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İ, The Duties of County Councils, or the Councils of Unions of Counties, (see 48th section) are so clearly stated in the several clauses of the twenty-seventh Section of the Act, that it is needless to make any explanatory remarks in reference to them; nor is it necessary to furnish any forms for bonds of security required of County Treasurers or SubTreasurers of School moneys, or forms of notices required of each County Clerk to each Local Superintendent of his appointment and of the amount of money apportioned to the Township or Townships of his chargo, and to the Chief Superintendent of the name and post-office address of the County Treasurer and of each Local Superintendent of Schools in the County, and also transmitting to the Chief Superintendent a copy of all the proceedings of the County Council on School matters, and an abstract of the auditors' annual report to the Council.

The Treasurer of each County, City, or Town (see section 42) should either' apply personally, or appoint some person at the Seat of Government, to apply and receive the Legislative School Grant apportioned to such County, City or Town.' The proper form of a Power of Attorney for that purpose must be familiar to every officer concerned ; also that each such Power of Attorney must be witnessed, signed, and forwarded in duplicate.

2. On the fidelity and ability with which County Bourds of Public Instruction fulfil the functiops assigned to them in the 29th section of the Act, depend the character and efficiency of the Schools as affected by the character and qualifications of the Teachers. Much has been said about incompetent Trustees and their employment of incompetent Teachers"; but Trustees cannot employ such Teachers by means of the School Fund, unless such Teachers are licensed to teach. It therefore' remains with the County Boards (chiefly with the Local Superintendents) to say whether a penny of the School Fund shall be misapplied in payment of any intemperate, immoral, or incompetent Teacher. In giving certificates of qualification, County Boards should not, therefore, regard individual applicants, but the interests of youth, the destinies' of the rising and future generations of the country. As the fifteenth Section of the Act recognizes the validity of Local Superintendents' certificates of qualifications until the expiration of the current year (1850,) the functions of County Boards in this respect will hardly commence until the year 1851, before which time a Programme of Examination and Instructions, 28

authorized by the twenty-ninth Section of the Act, will be provided, according to which the future examinations and classification of Teachers will be conducted and determined.

3. No Local Superintendent will need a form for notifying the Trustees of each School Section within his jurisdiction of the amount of the School Fund apportioned to such Section for any one yoar; or of a forma of cheque upon the County Treasurer or Sub-Treasurer for school moneys in behalf of legally qualified Teachers. No explanation can make the important duties of each Local Superintendent plainer than the several clauses of the thirty-first Section of the Act; and the form of conducting the correspondence which the duties of his office requires, 'is left to his own judgment. The Chief Superintendent of Schools will furnish each Local Saperintendent with a blank annual report for himself and for the Trustees of each School Section within his charge.

I MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS: 1. Appeals to the Chief Superintendent of Schools, 90.+All parties concerned in the operation of the Common School Act have the right of appeal to the Chief Superintendent of Schools; and he is authorised to decide on such questions as are not otherwise provided for by law. But for the ends of justice to prevent delay, and to save expense, it will be necessary for any party thus appealing to the Chief Superintendent: 1. To furnish the party against whom they may appeal, with a correct copy of their communication to the Chief Superintendent, in order that the opposite party may have an opportunity of transmitting, also, any explanation or answer that such party inay judge expedient. %. To state expressly, in the appeal to the Chief Superintendent, that the opposite party has thus been notified of it. It must not be sup posed that the Chief Superintendent will decide, or form an opinion, on any point affecting different parties, without hearing both sides whatever delay inay at any time be occasioned in order to secure such a hearing.

2. The foregoing directions do not, of course, refer to communications ask advice on doubtful points, or prudential measures of a local or general character.,

3. Communications generally. The parties concerned are left to their own discreti as to the forms of all communications, relating to Common Schools, for which specific Forms are not furnished in the foregoing pages.

4. All communications with the Government, relating to Schools conducted under the authority of the Common School Act, 13th and 14th Victoria, Chapter 48, should be made through the Education Office, Toronto.

5. Communications with the Government, not so made, are referred back to the Education Office, to be brought before His Excellency through the proper Department which occasions unnecessary delay and expense.


DISCIPLINE OF COMMON SCHOOLS IN UPPER CANADA; Idopted after mature consideration, by the Council of Public Instruction, as duthorized

By the Act, 13th and 14th Victoria, Chapter 48, Section 38.

SECTION 1. Hours of Daily Teaching, Holidays and Vacations. 1. The hours of teaching each day shall not exceed six, exclusive of all the time allowed at noon for recreation. Nevertheless, a less number of hours for daily teaching may be determined upon in any school, at the option of the Trustees.


2. Every alternate Saturday, shall be a holiday in each school.

3. There shall be three vacations during each year; the first, eight days, at Easter; the second, the first two weeks in August; the third, eight days, at Christmas.

4. All agreemenis between Trustees and Teachers shall be subject to the foregoing regulations ; and no Teacher shall be deprived of any part of his salary on account of observing allowed Holidays and Vacations.

SECTION 2. Duties of Trustees. 1. The full and explicit manner in which the duties of Trustees are enumerated and stated in the several clauses of the twelfth section of the Act, readers it unnecessary to do more, in this place, than make some expository remarks on the nature of the general duties of Trustees, and the relations sub sisting between them and the Teachers whom they employ. The law invests Trustees with most important functions ; they are a corporation, and as such, the ownership and control of the School site, School-house, and all the property attached thereto, is vested in them; they are to provide and furnish the School-house and premises, and apparatus and text-books for the School ; and they alone have authority to employ the Teacher. Their duties are, therefore, of the greatest importance, and they should be well understood. . .


. · 2. While the Trustees employ the Teacher-agree with him as to the period during which he shall teach, and the amount of his remuneration-the mode of teaching is at the option of the Teacher : and the Local Superintendent and Visitors alone have a right to advise him on the subject. The Teacher is not a mere machine, and no Trustee or parent should attempt to reduce him to that position. His character and his interest alike prompt him to make his instructions as efficient and popular as possible ; and if he does not give satisfaction, he can be dismissed according to the terms of his agreement wi:h his employers. To interfere with him, and deprive him of his discretion as a Teacher, and then to dismiss him for inefilciency, which is the natural and usual result, is to inflict upon him a double wrong, and frequently injures the pupils themselves, and all parties concerned. li should then be distinctly understood, as essential to the Teacher's character, position and success, that he judge for himself as to the mode of teaching in his school, including, of course, the classification of pupils, as well as the manner of instructing them. It is, nevertheless, the duty of the Trustees to see that the school is conducted according to the regulations authorized by,

3. It is therefore important that Trustees should select a competent Teacher. The best Teacher is always the cheapest. Ho teaches most, and inculcates the best habits of learning and mental development, in a given time ; and time and proper habits are worth more than money, both to pupils and their parents. Trustees who pay a Teacher fairly and punctually, and treat him properly, will seldom want a good Teacher. To employ an incompetent person, because he offers his incompetent services for a small sum, is a waste of money, and a mockery and injury of the youth of the neighbourhood. We entirely concur with the National Board of Education in Ireland, in the following estimate of the qualities of a good Teacher :

"A Teacher should be a person of Christian sentiment, of calm temper, and discretion; he should be imbued with the spirit of peace, of obedience to the law, and of loyalty to his Sovereign ; he should not only possess the art of communicating knowledge, but be capable of moulding the mind of youth, and of giving to the power, which education confers, a useful direction. These are the qualities for which Patrons (or Trustees of Schools, when making choice of a Teacher, should anxiously look.”

4. Trustees will always find it the best economy to have a commodious School-house, kept comfortable, and properly furnished. It is as difficult for pupils to learn, as it is for the master to teach, in an unfur. nished and comfortless school-house.' .5. In the selection of Books to be used in the school, from the general list authorized according to law, the Trustees should see that but one series of Reading books, one Arithmetic, or one for the beginners and another for the more advanced pupils, one Geography, &c. should be used in any one school, in order that the scholars may be classified in the several branches which they are studying. Heterogeneous school books (however good each book may be in itself) render classification impossible, increase the labour and waste the time of the Teacher, and retard the progress of the pupils. But the Teacher and pupils labour at the greatest disadvantage, when they are compelled to use books which are as various as the scholars names... P.:

TTTTT Section 3.-Duties of Teachers.. . a. ; The sixteenth section of the School Act prescribes, in explicit and comprehensive terms, the duties of Teachers; and no Teacher can legally claim his salary who disregards the requirements of the law. Among other things, the Act requires each Teacher to “maintain proper order and discipline in his school, according to the forms and regulations which shall be provided according to law." The law makes it the duty of the Chief Superintendent of Schools to provide the forms; and the Council of Public Instruction prescribe the following regulations for the guidance of Teachers in the conduct and discipline of their schools.

It shall be the duty of each Teacher of a Common School ;~

1. To receive courteously the Visitors appointed by law, and to afford them every facility for inspecting the books used, and to examine into

the state of the school ; to have the Visitors' book open, that the Visitors may, if they choose, enter remarks in it. The frequency of visits to the school by intelligent persons, animates the pupils, and greatly aids the faithful Teacher.

2. To keep the Registers accurately and neatly, according to the prescribed forms ; which is the more important under the present School Act, as the 31st section of it authorizes the distribution of the local school fund according to the average attendance of pupils attending each school.

3. To classify the children according to the books used ; to study those books himself; and to teach according to the improved method recommended in their prefaces.

4. To observe himself, and to impress upon the minds of the pupils, the great rule of regularity and order,- A TIME AND A PLACE FOR EVERYTHING, AND EVERYTHING IN ITS PROPER TIME AND PLACE.

5. To promote, both by precept and example, CLEANLINESS, NEAT, JESS, and DECENCY. To effect this, the Teacher should set an exaample of cleanliness and neatness in his own person, and in the state and general appearance of the school. He should also satisfy himself, by personal inspection every morning, that tho children have bad their hands and faees washod, their bair combed, and clothos cleaned and, when necossary, mended. Tho school apartments, too, should be swept and dusted every evening.

6. To pay the strictest attention to the morals and general conduet of his pupils, and to orwit 80 opportunity of inculcating the principles of TRUTH AND HONESTY ; tho duties of respect to superiors, and obedience to all persone placed in authority over them.

7. To evince a regard for the improvement and general welfare of his pupils, to treat them with kindness combined with firmues8 ; and to aim at governing them by their affections and reason, rather than by harshness and severity.

8. To cultivate kindly and affectionate feelings among his pupils ; to discountenance quarrelling, cruelty to animals, and every approach to vice..

Section 4.-Duties of. Visitors. 1. The thirty-second section of the Act provides that all Clergymen recognized by law of whatever denomination, Judges, Members of the Legislature, Magistrates, Members of County Councils, and Aldermen, shall be School Visitors ; and the thirty-third section of the Act prescribes their lawful duties.

2. The parties thus authorized to act as Visitors, have it in their power to exert an immense influence in elevating the character and

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