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In the counties southeast of the Chenango, the hills are covered with fine timber, and when cleared afford excellent pasture. The intervening valleys produce grass, and the various kinds of grain in abundance.

SEC. vi. Rivers. This state contains many noble streams, and is watered by some of the most celebrated rivers of America. On the western and northern boundaries are the Niagara and the St. Lawrence. The Allegany, Susquehannah, and Delaware rise in the south part of the state. The western part contains the Genesee, Oswego, and Black rivers; and the eastern part the Saranac, Hudson, and Mohawk.

The Niagara river is the outlet of lake Erie, and runs north about 30 miles to lake Ontario ; embracing Grand and Navy islands, and receiving the Tonnewanta creek from the east. Three miles from lake Erie, it is 7 furlongs in width, and its average depth 21 feet, with a current of 6 miles an hour.

Eighteen miles from lake Erie, are the celebrated Falls of Niagara. For a mile above the great pitch, the bed of the river sinks gradually 57 feet, causing grand, and fearful rapids. It is then suddenly depressed, forming a precipice of about 160 feet from bank to bank. On the brink of the precipice is a small island,* which divides the stream, and presents, for 150 yards, a perpendicular front of rock, fragments of which lie in confusion at its base.

Table Rock is on the Canada bank, and presents the most interesting view of this sublime spectacle. Looking up the river, you behold it tumbling with strange magnificence over the ledges of rocks, which from this point

* Goat Island.

What other productions are mentioned ?

vi. What is said of the rivers of this state? -What rivers on the northern and western boundaries ?-- -What rise in the south part?

- What are contained in the western part ?- In the eastern ? Describe the Niagara.Give some account of the Falls.

inferior in size, but generally adapted to the purposes of internal navigation. Oneida, Seneca, and Cayuga are among the most important.

Lake Erie is 200 miles long, and 710 in circumference. It contains a large number of islands, and abounds with fish. It is of more dangerous navigation than the others on account of the rocks, which project into the water for many miles together, from the northern shore, affording no shelter from storms, which, at some seasons, are very frequent.

Lake Ontario is of an oval form about 160 miles in length, and 450 in circumference. Its banks are in many places precipitous. The southern shore is covered principally with beech trees, and the soil appears fertile. This lake abounds with several varieties of fish. Lake Champlain is 100 miles in length, and from 1 to 25 in breadth.

Lake George is 37 miles long, and from 1 to 7 broad. On each side it is skirted by lofty mountains. Its banks are uncommonly handsome, and the water so transparent, that the bottom is visible at almost any depth. It embosoms more than 200 beautiful islands, most of which are covered with groves of pine, cedar, and hemlock. It falls into lake Champlain by a channel 3 miles in length, during which its waters descend more than 100 feet.

Oneida lake is 20 miles long, and 5 broad. From the south it receives the waters of Cazenovia lake through the Chitteningo.

Seneca lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 to 3 wide. Its outlet, the Syracuse runs north of east 12 miles, and falls into Cayuga lake near its mouth. Crooked lake is 15 miles long, and from 1 to 2 wide. A short stream connects it with the Seneca.

Cayuga lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 to 4 broad. Onondaga, or salt lake, is 6 miles long, and 1 broad. On the southwest it receives the waters of the Otisco by a stream 16 miles long, and at the north end flows through a short phannel into Seneca river. Skeneateles lake, 14 miles

Mention the most important lakes.

Describe Lake Erie.- Ontario-George - OneidaSeneca Cayuga.

long and I broad, and the Owasco, 11 miles long and broad, are also discharged into Seneca river.

Canandaigua lake is 15 miles long, and nearly 2 broa, Chatauque lake lies 9 miles from lake Erie, and is ! miles long and 3 broad. Its waters flow from Conewan go creek into the Allegany river. Boats go from the hea of this lake to New Orleans.

Otsego and Caniaderago lakes are the two sources, the Susquehannah. The first is 9. miles long and 1 wide The other is nearly as large. Oswegatchie lake is 1 miles long and nearly parallel with the St. Lawrence.

Sec. vu. Islands. The principal island are Long Island east of the city of New York Staten Island west of New York bay; Man hattan or York Island on which the city o New York stands, and Grand Island in the Niagara river.

Long Island is about 140 miles long, and on an ave rage about 10 broad. It is separated from Connecticu by the Sound, from York island by East river, and fron Staten island by the Narrows. A ridge of hills extend through the north side, but the island is generally level The soil is poor, and in many places not worth cultiva ting.

Manhattan is 15 miles long, and from 1 to 2 in width It is separated from the Jersey shore by Hudson's, an from Long Island by East river.

Staten Island, 9 miles south of Manhattan, is 18 mile long, and from 6 to 7 broad. It is generally rough an hilly. On the south side is a considerable tract, which i level, and tolerably fertile.

Grand Island is 6 miles long and 3 broad. It has good soil. The south end is 4 miles from Buffalo.

Describe Canandaigua Lake.- What others are mentioned VIII. What are the principal Islands belonging to this state?

Describe Long Island--Manhattan--What others are inentioned ?

THE NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY
560 5 09

ASTOR, LENOX ANB
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS
R

1912

SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK, 88. BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the twentieth day of October, 1. D. 1828, in the fifty third year of the Independence of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, James Conner, of the said District, has deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words following, to wit :

" A History of the State of New York, from the first discovery of the country to the present time."

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled “ An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned;" and also to an act, entitled, "An act supplementary to an act, entitled an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints.”

FRED. J. BETTS,} District of New York.

CONTENTS.

PREFACE,

· vii

CHAP. I.

NATURAL GEOGRAPHY.

Boundaries. Situation and Extent. Climate. Face of the Country. Mountains. Soil and Productions. Rivers. Lakes.

Islands,

1

CHAP. II.

NATURAL GEOGRAPHY-CONTINUED.

Mineralogy. Salt Springs. Medicinal Waters. Botany. Natural

Curiosities,

. 10

CHAP. III.

NATURAL GEOGRAPHY-CONTINUED.

Native Animals.

Mastodon. Moose. Bear. Wolf. Cougar. Wolverene. Cata

mount. Wildcat. Raccoon. Martin. Deer. Fox. Hare. Rabbit. Porcupine. Woodchuck. Skunk. Weasel. Squirrel. Mouse. Ermine. Beaver. Musk-Rat. Mink. Otter. Fish. Birds. Insects. Serpents, and Reptiles,

19

CHAP. IV.

VIEW OF THE COUNTRY AT THE TIME OF ITS DISCOVERY BY

HUDSON.

State of the country. Aborigines. Iroquois. Their Confederacy.

Artiquities. Inference. Their authors, and origin of the Indian race,

30

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