Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Front Cover
Vivien Gornitz
Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 31, 2008 - Science - 1049 pages

Concern exists over human-generated increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases and their potential consequences to society. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 finds that global temperatures have increased by 0.8oC since 1850 and that climate warming is now 'unequivocal'. While the human imprint is becoming increasingly apparent, Earth’s climate has shifted dramatically and frequently during the last few million years, alternating between ice ages, when vast glaciers covered Northern Europe and much of North America, and interglacials—warm periods much like today. Farther back in geologic time, climates have differed even more from the present. Thus, to fully understand the unusual changes of the 20th century and possible future trends, these must be placed in a longer-term context extending beyond the period of instrumental records.

The Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments, a companion volume to the recently-published Encyclopedia of World Climatology, provides the reader with an entry point to the rapidly expanding field of paleoclimatology—the study of climates of the past. Highly interdisciplinary in nature, paleoclimatology integrates information from a broad array of disciplines in the geosciences, ranging from stratigraphy, geomorphology, glaciology, paleoecology, paleobotany to geochemistry and geophysics, among others. The encyclopedia offers 230 informative articles written by over 200 well known international experts on numerous subjects, ranging from classical geological evidence to the latest research. The volume is abundantly illustrated with line-drawings, black-white and color photographs. Articles are arranged alphabetically, with extensive bibliographies and cross-references.

 

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this book provides u a lot about genesis of geography ,wonderful works ,lovely

Contents

III
1
IV
2
V
4
VI
6
VII
10
VIII
13
IX
16
X
22
CXIX
485
CXX
489
CXXI
493
CXXII
495
CXXIII
498
CXXIV
504
CXXV
507
CXXVI
514

XI
24
XII
31
XIII
34
XIV
38
XV
45
XVI
51
XVII
57
XVIII
61
XIX
66
XX
75
XXI
85
XXII
89
XXIII
90
XXIV
92
XXV
94
XXVI
100
XXVII
103
XXVIII
107
XXIX
118
XXX
123
XXXI
128
XXXII
133
XXXIII
136
XXXIV
138
XXXV
143
XXXVI
148
XXXVII
155
XXXVIII
156
XXXIX
158
XL
164
XLI
174
XLII
178
XLIII
181
XLIV
183
XLV
187
XLVI
188
XLVII
192
XLVIII
198
XLIX
206
L
211
LI
213
LII
217
LIII
221
LIV
226
LV
229
LVI
233
LVII
237
LVIII
239
LIX
247
LX
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LXI
252
LXII
255
LXIII
260
LXIV
265
LXV
269
LXVI
275
LXVII
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LXIX
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LXX
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LXXI
282
LXXII
284
LXXIV
286
LXXV
291
LXXVI
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LXXVII
301
LXXVIII
302
LXXIX
308
LXXXI
312
LXXXII
319
LXXXIII
320
LXXXIV
325
LXXXV
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LXXXVI
335
LXXXVII
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LXXXVIII
341
LXXXIX
354
XCI
361
XCII
374
XCIII
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XCIV
382
XCV
384
XCVI
389
XCVII
394
XCVIII
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XCIX
396
C
397
CI
406
CII
409
CIII
414
CIV
428
CV
438
CVI
442
CVII
446
CVIII
451
CIX
453
CX
457
CXI
463
CXII
471
CXIII
473
CXIV
477
CXV
478
CXVI
479
CXVII
483
CXXVII
517
CXXVIII
520
CXXIX
522
CXXX
525
CXXXI
533
CXXXII
539
CXXXIII
540
CXXXIV
547
CXXXV
550
CXXXVI
551
CXXXVII
554
CXXXVIII
559
CXXXIX
560
CXL
566
CXLI
568
CXLII
573
CXLIII
583
CXLIV
589
CXLV
594
CXLVI
595
CXLVII
596
CXLVIII
606
CXLIX
609
CL
612
CLI
614
CLII
619
CLIII
625
CLV
629
CLVI
634
CLVII
643
CLVIII
651
CLIX
659
CLX
663
CLXI
665
CLXII
666
CLXIII
675
CLXIV
679
CLXV
683
CLXVI
690
CLXVII
696
CLXVIII
700
CLXIX
709
CLXX
716
CLXXI
721
CLXXII
728
CLXXIII
733
CLXXIV
738
CLXXV
743
CLXXVI
746
CLXXVII
748
CLXXVIII
752
CLXXIX
757
CLXXX
763
CLXXXI
765
CLXXXII
766
CLXXXIII
768
CLXXXIV
770
CLXXXV
775
CLXXXVI
780
CLXXXVII
783
CLXXXVIII
784
CLXXXIX
798
CXC
804
CXCI
813
CXCII
815
CXCIII
823
CXCIV
825
CXCV
835
CXCVI
836
CXCVII
840
CXCVIII
856
CXCIX
863
CC
869
CCI
871
CCII
873
CCIII
874
CCIV
877
CCV
879
CCVI
887
CCVII
893
CCVIII
899
CCIX
902
CCX
907
CCXI
911
CCXII
916
CCXIII
918
CCXIV
923
CCXV
926
CCXVI
929
CCXVII
937
CCXVIII
938
CCXIX
948
CCXX
959
CCXXI
962
CCXXII
969
CCXXIII
972
CCXXIV
976
CCXXV
981
CCXXVI
986
CCXXVII
993
CCXXVIII
997
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