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Connected with the canal is also a dam across the Hudson, with a sloop lock, at Troy, which cost $92,270. The canal communicates with these works by a descent of 3 locks into the Mohawk, below the dam on that river, at Waterford. The tolls received on this canal, in 1827, amounted to $72,833.

The Delaware and Hudson Canal is partly in this state. It commences on the Hudson, at Kingston, and proceeds in a southwest direction, through the valley of the Neversink Creek to the Delaware river ; thence up the valleys of the Delaware river and Lockowaxen creek, to the Mauch Chunk Railway. This canal will be highly important in supplying New York with Coal from the mines in Pennsylvania.

SEC. VIII. Banks. There are above forty Banks in this state, possessing a large amount of real, and a still larger amount of nominal capital. In 1811, there were fifteen banks,the capitals of which amounted to $11,840,000. Of these, five were in the city of New York, the capitals of which amounted to $8,050,000. In 1819, the aggregate capital of thirty of the banks in this state amounted to $24,000,000. SEC. IX.

Militia. The militia comprises, with few exceptions, all the able-bodied white male citizens between the ages of eighteen and fortyfive years. The enrolled militia, at this time, amounts to about one hundred and fifty thousand men, and are well organized and provided with arms. Twelve arsenals are located in various sections of the state, and supplied with military stores.

According to the returns of 1823, the enrolled militia, at that time, amounted to 146,709 : of these, 132,639 were

What can you say of the Delaware and Hudson Canal ?
VIII What is said of Banks ?
ix. What does the militia comprise ?- -What number?

infantry; 8622 artillery; and 5448 cavalry. They were divided into 27 divisions, which were subdivided into 61 brigades, 243 regiments, and 2012 companies. The arsenals are located at New York, Albany, Whitehall, Plattsburgh, Elizabethtown, Malone, Russel, Watertown, Rome, Onondaga, Canandaigua, and Batavia. SEC. X.

Education and Literary Institutions. The facilities for education are in no country more extensively enjoyed, or more highly appreciated, than in New York. The “Regents of the University," instituted in 1787, constitute a corporation of twentyone members, to whom is entrusted the care of the literature of the state.

It is their duty to visit colleges, academies, and schools, and to superintend the system of education. They meet annually, at Albany, and report to the legislature the state of literary institutions. They are authorized to incorporate colleges and academies, and have the direction and distribution of the funds appropriated to literary institutions.

Six colleges, including those for physicians and surgeons, have been established in this state, and liberally endowed. Columbia College, in the city of New York, Union College, at Schenectady, and Hamilton College, at Paris, Oneida county, are all useful and highly flourishing institutions. The college at Geneva has been recently established. The college of physicians and surgeons, in the city of New York, is surpassed by no institution of the kind

Where are arsenals lecated ?

X. What is said of education ? -Of the Regents of the University!

-How many colleges are in this state, and at what places are they located ?

in America ; that at Fairfield is highly respectable. There are thirtysix incorporated academies, located in various parts of the state, and about eight thousand common schools. In these seminaries four hundred thousand children and youth are annually educated.

Columbia College was founded in 1757 ; and, till the revolution, had the name of King's College. It has a president, 5 professors, a considerable library, and valuable philosophical apparatus. This institution has been richly endowed, and has about 140 students.

Union College was incorporated by the Regents of the University in 1794. It has a president and 4 professors, a library of above 5000 volumes, and a complete chemical and philosophical apparatus. The number of students is about 250. The funds of the institution, in 1796, amounted to about $50,000; and, since that period, it has received, besides other grants from the legislature, a grant by lottery of about $90,000.

Hamilton College was incorporated by the Regents of the University in 1812. About $50,000 were subscribed by individuals, and the same sum granted by the legislature to constitute the funds of the seminary. Since that period, the funds have received an addition of $50,000 by indirect grants of the legislature. It has 3 professors, 2 tutors, a library of above 2000 volumes, with a good chemical and philosophical apparatus. It is situated in the heart of one of the most populous and flourishing sections of the state, and promises to become, at no very distant period, one of the most important institutions in the country.

The Presbyterians have a Theological Seminary at Auburn; the Baptists, at Hamilton ; and the Episcopal Church, in the city of New York. Of the Incorporated Academies, Albany, Cayuga, Clinton, Lansingburgh, Montgomery, Duchess, Union Hall, Whitesborough, Eras

How many academies ?--Common schools ?

What is said of Columbia College ?- Of Union College ?Of Hamilton College? What Theological Seminories are men. tioned, and where located ? _Mention some of the principal academies.

mus Hall, Geneva, Hudson, St Lawrence, Hartwick, Middlebury, Lawville, Oxford, Pompey, Canandaigua, Cambridge, and Ballston, are the most important. There are likewise a large number of Private Schools established in various parts of the state, many of which are highly respectable. Above $6000, the revenue arising from the Literature Fund, is annually distributed by the Regents of the University among the incorporated academies, in proportion to the number of classical students. Near $200,000, derived from the Common School Fund, and district or town taxes, are annually appropriated to the support of Common Schools.*

Sec. xi. Religion. In New York, the institutions of the Christian Religion are very generally regarded. The constitution makes no provision

for its support, but secures to every man the free use and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, according to the dictates of his own conscience. The clergy are supported by the voluntary contributions of the people, and are excluded from holding offices under the government. The principal denominations are, General Assembly Presbyterians, Associate Reformed Presbyterians, Dutch Reformed Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, Friends, and Lutherans. Above three thousand churches are occupied by the several denominations for religious worship.

Sec. XII. Population. New York contains a population principally descended from Holland, Great Britain, France, and Germany, of about 1,800,000. During the early period of its history, the progress of population was retarded by the disadvantages of a location remote from the civilized world, and surrounded by a jealous, savage, and revengeful people. At the close of the first 50 years after its settlement, the European population was only 5000; and, at the close of the first century, about 50,000. In 1756, it amounted to near 100,000; and has since that period increased with astonishing rapidity. In 1800, it was 586,000; in 1810, 959,000; in 1820, 1,372,000; and in 1825, 1,616,000. According to this ratio of increase, the number, in 1830, will amount to 2,000,000.

* In 1823, the sum amounted to $ 192,802 25. What amount is annually appropriated for the support of Common Schools ?

xi. What is said of Religion? -Mention the principal denominations.

XII. What is said of the population of New York ?

The original Indian population has been rapidly disappearing since the European settlements; and has now become extinct in most parts of the state. About 5000, the remains of the Confederated Iroquois, are all that survive of these once populous and powerful tribes. The Oneidas reside on the reservation near Utica; the Senecas and Onondagas, on the Buffalo and Cattaraugus Creek reservations ; and their adopted brethren, the Tuscaroras, at Lewiston. The Mohawks have retired to Up

4

per Canada.

Sec. XIII.

Character. The people of New York, consisting of emigrants, or the descendants of emigrants, from most of the European

What, at an early period, impeded its progress ? What can you say of its increase ? -What of the Indian population ?- What number survive, and where do they reside ?

XIII, What is said of the character of the people ?

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