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distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the governinent of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the voies shall be taken by states, the representation from each state haviny one vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice President, shall be the Vice President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have a majority, then, from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice President—a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice.

But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President, shall be eligible to that of Vice President of the United States.

ARTICLE XV. If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honor; or shall without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them or either of them.

Sec. 111. The more perfect organization of the federal system gave a new aspect to the political affairs of the country. Strength and unanimity now took the place of weakness and

FROM 1783 to 1812.


disorder. A constitution of more ample powers gave new vigor and efficacy to the measures of the general government, and prepared the way for that unexampled prosperity, which has characterized every subsequent period of our national annals.

The first congress, under the new constitution, consisting of delegates from eleven states, was convened at New York, in 1789. Gen. George Washington was found to have been elected, by the unanimous suffrages of the citizens, to the office of President of the United States.

During Washington's administration, the people of the United States began to divide themselves into two great parties, according to the different opinions entertained, relative to the measures pursued by the general government. Those friendly to the views of the administration were termed Federalists; and those opposed to them, Republi

In 1797, Washington retired from the office of President, and John Adams was elected as his successor. The parties now became more fully developed, party feeling became general, and party measures were prosecuted with great animosity. The federal party maintained the ascendancy until towards the close of Mr Adams's administration, when the republican party predominated.

Sec. iv. 1788. A general organization act was passed by the legislature, dividing the state into fourteen counties, which were subdivided into townships. The same success, which, at this and subsequent periods, characterized the general administration, also attended the internal affairs of the state. The government was


11. What influence had this change in the federal system on the political affairs of the country?

When was the first congress convened ? - Who was the first president?- -What parties originated during his administration ?

-By whom was he succeeded ?

IV. What act was passed by the state legislature in 1783? What is said of the internal affairs of the state ?

happily administered, and the general interests of the community began to assume the most promising appearance.

On the termination of the revolutionary contest, the inhabitants, no longer engaged in the defence of the country, or exposed to the depredations of the enemy, directed their attention to the pursuits of agriculture, and the arts of peace. By their industry and enterprise, they made rapid advances in repairing the losses which had been sustained during that protracted and desolating war. The increase of wealth, the improvements everywhere apparent, the rapid extension of the settlements, and the general aspect of plenty and prosperity, that pervaded the state, sufficiently evinced the success, that attended their exertions.

During the revolution, a considerable portion of the state was in the possession of the enemy, and many of its most fertile tracts constantly exposed to their depredations. Many of the new settlements were entirely broken up. On the return of peace, these were resumed, and many others commenced, which progressed with astonishing rapidity.

In 1785, the district, comprehended between the Oneida reservation, and the Mohawk river above the German Flatts, and subsequently divided into the townships of Whitestown, Paris, and Westinoreland, contained but two families. In 1796, there were six parishes, which contained three full regiments of militia, and one corps of light horse. *

* Holmes's Annals.

To what did the inhabitants direct their attention ?- What success attended them ?

What is said of the new settlements and other parts of the state during the war? What took place on the return of peace ?

Commerce, which in common with other pursuits had been interrupted during the war, experienced a rapid revival on the return of peace,

The Empress of China, a ship of 360 tons, the first vessel from the United States to China, sailed from New York in February, 1784, for Canton, and returned the following year.

Sec. v. The controversy relative to the New Hampshire Grants still continued to agitate the eastern part of the state. Frequent applications had been made by both parties to the general congress, for the interference of that body, but without obtaining any decisive result. In 1789, the legislature passed an act for the purpose of settling this controversy, and acknowledging the territory, as an independent state. Commissioners were mutually appointed, and, in 1790, the subject was brought to an amicable adjustment. The new state was, in 1791, recognized by congress, and admitted into the Union, with the name of Vermont.

It was stipulated, that Vermont should pay the sum of thirty thousand dollars to the state of New York ; and that all claim of jurisdiction of the state of New York, and all rights and titles toʻlands within the state of Vermont, under grants from the colony or state of New York, should cease ; and thenceforth the perpetual boundary line between the state of New York, and the state of Vermont, should be, as then held and possessed, viz. : the west lines of the most western towns, which had been granted by New Hampshire, and the middle channel of Lake Champlain.

What was the state of commerce?

v. What took place in 1789, and the two following years, in relation to the controversy with the Grants ? What was stipulated ?

Sec. vI. The inhabitants of New York now began to direct their attention to the more scientific pursuit of agriculture and the arts. The “ Society for the promotion of Agriculture, Arts, and Manufactures” was established in 1791. The “ Western Inland Lock Navigation Company” was incorporated the following year.

The business of manufacture had been commenced during the revolution, and considerable progress had been made; but on the return of peace, owing to the excessive importation of foreign articles, it was mostly abandoned. The commerce of the state had been rapidly increasing, and was now in the most prosperous condition.

In 1791, the exports to foreign ports amounted to above two million five hundred thousand dollars. In 1793, six hundred and eightythree foreign vessels, and one thousand three hundred and eightyone coasting vessels entered the port of New York.

Sec. vii. 1795. Mr Clinton, after having for eighteen years discharged the office of governor with talents and fidelity, published an address to the freeholders of the state, stating that his respect for the republican principle of rotation in office, would no longer permit him to fill his recent honorable station. He was succeeded by Mr Jay, who was continued in that office till 1801, when Mr Clinton again accepted a reelection.

VI. What Society was established in 1791 ?- -What the following year? What is said of manufactures ?- -Of commerce ?

VII. By whom was Gov. Clinton succeeded in 1795? - When was he again elected ?

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