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course, and there are some established on that footing ; but as there does not appear to be any practical means of distinction, in all probability Government will interfere and adopt measures for their suppression--an accomplishment which may be very readily effected by passing a law against giving or depositing a sum of money in order to have a certain sum repaid on the issue of a race or any other event. The betting-houses could not be conducted upon any other principle than that of having the stake deposited. They could not trust strangers for shillings, half-crowns, crowns, or sovereigns, to be paid after an event, according to the usual manner of betting in the ring. Such a measure wonld restrain the immense amount of betting in little sums, while it would not interfere with the recognized rules of betting, except that which relates to staking or covering a bet in the event of persons not having confidence in each other. It has been urged as unconstitutional to attempt to restrain betting or gambling among the lower orders without including all classes, but that is a weak argument; there is a palpable distinction between inexperienced youths being induced to gamble without means, and, consequently, seduced by the flattering, fallacious, hopes of gain, to rob their parents, their employers, or strangers, for the purpose of procuring those means, or of the man who, by his industry, knowledge of his craft, and frugality, is barely enabled to support his wife and children, or of the little tradesman, whose condition is similar, either of whom must, under any circumstances, straighten himself to provide the necessary amount, and the man who is possessed of experience and capital sufficient to enable him, even if unsuccessful in some of his ventures, to wait the time for the return of his money.”
My friend then proceeded to relate three most glaring acts of fraud, two of which occurred more than five-and-twenty years ago, emanating in employing an agent to negotiate bets. “On one occasion,” said he, "I had a horse to run at one of the hunt meetings for a forced handicap made on the course ; considering the weight very unfavourable, I was desirous of hedging my stake, which was ten pounds, and, as I was about to ride the horse myself, requested an acquaintance to do this for me, and declare what he had done to any respectable person in the ring. My horse proved himself better than I expected, as he was second in a field of six others, and was only beaten by the superior jockeyship of the gentleman who rode the winner. On seeking the person to whom I had given the commission, he informed me he had not made the bet, yet my horse was backed by many at five to one, and some time afterwards I accidentally discovered that he had won ten pounds about my horse ; thus, had I won the race, he would undoubtedly have informed me he had made the bet, and the greater portion of the stake would have been appropriated to its liquidation." On another occasion he told me, that having backed Memnon for the St. Leger at ten to one, in the course of the summer when he had risen to three to one he was desirous to hedge his money, and being in the country wrote to the same individual, not then suspecting the trick he had been served on the other event, to request him to lay those odds ; shortly afterwards he received an answer stating that he had laid three-and-ahalf to one, which was more than the current betting ; but, as the name of a very substantial frequenter of Tattersall's was given, he made no further objection than expressing a slight dissatisfaction. Being at Doncaster, early on the morrow after the race, ere he had left his couch, he received a note requesting he would oblige the writer with the amount in order that he might have it in readiness to settle as soon as that important business commenced. Not imagining any thing wrong he gave him the money, reserving fifty pounds which he should have to receive back for a bet on the Cup, forfeit having been paid for the horse against which he laid. Many years elapsed before he discovered the facts connected with this transaction. In the first place the agent laid the half a point more than the current odds because the gentleman with whom he made the bet laid him greater odds against another horse ; and, to complete the affair, never handed over the money which was given to him, having made the bet in his own name without ever mentioning that it was a commission. Another specimen of roguery occurred more recently. “I was,” continued my friend, “requested by a gentleman, whose engagements prevented his attending Ascot, to convey some money and a letter to a certain individual; the letter contained instructions to lay bets on particular races, with a request that the respective amounts should be declared to me. One of the horses named was Faugh-a-Ballagh ; but a discretionary power was given to the agent and myself to back him or not, as we might judge most advisable. As the price was not tempting, it was agreed that it was most prudent to leave that commission unexecuted ; but the moment the race was over, the individual came up to me and stated that he had, just at the breaking up of the ring, backed him for a pony.
These little anecdotes are quite sufficient to justify the opinion which I have already expressed, that this is not the only age when fraudulent tricks have been perpetrated in betting transactions."
The execution of Daniel Dawson for poisoning horses at Newmarket was an event calculated to strike terror in the minds of others similarly influenced by bland persuasions and lucrative temptations. Precautionary measures subsequently adopted, and the custom which at that time prevailed of giving water to horses in training during the time they were out at exercise having been dispensed with, similar opportunities are not in these days afforded for repetitions of such diabolical acts. Yet, if it were deemed necessary to continue the custom, it is impossible to conceive the opportunities that would be given to those who might be persuaded to make horses safe with some deleterious drug. That many attempts are made to do so there can be no doubt, especially where horses have been great favourites with the public during a considerable length of time. In fact, to have a first favourite for an important event is a charge which I think few men are ambitious of encountering. They may employ policemen, prizefighters, bulldogs, blunderbusses, rifles, swords, pistols, and all the weapons in the tower, without success, if the nobblers can only win to their cause some individual connected with the stable. Men are not found desperate enough to encounter the danger of entering a stable by force or by stealth ; if they can do so, unsuspectedly, by stratagem it may be another affair.
Some of the customs which now prevail in racing may be traced to a very early date. Selling stakes were occasionally introduced more than a century back ; in a few instances with a proviso that the owner of the second horse only should be entitled to make the claim, and, in the event of the owner not wishing to part with his horse, that he should
relinquish the prize to the claimant ; another, that if more than one person expressed a desire to claim, that the preference should be decided by raffle. In the year 1738 a boy named Matchem Tims, then only eleven years and a half old, and riding five stone, is recorded as having won a match at Hambleton. It must of course have been a very extraordinary event at that time when the prevailing weights were ten, eleven, and twelve stone, and these were frequently the extraordinary distinctions between five, six years old, and aged horses, with which they usually had to travel four-mile heats. The first plate or sweepstakes of which there is any record for three years old was run at Bedale in 1731, and was won by Mr. Proctor's bay filly, beating eight others, carrying eight stone, three miles ; but it was a long time after that before races for three years old became prevalent. Thus, from time to time, have we been progressing upon precedents of early date ; and, by great attention to breeding and the treatment of young stock, races for two and three years old colts and fillies have become the most valuable prizes ; and I think it is quite reasonable to conclude, from the improvements that have taken place upon the previous management and subsequent training, that our three-year-olds are quite as equal to run the accustomed distance-one mile and a-half or three-quarters, carrying eight stone seven pounds—as the five-year-olds were, a century ago, to run four-mile heats, with ten stone. An untutored animal, suffered to run at liberty in pasture fields till four years old, to obtain an unlimited quantity of grass during the summer, as too frequently happens with half-bred stock in the hands of the farmer, is not so capable of performing work at five as a four years old that has been reared upon the improved system of hay and corn. Every day's experience proves this ; and I am more than ever convinced of the ill effects of giving any horses, except those used for slow and heavy work, grass in the summer, unless it be in very small quantities, and accompanied with hay and corn.
There are a variety of causes which have ministered to the great increase of racing which is apparent during the last quarter of a century, and for the interest which has spread so universally among the people most conspicuous within the last ten years. To the latter, the facilities for betting, and, as I have already remarked, the propensity for gambling being concentrated in horse-racing, we must ascribe the prevailing reason. Railways have assisted very materially, not only by affording opportunities of moving horses from one part of the kingdom to another, but also of conveying the public to an immense number of race meetings at a trifling expense, and, what is of more consequence to the million, in a very brief space of time. It is but natural to conclude that every man who has money dependent upon the issue of a race is desirous to see the contest if he can conveniently accomplish that object ; thus thousands are induced to attend the principal meetings who were unable to do so when the road only presented a conveyance. Seeing that the public feeling had taken an interest, it was but natural that all persons connected with places where races are held should use thair utmost endeavours to render the meetings popular and inviting. The exertions of several very clever, enterprising, indefatigable persons, acting as clerks of the races, have likewise assisted greatly in the promotion of racing throughout the kingdom. The extraordinary attractions at Chester must be mainly attributed to the persevering efforts and experience of Mr. Topham. It is to be admitted the Chestor Cup was a very popular race, compared with other cotemporaries, long before he held the appointment; therefore he had a nucleus to commence with, around which he has formed a gigantic globe. There is scarcely an event of any kind, connected with this terrestial sphere, that is not subject to a reaction-scarcely anything which proceeds on its onward progress without some occurrence to retard the career of perfection. A check is given for salutary purposes-perchance to stimulate mankind to renewed exertions - and racing is doubtless equally subservient to such vicissitudes as other undertakings. At the present crisis there is evidently a little stagnation, or perhaps it may be termed retrograde motion, in turf affairs. Both the Epsom and Ascot meetings were particularly unfortunate in respect to the weather. The day, of all others in the year set apart as a holiday by the denizens of Cockaigne, was unquestionably one of the wettest imaginable. The memorable year when Bloomsbury won the Derby during a snow-storm was scarcely more unpropitious. Those who mustered philosophy enough to postpone their pleasures till Ascot were by no means repaid for their resolution. On the Tuesday and Thursday the rain fell on the royal course in most vexatious profusion. Such unavoidable circumstances cannot fail to affect the success of a meeting ; but that is only a question of temporary consequence. With an unprejudiced view of the present condition of turf affairs, it is impossible not to be convinced that racing is annually becoming more confirmed in its character as a business. Persons of affluence, who formerly resorted to the course as a fashionable rendezvous, are evidently withdrawing themselves, and especially the fair portion of the creation. This is not a very unaccountable proceeding ; however the social order of the day may represent the advantages which take place from the participation of all classes in one general amusement, it is ridiculous to disguise the fact that refinement cannot associate with vulgarity. From this cause many families of distinction decline attending, unless it be the cale branches, who have horses engaged. The enormous multitudes, among whom are many of most uncourteous bearing, swarming on every popular course, are undoubtedly quite calculated to prevent the attendance of such as seek pleasure in convenience and elegance. Extremes certainly heighten effect ; and if that be necessary to exhibit agreeable manners in the most attractive position, it may undoubtedly be accomplished by comparing the courtesy of a gentleman with the extreme coarseness of some of the unpolished mortals with whom you come in contact.
There might no doubt be measures adopted which would have & tendency to promote a better order of these annoying subjects-not by any means that they should be excluded from the course, or in any way deprived of their participation in the amusements or business of racing. This might be accomplished in a manner productive of additional funds at the populous meetings of Epson, Ascot, Goodwood, Doncaster, and such like places. The great convenience experienced by having sloping terraces connected with the grand stands is invariably acknowledged. If similar arrangements were to be made on each side of a course, and the portion of ground fenced in, as an accommodation for the wellbehaved population, who should be admitted on payment of a small sum,
the immense numbers who would gladly avail themselves of the situation, from whence they could more commodiously witness the racing, would produce, at only sixpence each, an amount of money worthy of consideration. The roughs' would by this measure be kept at a greater distance, and consequently their presence less objectionable.
LETTERS FROM MY UNCLE SCRIBBLE.
MY DEAR NEPHEW,
If this letter prove shorter or less entertaining and instructive than usual, lay it to the heat and the elections. To try the temper of an inoffensive old gentleman, I know nothing equal to the latter. Nothing but a prejudice in favour of a fine old English pastime could ever induce å gentleman to trust himself in such a scene of drunkenness, pocketpicking, swearing, perjury, and corruption. It is almost as bad as a horserace at a country town; and the possession of a plater by my own brother would make me regard his word with distrust. Here I sit, intending to send you a few lines, to be of service to you in your Oxbridge career (and even later), perspiring from the effects of perjury, corruption, and bedevilment, quite past my years, as well as my comprehension. You must come home, and represent the honour of the Scribble family in your own person. Young hearts are softer and more pliant, and young heads harder than old ones.
I can scarcely tell you the pleasure with which I received your kind invitation to come to Oxbridge; many a glorious reminiscence of “the days when I was young,” broke upon me. Leather breeches, devilled kidneys, galloping hacks, Bicester windmill, three croppers in twenty-five minutes, and a kill in the open, mixed themselves suddenly up with a trencher cap, a Newnham party, a tandem whip, a bottle of soda-water, mulled sherry, velvet sleeves, and an analysis of the sermon at St. Mary's, “ mais on a changé tout cela.” I am older and you are younger—the rising generation has improved upon the past in some things ; not in all. We will begin from the beginning.
When I was an under graduate, some years ago, (I believe that to be the approved style in the Comedy of the middle ages), we travelled on a coach-eleven of us occupied the roof of the coach, more or less ; one of whom for the slight consideration of a sovereign, again more or less, occupied the place of the legitimate coachman. I was not unfrequently
évitxaroe the identical. The seats were hard, the weather changeable, the journey protracted, but there were the four horses,
“Heads in the front with no bearing reins on,
And tails without cruppers behind, sirs,
Let the steam pot hiss till it's hot, &c.” This made up for all ; and whether the wind blew, or the rain fell, or the dust choked, or the sun melted, coaching was coaching, and that's more than we can say of steam. However, justice is a great virtue, and a very rare one ; so that I must afford a few words for the boiler. I never went to Oxbridge until this year by train : I remember my deter