man leave my testimony against unequal yoke of marriage, 2 Col. vi. 14; 1 Cor. vii. 39.
I leave as a dying man my testimony against playactors and pictures, Numb. xxxiii. 52; Deut. xviii. 10–14; Gal. iv. 10.
'I as a dying man leave my testimony against dancing schools, as it is the works of the flesh.
'I as a dying man leave my testimony against the low country, as they are not kind to strangers. Some unawares have entertained angels, Heb. xii. 12.
I as a dying man leave my testimony against women that wear Babylonish garments, that are rigged out with stretched out necks, tinkling as they go, Isaiah iii. 16-24, &c.
I as a dying man leave my testimony against gentlemen; they altogether break the bonds of the relation of the words of God, Jer. v. 5.
I leave as a dying man my testimony against covetous heritors. And the word of God says that the labourers should labour no more than they are paid for; that poor tenants be obliged to go here and there, as the children of Israel were obliged to wander hither and thither to gather stubble, or else be beaten by the servants of Pharaoh. Exod. v. 10-14. That is the very way of poor tenants now, by proprietors and factors, and laws of the fat lawyers, as the Jews said, we have a law, John x. 7. N.B. As I could not pay that excessive rent that was laid on the place I had, I petitioned Lord Bredalbane, and there was a deliverance given me of a cow's grass and a house, the factor Craignour. John Campbell, lawyer at Inverary, would not give it, taken as an excuse that the hand of Lord Bredalbane was not in the