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as such.

To them were assigned the labors of the field, and the services of domestic care. Doomed to incessant toil, they performed their perpetual tasks without pity, and without compassion, and often, in return, received the most brutal treatment from their husbands.

They had no written literature except rude hieroglyphics, and consequently no records, or written laws. Their old men became the depositaries of past experience, and by them their debates were chiefly carried on. Their language was rude, but sonorous, metaphorical, and energetic. It was well suited to the purposes of public speaking, and when accompanied by the impassioned gestures, and uttered in the deep guttural tones of the savage, had a singularly wild and impressive effect.

War was considered the most honorable employment, and was carried on chiefly by stratagem and ambuscade. When they fought in the open field, they rushed to the attack with incredible fury, and, at the same time, uttered their appalling war whoop. Their weapons were bows and arrows, headed with fint or other hard stones, which they discharged with great precision and force.

Their religious notions consisted of traditions mingled with many superstitions. They believed in two gods, the one good, who was the superior, and whom they styled the Great Spirit; the other evil. They worshipped both. Besides these, they worshipped various other deities, such as fire, water, thunder, anything which they supposed to be superior to themselves, and capable of doing them injury. Their manner of worship was to sing and dance round large fires.

Sec. III. The Iroquois constituted a confederated republic, and were among the most remarkable of the American race. They occupied the greater part of this State, and had made considerable advances in the art of


What is said of their laws ?- - Of their language ? - What was considered the most honorable employment ?--How was it carried on ? -What were their weapons ?

Give some account of their religious notions.

III. What is said of the Iroquois ?

ernment. By their civil combinations, and military talents, they acquired the supremacy over the numerous and warlike nations, by whom they were surrounded.

They* had been in possession of the country for a long time previous to Hudson's discovery; but were not the original inhabitants of this part of North America. The Mohekaneews universally considered themselves as the original inhabitants, and styled the Iroquois interlopers. The Iroquois are said to have admitted the fact, and gloried in it; asserting that they had fought their way to their present possessions, and acquired their country by conquering all who had resisted them.

Thàt this united declaration is just, is amply supported by facts. The Mohekaneews were spread from the neighborhood of the Pacific Ocean to the eastern shore of New England; and remains of this nation are now to be found in small tribes, dispersed over a large part of North America. This is proved unanswerably by their language.

The Iroquois were planted in the midst of this widely extended nation; and appear to have had no other connexion with them, than what is involved in wars, conquests, and treaties; and nothing in common with them, besides the savage character, and its universal appendages.

At the same time, they were almost invariably at war with some or other of the Mohekaneew tribes. With this spirit, and its necessary consequences, it is impossible that they should have made their way through the western branches of the Mohekaneews, or, in other words, through enemies dispersed over a territory of near three thousand miles in extent, in any other manner, than by conquest, SEC. IV.

The confederacyf of the Iroquois consisted, originally, of five nations, the Mo.

Dwight's Letters. + Clinton's Discourse.

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Who were the original inhabitants ? - How did the Iroquois pbtain possession ?

Iv. of what did the Iroquois Confederacy originally consist

hawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas. The Mohawks had four towns, and one small village, situated on or near the fertile banks of the river of that name. The position of the first was the confluence of the Schoharie Creek and Mohawk River. The others were further to the west.

The Mohawks, from their martial renown, and military spirit, have not unfrequently given their name to the whole confederacy, which was often denominated the Mohawks in the annals of those days. This nation was always held in the greatest veneration by its associates, and they were declared by the other nations, " the true old heads of the confederacy.”

The Oneidas had their principal seat on the south of the Oneida lake; the Onondagas, near the Onondaga; and the Cayugas, near the Cayuga lake.

The principal village of the Senecas was near the Genesee river, about twenty miles from Irondequoit bay.

Each nation was divided into three tribes : the Tortoise, the Bear, and the Wolf. Each village was a distinct republic, and its concerns were managed by its peculiar chiefs.

Their exterior relations, general interests, and national affairs, were conducted and superintended by a great council, assembled annually at Onondaga, the central canton, composed of the chiefs of each republic; and eighty sachems were frequently convened at this national assembly.

Name them.- -In what part were the Mohawks located ? Why have they sometimes given name to the confederacy ?Where was the principal seat of the Oneidas ?- -Of the Onondagas ?

of the Cayugas ? ---Of Senecas ?- How was each nation divided ?- How were their exterior relations conducted?

It took cognisance of the great questions of war and peace, and of the affairs of the tributary nations. All their proceedings were conducted with great deliberation, and were distinguished for order, decorum, and solemnity.

A prominent feature in the character of the confederates, was an exalted spirit of liberty, which revolted with equal indignation at domestic or foreign control. They esteemed themselves as sovereigns, accountable to none, but God alone, whom they called the Great Spirit. They admitted no hereditary distinctions. The office of sachem was the reward of personal merit; of great wisdom, of commanding eloquence; of distinguished services in the cabinet, or in the field.

Whatever superiority the Iroquois might have .in war, they never neglected the use of stratagem. The cunning of the fox, the ferocity of the tiger, and the power of the lion, were united in their conduct. They preferred to vanquish their enemy, by taking him off his guard, by involving him in an ambuscade; but when emergencies rendered it necessary for them to face him in the open field, they exhibited a courage and contempt of death, which has never been surpassed. SEC. y.

In the western and interior parts of the state, the remains of fortifications and other works of art have been discovered, bearing marks of great antiquity, and indicating the remote existence of nations far more civilized, than the indigenes of the present race, or any of the known tribes of North America.

Of what did this council take cognisance ? For what were their deliberations distinguished ?

What prominent feature is mentioned in the character of the confederates ?--How did they esteem themselves ?- What is said of their courage ?

v. What have been discovered in the western part of the state ?

In Pompey,* Onondaga county, are vestiges of a town, the area of which included more than five hundred acres. It was protected by three circular or elliptical forts, eight miles distant from each other. They formed a triangle, which enclosed the town. From certain indications, this town seems to ve been stormed and taken on the line of the north side.

In Camillas, in the same county, are the remains of two forts, one covering about three acres, on a very high hill. It had one eastern gate, and a communication at the west, towards a spring about ten rods from the fort. Its shape was elliptical. The ditch was deep, and the eastern wall ten feet high.

The other fort is almost half a mile distant, on lower ground, constructed like the other, and about half as large. Shells of testaceous animals, numerous fragments of pottery, pieces of brick, and other signs of an ancient settlement, were found by the first European settlers.

On the east bank of Seneca river, six miles south of Cross and Salt lakes, the remains of ancient Indian defence have been discovered, together with a delineation of ill shapen figures, supposed to have been hieroglyphical, and engraved as with a chisel, on a flat stone, five feet in length, three and a half in breadth, and six inches thick; evidently a sepulchral monument.

The principal fortification was two hundred and twenty yards in length, and fiftyfive yards in breadth. The bank and corresponding ditch were remarkably entire ; as were two apertures, opposite each other in the middle of the parallelogram, one opening to the water, and the · other facing the forest.

About half a mile south of the greater work, was a large half moon, supposed to have been an outwork, but attended with this singularity, that the extremities of the crescent were from the larger fort. The banks of the ditch, both of this and the first fortress, were covered with trees, that exhibited extremity of age.

* Yates' and Moulton's History.

Give some account of the remains in Pompey:- In Camillus. On the Seneca river.

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