Arnold J. Toynbee was born in London, England on April 14, 1889. He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford and studied briefly at the British School at Athens. He served in the British foreign office during both world wars and was a delegate to the 1919 Paris Peace Congress. From 1925 to 1955, he held the position of director of studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs and was professor of history at the University of London during approximately the same time. His publications include The Western Question in Greece and Turkey, Civilization on Trial, East to West: A Journey round the World, the 12-volume A Study of History, and Hellenism: The History of a Civilization. He died on October 22, 1975.