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Training on water is a very interesting production ; not only
HYDRAULICS AND MECHANICS. dinary reader, who is anxious to acquire useful knowledge, as
well as to the theori tical and practical connoiseur in hydraulics. A Descriptive and Historical Account of llydraulic and other Hundreds of impressive biographical and historical anecdotes, gen.
Machines for raising Water, ancient and modern; with obser Jerally unknown, mighl be quoted as proofs of the multifarious in, vations on various subjects connected with the Mechanic Arts, zelligence which Wr. Ewbank has amassed for the edification of
those who may study his richly entertaining volume. We know including the Progressive Development of the team-Engine. uot a compilation specifically designed to exhibit that mechanical Descriptions of every variety of Bellows, Piston, and Rotary philosophy which a; periains to common, domestic, and social life Pumps, Fire Engines, Water Rams, Pressure Ingines, Air-Ma- with the public weal, to which the ttention of youth can be direc
ted with equal amusement and beneficial illumination as to Mr. chines, Eolipiles, &c: Remarks on Ancient Wells, Air Beds,
Ewbank's accepłable disquisitions. l'herefore we earnestly reCog-Wheels, Blowpipes, Be'lows of various People, Magic Ciob commend his volume to their study in preference to the perusal of lels, Steam Idols, and other Machinery of Ancient Temples.- those fantastic and pernicious fictions which pervert the imagina To which are added Experiments of Blowing and Spouting less myriads who “ feed on those ashes."--National Intelligencer.
tion, anıldeteriorate the mind, and corrupt the morals ofthe thought Tubes, and other original Devices. Nature's Modes and Ma.
It throw 3 more light upon the progress of mankind from the ear. chinery for raising Water. Historical Notices respecting Si
liest ages, in the selul arts, than any volume we have ever seen.phons, Fountains, Water Organs, Clepsydræ, Pipes, Valves, Alexander's Messenger. Cocks, &c. In Five Books.
The only volume ever published embracirg an account of all the BY THOMAS EWBANK.
contrivances employed in d.fferent ages by different people for rais.
ing water. It is really one of the most remarkable publication: ILLUSTRATED BY 300 ENGRAVINGS. connected with mechanical philosophy that has ever fallen under
our observation. Merehant's Magazine. THIS volume on the various machinery connected with the
We have long known ihat Mr. Ewbank was preparing this work to the Experimental Philosopher, the Mechanician, the Operative. for the press, and have lookod for its publication wiih a conviction Tradesman, who are engaged in the researches and work com. that we shouldd erive muh valu.ble infirmation ruin its perubined with the objects specified in the Treatise. but also to every sal; an expectation that has been fully justified by the resuli.ordinary reader who is solicitous to enlarge his general intorma- !is work is not one which can fall still born from ihe presi, as il tion, and who wishes to coinbine amusement with the topics is not one of those ephemeral productions that must seli at the which attract his attention.
inoinent or never.-- louiral of the Franklin Institute. It is impossible in this concise notice, to det til a minute sylla
An interesting work of science, The title will furnish the rea bus of a book, the mere topical index of the contents of which der a good general notion of the matter of the book, but not of the occupies nearly eight pages, numbering about one thousand distinct clearness, method, precision, and ease of the manner of it. articles; but a general view is presented, from whii h the nature
believe there is no work extant which treats of the specific topics and value of the dissertation can easily and correctly be estimated. which he has chosen- none we are certa n which describes it
The first book, which is subdivided into eighteen chapters, com with inoie fullness of argumcnt and illustration.-- Democratic prises a narative of the various “Primitive and Ancient Devices
Reviero. for Raising Wat er," which are exemplified by sixty seven engraved specimens of their diversified contrivances. This is not merely and engineer, will rise from a careful perusal of Mr Ewbank's
Ali classes, as well the farmer ard professional man as the artist . dry philosophical comment, for there are many episodes commingled with it of a peculiarly interest'ng character, of which the
book wiser and better.-U. S. Monthly Reciev. preliininary remarks on the historical accounts of warriors, and It contains more valuable, curious, and initrestir-g information The section in chapter sixteen, on the “Flatcury of Despots by than can be found in any wulune ever published on the subjeci, Men of Science," may distinc... ve mentioned.
and is a work which commands che attention, anıt sliould be plac The secowok, which incudes seven chapters, describes the ed upon tbe shelf of every gentleman's library,and in every college - machines for Rai ing Water by the !'ressure of the Atmosphere," and academy.--N. Y. Sun. With this part are incorporated thiriy engravings, duineating the A splendid book. We are inclined to beliere that it will be one chief inventions which have been lisid in that department. of the most curious and interesting works that have issued from
The third book, contain.ng nine chapters, develops the" Me the American press for many years.--N. Y. Tribune. chanics for Raising Maler by Compressure, independently of At.
It possesses a great interest, not only for mechanicians,engineers, iniospheric influence," with sixty nine pictorial representations of and men of science, but for intelligent readers generuliy.-Pirita bedljws, pum;'s, and fire engines. The discussion respecting wa
dephin Envuirer of National (zuzette. ter works and fire engines are full of instruction, and combine more information upon those important topics than can be found it is A rich wine for exploration by the practical or theoreticalen
lieved, in any other work that ever has been published. gineer, as well as by those who like to make themselves acquaint
The fourth book is extended to nine chapters, and displays the ed with the developmenis of mechanical ingenuity.-N. Y. Com " Machines for Raising Water, chiefly of Modern Origin, including mercial Advertiser Early Applications of Steam for that Purpose," with thirty-oge This large and beautifully printed octavo is probably the most engravings. This portion of the volume is very racy, especially valuable volume that the publishers have presented to the public the details concerning the Altars and Heron's Spiritalia, with ihe, during the past year.-N. Y. Courier & Enquirer. introductory paragraphs to chapter three, from page 381 to 391
It is a scientific work, butcommends itself not to the scholar only an.1 the notice of the Eolipilic Idols.
but to the mechanic and general reader, for it is perfectly free The fifth book, which also comprises nine chapters, with eighty
from pedantry and learned affectation - Boston Daily Times pour engravings, unfolds the “ Novel Devices for Raising Water,
An Enciclopedia of mechanics. It is richly illustrated, full of with an account of Siphons, Cocks, Valves, Clepsydræ, &c., the the seventh chaptı:r of which, on Fountains, condenses a large curious information, and every way worthy by its copious know? quantum of information upon that cooling and refreshing topic, edge and its incentives to curiosity, not only to a place in every which is followed by an attractive elucidation of bydraulic organs. gentleman's library, but what is more, 10 one on ihe shelves or
every district school library in the state Jordan L, Mott, Esq., yesterday presented each of the Scho 1 maved by its size, for the author says with a good deal of truth,
A thick volume of nearly 600 pages; but let no reader be dis Libraries in the West Farms District of Westchester county, with that in the annals of mechanics are to be found incidents as ag eea. a set of Ewbank's instructive and interesting work on Water and ble and exciting in their nature as any thing that can be realized Other Mechipes. If such works as this were generally introduced by the imagination. We are not sure that a single corner of the into our School Libraries, there would be no danger of the Library world, or recess of history, has escaped his laborious reseaiches system in our State falling into disrepute. One half, yes, two. N. v. Evening Post. thirds of the books placed in the Public Schonl Libraries of New York State are books not only devoid of character, but they are
Whoever rejects this book from the supposition that it is a dull essentially insipid and useless.-N.Y. Tribune.
detail of machinery and the various applications of the mechanic
powers, will be guilty of great injustice to the author. It is one OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.
of the most entertaining books we have ever met with, on a scien
tific subject. It is full ol interesting historical and well written This is a highly valuable production, replete with novelty and descriptive matter, interspersed with appropriate quotations from aterest, and adapted to gralify equally the historian, the philoso- old writers, enough almost to give it the title of Tho Poetry of pher and the mechanican, being the result of a protracted and ex. Mechanics.--Boston Courier. tensive research, among the arcana of historical and scientific * The above valuable work is uon publishing in EIGHT literature. Mr. Ewbank's work can not be too widely circulated. PARTS, and skuld at 25 cents each. It is an a legant “ Table-Book,''suitable to all persons--to the or GREELEY & McELRATH, Tribune Buildings, Publishers.
BY HENRY NORJAN IIUDSON.
THE DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL
possibly tell the truth. Such men can no more disb published monthly, and is devoted exclusively to the promotion of tinguish between a martyred saint and an executed l'opular Education.
criminal, between one dying for the truth, and one EDWARD COOPER, EDITOR.
dying by the truth, than a man without eyes or ears. TERMS.–Single copies 59 cents: seven copies $3 00; twelve copies can distinguish between colors and sounds; and when
$5 00, twenty-five copies $10.00, payable always in advance. All letters an I contactions intuned for th District Sehool Jour ever they attempt to speak on such subjects, they canwal, should be directe i to tie Editvi, Syracuse, N. Y., Post Paid, not choose but lie. Those people who, in the price Printed on the Power Press of
and arrogance of modern illumination, are perpetually BARNS, SMITH & COOPER,
kicking up such a hubbub of logic, and constructing, At the Office of the Daily and Western State Journal. their Babel-tower of sillogisms, and packing men off
to one place and another on railroads of moral, and EDUCATION.
political, and theological doxies and abstractions; we
very much doubt whether they truly know anything. Considered as the subject of education, man is not If they had any true knowledge of things, would they made up of parts, to be addressed in succession; he be so desperately love-sick for certain abstract ide. is an unity, a whole. The mind is not a mixture, or as ? If they really saw anything but themselves, mechanism of spiritual susceptibilities, but an indi-would they have so much confidence in themselves? vidual concrescence; and the just development of any Do not the cob-webs, which they are ever spinning one susceptibility implies a corresponding develop out of their minds, blur their vision, so as to prevent ment of all the others. Intellectual, moral, social, and their seeing anything, or at least, seeing into anything religious. endowments, do not refer to different ele- that God or naiure has made? Would not the least. ments of a compound substance, but to the same in-particle of true wisdom drive out of them that contempt dividual being, now viewed in relation to truth, now, and arrogance that so dilates and gigantifies them? If to duty, now, to society, and now, to them altogether. We do not wish to be befooled out of what little wit The chief worth of education undoubtedly consists in we have had we not better make haste to cork our its forming or promoting the well-being of its subject; ears with our fingers, and take ourselves out of their and his well-being in every capacity is inseparable, way, whatever righteous judgements and holy indignaeven in idea, from his well-being in any capacity — tions it may please their sweet voices to utter respeeHe is not created, and is not to be regenerated, --is ing us? not lost, and is not to be saved, by parts and parcels, But we digress. It is idle, then to talk of an inteland therefore is not to be developed and cultivated by lectual school, of a moral school, of a religious school, parts and parcels, any more than a bird or a plant and of a corresponding division of the duties and funeEven the head will never work to any good purpose, tions of a teacher. Each school must be all, and all unless constantly supplied with warmth: from the schools must be each. Each study must be all, and heart : educate the former into isolation, and it will all studies must be each. It is only in virtue of all freeze up. By a partial and one-sided calture, a man these relations, that a teacher is to succeed in any one may, indeed, contribute to the economical well-being of ihem. It is only by addressing himself to every of society; but that his own well-being is, or can be, endowment at once, that he is to: peak successfully to thus secured, is entirely out of the question. Mere every endowment. Every thing is to be taught with economists and financiers doubtless have their value; our nature. Can the braiii perform its functions withe and so have saw-mills and cotton-factories; but it is out the heart, or the heart, without the lungs, and the a shameful abuse of terms, to call them intelligent lungs without the brain? Does not the successful op
We often speak of reason and imagination, eration of each depend upon the constant co-operation for example, as incompatible with each other. This of them all? Why do we not analyze our fooù before we suspect, is a pretty sure sign that we lack them we eat it; and then take the constituent elements by both; for in our present state of being, neither can ex-themselves, at such times and in such portions as conist and act without the other. Many people seem to venience or physical science may prescribe ?: _The think all knowledge consists in acquiring and using answer of course is, nature has so made our bodies, certain abstract ideas. But the truth is, this is no that each organ requires all the elements, and all the knowledge at all, for God and nature give us no such organs require each element of our food, and that, if thing to study They are but the spider's web of our all the constitutents be taken altogether as nature furown brain, and those who employ their minds in spin-nished them, then each organ will perform its office, ning them, generally stumble over them into perdition. and receive its share according to the laws of system. The more we think, without humility, and reverence, Nay, it requires the harmonious cooperation of all and love, the further shall we go astray. It is like the organs, to digest and assimilate the food for each. using our eyes without light; in which case, they on-If, then, we take materials to make flesh, and blood, ly see phantoms, and thus make fools of us. Mere and bones, separately and successively, of course neilogicians and abstractionists, like Mr. Hume, may in- ther will be made; and our skill in gastronomy will deed become very popular' authors, but they cannot eventually stop our gastronomising:
As nature feeds and exercises all the organs of ihe er in:elligent being, on grounds of common sympathy, body at once, so instruction should feed and exercise and from feelings of mutual affection. "Teaching is all the faculties of the mind at once; and if the food the exercise of benevolence in imparting from a sense for either be decomposed into its constituent elements, of duty, or the discharge of duty in imparting knowlit can only be taken as medicine, relished, perhaps, ledge from a principle of love; we care not how you by a diseased taste, but loathed by a healthy one. It have it, but it must be all in each, and each in all, or is for this reason, doubtless, that those minds which it can be truly nothing; are most in love with nature as she is, often have the But there is, probably, no point in which this opinleast relish for her when analyzed into scientific ab-ion is better verified than in the obvious necessity of stractions. Such minds instinctively reject the anato- subordination and respectful submission to a teacher. mies of science, and cleave to the living forms of na- To load down a teacher with responsibilities, and yet ture, because of their very wholeness and healthiness withhold from him the authority requisite to their dis
To be a true teacher, therefore, requires a whole man. charge, is almost as common as it is proposterous.Clear visions, warm sympathies, noble passions, and | The great strife, among us democrats, is, to secure lofty purposes ;.
the whole mind, and heart, and soul, our rights, without doing our duties; to realize the and body; all, in short, that goes to make up the to- benefits of government, without being governed.tality and integrity of a man and a gentleman, should Impatient of the least inequality, we demand all the be present and active in each and every part of the blessings of subordination, and are every where trywork : and the less he smell of the closet, or the office,or ing to substitute convictions of interest for sentiments the pulpit, or the school-room,-of anything indeed, but of loyalty and reverence. We are like Gonzalo in the heaven, and nature, and humanity, the more instinc- play, the latter end of whose common wealth forgets tive will be his instructions. He who brings only a book, the beginning; r'e will have no sovereignty, and yet a voice, a sceptre, and a piece of cerebral clock-work we will all be kings. Now, to be above or beyond into the school-room, can never truly teach anything, the control of a teacher, is, simply, to be above or bebecause he does not truly know anything. He may yond his instruction; for it is perfect'y natural that
the mind as an external force, but he cannot pupils should conceive themselves wiser than their act within it, so as to develop it; and all his instructions teacher, when they are encouraged or allowed to sit will but tend to crush and deform it into angularity. A in judgment on his requisitions. Docility implies subteacher should stand before his pupils, as at once the missiveness, and upon indocility all instruction is of subject and the object of all the feelings and faculties course powerless. The mind must be humbled bethat enter into the idea of manhood. He should be fore it can be elevated ; the heart must be softened to them a breathing revelation of humanity, in the before it can be moulded. · People can never rise recognition of which they are themselves to grow up until they look up to something above them; while into men
He becomes their instructor, not so much looking up to themselves, their course is always down. by virtue of what he knows and says, as by virtue of ward. Angels, so far as we know, have never fallen what he is. Mere learning, mere competency as a but once, and that was in an attempt at self-governscholar, though indispensible, is by no means enough. ment. Democracy may be good in its place, but if Himself is the matter to be communicated; his learn- people be treated as democrats in boyhood, it is to be is but the means of communication, and indispensible expected that they will turn devils in manhood. A only as means. He is not to use himself as an in- self-governing school is, simply, a self-damning school. strument to impart what he knows, but to use what he If men are ever to govern themselves, they must perknows as an instrument to impart himself. To com- force be first taught to obey. Obedience to ourselves municate life and inspiration to the mind, is the thing; is but the renunciation of all obedience. If people be the mere communication of diagrams, and theorems, made. co-ordinate with each other, they all become and syllogisms, is nothing. In short, all true instruc- teachers, not teacher and pupils; and bedlam springs tion is but forming and protecting a mutual acquain- up in the footsteps of our school-house democracy:tance; a process in which each tries to reproduce him- No one can teach us, unless he be set over us; if he self in the other, and reproduce the other in himself. set us over ourselves, we shall be sure to set ourselves Hence the necessity, that the teacher should be able over him. In short, we can never truly learn from a to touch the pupils mind on all sides at once ; or teacher, till we obey liim; we can never truly obey rather to touch the centre, and through this diffuse him, till we revere him; we can never truly revere his influence over the whole; as nature unfolds a flow- him, till we recognize his superiority; and if that ree: by acting in and through the entire plant at once, cognition cannot be awakened in our minds, it must ad not by acting on each petal in succession. With- be awakened in our bodies. If we both obey and reout the respect and love of the pupil, he cannot get vere, we are his freemen; if we obey without reveraccess to liis mind; and without access to his mind he ing, we are slaves to him; if we neither obey nor revere cannot get his respect and love; in a word, he must we are slaves to the devil. have access to the whole at once, or he can have ac Hence, too, in regard to the teacher, the manner cess to one at all.
and spirit with which he enforces his authority, are All our plans, then, of instruction are worthless, no less important than the act of enforcement itself. unless they aim, as far as they go, at the harmonious To regard himself
, or be regarded by his pupils, mereand simultaneous development and culture of our ly as the repository of power, is utterly subversive of whole nature. The truth is, a human being is not to the very respect and loyalty which all true submission be raised out of the region of ignorance and debase- implies. His government must be known and felt to ment by fragments and sections; as far as he is raised be a government of right, not one of might, and of at all, his whole being must be raised at once; and might only in enforcement of right; of principle, not all attempts to raise him otherwise will but tend to of passion; of practical equity, too, not of abstract legalpull him asunder. In this matter, division is destruc- ity; and of living order, not of lifeless formalty. The tion; it is as if the brain, the heart, and the lungs naked enforcement of order by threats and penalties is should perform their several functions apart from each alike vicious and impotent. Thecapricious or gratuitous other; while it is only by the united action of all, exercise of power cannot be too severely censured, or that each continues to exist. To instruct, is to per too studiously avoided; it mars the sense of right withform the highest duty of one intelligent being to anoth- out producing the effect of order. If a teacher would
be truly obeyed, he must be more ready to give liber- the natural condition of love, and thus precluding the ties than to take them; to meēt the obligations upon natural motives to obedience. him, than to enforce the obligations to him; and above It is often said, indeed, that by inflicting corporal all, he must avoid any ostentation of conscience; for punishment, we break down a pupil's self-respect. there is probably nothing that youth are so quick to But if a pupil respects himself while obstinate and perceive, so slow to forget, so sure to dispise, as mor- disobedient, the more pity for him, and the more whip al coxcombery. The moralistic and pietistic cant of for him too. This is alogether a bastard self-respect the present day, is the last thing that ought to have self-respect that is incompatible with a respect any place in the world; and the school-room is the for law and authority; and the quicker it is broken last place in the world where it ought to be practised. down, the better. Genuine self-respect always inThe whole system, indeed, of administration should volves, or rather presupposes, a recognition and conbe pervaded by a spirit of humanity and conscien- fession of what is above us; is of a meek and subtiousness. Every act of enforcement must derive its missive spirit; and manifests itself in a generous sanction and its efficacy from an obviously paramount, loyalty, that fears, or rather scorns, to disobey. A stiff yet unostentatious sense of duty. He who strikes one neck is a sure proof of low thoughts; and low bows blow from a severe sense of duty, and then turns away are the truest signs of lofty conceptions. If pupils to hide his grief for the pain or disgrace he has been really respect themselves, they will not give a teachobliged to inflict, will scarcely need to strike again. er occasion to mar their self-respect; for, in this case, On all scores, indeed, it is best to treat pupils as if we neither floggings, fondlings, nor syllogisms will be thought they had souls. It is true, they may not al-needed. The sentiment, so often wickedly miscalled ways have them; but by treating them as if they had, self-respect, which makes pupils self-willed and inwe may reasonably hope to develop souls in them; submissive, is the same in kind that once turned anwhile, by treating them as if they had none, we shall gels into devils. Let it be crushed !-Power, in short, be sure to kill all the germs of soul out of them.-- is obviously a much better representative of power, Doubtless, the worst of all governments is that which than logic or luve; and the sense or sensation of only acts upon them, not within them; which gives power is often the best, sometimes the only means to them all to dread, and nothing to venerate: and the awaken a proper respect for authority. next worst is that which disdains to act upon them, But the upshot of all these remarks touching discia in order to act within them; for, whether pupils have pline is, that a teacher must inspire reverence and souls or not, they certainly have bodies; and treating love, in order to impart knowledge; that he is to a. them as if they had no bodies is nearly as bad as treat-waken these sentiments by being, hiinself
, their object, ing them as if they had no souls. To reason with al and not by discoursing about them; that the pupil? pupil
, is but to compromise with his self-will; the heart must be subdued before his head can be instrucsurest way to confirm the very disobedience which ted; and that order is to be maintained, not by emoneeds to be subdued. No one can possibly understand tions of fear, nor convictions of the understanding; the worth of obedience until he obeys; and all attempts but by true moral, nay, religious feelings of submisto reason him into it only tend to strengthen him a-siveness and by true social feelings of respectful. gainst it. If it be said that people are rational beings, ness. It is thus by addressing and interesting all our answer is, they are not rational beings, until they the susceptibilities, moral, social, religious, and intelobey ; if they were, they would not need to be reas-lectual, at once, and by engaging them all upon him. oned into submission. In the school-room, or the self as their object, that a teacher is to instruct; and nursery, an ounce of birch is always worth a ton of he may be assured, that whatever susceptibilities he logic. That there is danger in using the former, is does not take along with him, will pull against him; admitted; and there is more danger in refusing it, a that whatever powers he may awaken, unless he awawise man once asserted, and a very wise age is now ken them all, will be thwarted by those which he leaves demonstrating. The truth is, people may as well be asleep. destroyed in their youth, as be educated into grow?-u; desiructives; they may as well be burnt up in the egg, THE NEW EDITION OF WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY. as hatched out into walking firebrands.
[From the American Review.] The modern notion, that, whether as pupils, or as citizens, we are to obey orders, as according with our The price of tl e previous editions of Webster's Dicsense of right, and not as coming from our lawful gov-tionary, that of 1828, in two volumes quarto, at twenemors, is alike false in theory, and fatal in practice.- ty dollars, and that of 1840, in two volumes, royal If such be the doctrine of democracy, then we, for one, cctavo, ai fifteen dollars, was such as to keep it out have small care for democracy. By thus inviting pu- of the possession of the majority of those who desired pils to sit in judgment on their duties, we foster a pride such a work. The present edition, comprising all the of understanding, a sort of intellectual self-sufficing- malier of the former ones, after a thorough revisal of ness, that is equally at war with growth in knowledge, the whole, and with large additions, appears in a sinand with growth in virtue. Government, from its very gle volume of fourteen hundred and forty-one pages, nature, involves something which the forms oflogic call-crown quarto, in a type, though small, yet beautifully not convey, and the understanding cannot receive;distinct, presenting a page on which the eye can rest and of which the whip is a far better expression than with pleasure, and run with ease, at the price of six all the syllogisms in creation.
,- an unprecedented achievement in the ait of And the notion, that a teacher, or a parent, should book-making in this country. enforce his orders by love, is nearly as bad as the The reputation of Webster's Dictionary has been notion that he should enforce them by logic. The constantly gaining strength with the progress of time. Truth is, it is time enough to show pupils our love, The result, in the first place, of more than twenty when they have obeyed; while disohedient, we had years of study and toil--in which we have an exambetter show them our authority. It may even bele, in a country like ours, most singular and to be questioned whether pupils, while in a state of disobe admired of persevering devotion, solitary and unapdience, are fit objects of love and whether such un plauded, to a labor purely literary, requiring extraortimely manifestations of it be not a positive injury to dinary ability, and capable of yielding no inmediate them. It looks rather too much like dispensing with return of profit or honor—this work, surpassing every
thing in the same department from the mother coun Calembourg; Canal-boat; Cam, (in mechanics ;) Canonitry, with all her advantages, was an honor to our own city; Canterbury, (a stand for music, portfolios, &c.;) Canta land, of which we were quite too insensible. Slighted brigian; Casino; Cassava ; Cast-iron ; Catherine-wheel (in by some, and by the majority more or less underval- architecture ;) Catafalco; to chair and chairing, [Eng. ;) ved, from the very fact that it was a home production; root; Chiltern hundreds; Chinchilla; childe; Circulating
Chaparral; Charte, [Fr.;] Chief-justice; Cheval glass; Chewhile others were repelled, and in a measure blinded medium-; Cirrus; Cumulus, Stratus and Nimbus, and their to the real merits of the work,. by orthographical compounds, with definitions by Professor Olmsted; Classis; changes, offensive, because unfamiliar; it has, how-Clinker, Clique; Close-corporation ; Club-house, (fully ex ever, worked its way, and even gained for itself a plained in the present English sense;) Coffer-dam ; Coldreputation from the other side of the water:
shoulder; (to give the ;) Collapse; Common-carrier, with his The work continued to receive emendations from sanitairs; Couleur de rose ; Coup d'etat; Corn-law; Coven
liabilities explained; Communist; Congreve-rocket; Cordon the author's hand, to the very close ot his life, which try, (to send to ;) Cream-cheese ; Croton-oil; Coupon; Edgewas. prolonged, with powers still vigorous, to the age rail, Eminent domain ; Flying buttress; Gradient; Kyanize; of more than eighty-five years, and to a period of just. Juste-milieu ; Left-handed marriage; Maronite; Middleman, fifty years after he first conceived the design.
(in Ireland ;) Orotund ; Quartern loaf; Quantitative and The preparation of the present edition was intrust- Qualitative, (in chenii-try.) Rancho; Silhouette; Silicated; ed to Professor Goodrich, if Yale College, who has Stand-point; Steeple-chase. devoted nearly three years to this task, for which he These are but a few among others of the same sort. is well known to be excellently qualified by the studies It will be seen that they are, for the most part, the which have been the labor of his life as a professor of very words for which a dictionary is most needed. chetoric. Aware, however, that it is impossible for It is in the definitions that the chief value of a dictionany one mind to embrace all the departments of ary lies. In this respect, the superiority of Dr. Webknowledge,” the editor has secured the aid of other ster's over other English dictionaries, has been settled gentlemen, in particular branches of science, art and beyond dispute. He who attempts this difficult task literature, who have become responsible for the class- must set out with the true idea of the work; and even es of words relating to their several departments; re- then he may show, that to have a correct theory is one vising the whole, remodelling or enlarging old defini- thing, and to carry it out successfully in execution, tions, and adding and defining new words. This has quite another. The meaning of words consists of a been done for the department of law, by the Ilon. Eli- primary or radical signification, and of secondary zur Goodrich; ecclesiastical history and ancient phil- senses proceeding from it, according to laws revealed osophy, by Dr. Murdock; chemistry, by Professor in the philosophy of language. This primary signifiSilliman; botany, anatomy, physiology, medicine, and cațion is by no means alway the most general. Words some branches of natural history, by Dr. Tully; pass from one particular sense, to another allied to the ental literature, to some extent, by Professor Gibbs; first by resemblance or anolasy; or from one object astronomy, meteorology, and natural philosophy, by to another, the two being linked by some usual or conProfessor Olmsted; mathematics, by Professor Stanley; stant connection. Also, instead of merely leaping geology, mineralogy, and other subjects, by James Ď from particular to particular,—or, we should rather Dana, Esq.; etymology and practical astronomy, more say, by a continuance of this very process,—they exor less, by Edward C Herrick, Esq.; and painting pand into a general and comprehensive signification. ad fine arts, by Nathaniel Jocelyn, Esq.; a general In other cases, however, the primary meaning is revision of the classes of words, through the first two general, and the secondary are limitations of the same letters of the alphabet, having been previously made as applied to particular subjects. It is to be remarked by Dr. J. G. Percival.' We have thus the best possi- that the first law, that of expansion, works chiefly in ble guarantee for the completeness and accuracy of a the early growth of languages; while the other, which most important part of the work. In this way, and by may be called that of limitation or sub-division, prethe thorough use which has been made of eneyclope- vails as they advance in cultivation. Not unfrequentdias and of dictionaries of particular arts and sciences, ly, some ambitious secondary sets up for himself
, decommercial, maritime, and military affairs, domestic clares independence, as it were, and sends off'in a economy, agriculture, architecture, &c., a new and new direction a progency having no apparent convaluable feature has been added to the work, distin- nection writh the original stock. For instance, the guishing it from all other dictionaries of the language word digest, meaning primarily to distribute-and
The first point to be considered in judging of a die- hence, first, to arrange methodically, as a body of law, tionary, respects the selection of words comprised in the and second; to dispose of food introduced into the vocabulary. It is not desirable to include all such words stomach—from this point moves to the laboratory, as may have been licentiously used by some eccentric and there signifies a certain process of dissolving or writer, in a single instance, where of course they in- softening substances by a gentle heat; from the same terpret themselves, or every possible word that can, point, again, it starts off in an other direction, and an by composition or inflection, be analogically formed affront is said to be digested, when it is brooked-and for their introduction would serve only to corrupt the by the way, this word to brook, comes from a Saxon language. Nor is such a work the place for those original, meaning to chew, eat, or digest—and by the terms of art or science, which occur only in special same figure an insult may be swallowed or stomached. treatises, where they are of course defined; while it The growth of words is as regular, and at the same is the first importance that such technical and scientific, time as irregular and diversified, as that of trees and or for any other reason unfamiliarterms, as the gene- plants; not forgetting the suckers which shoot up
from ral reader may occasionally or frequently meet, should the old root, and the branches which sometimes strike be embraced and clearly defined. In this work great down and take root anew. pains have been taken, both to leave out the words It is the duty of the lexicographer. to seize, if possiwhich should be excluded, and to collect all which ble, the primary meaning of words. And, since no should be introduced; and when we learn that in this root shoots up and ramifies to absolute infinity, and manner, some thousands of words have been added as every general signification is bound by usage to in this edition, this fact alone is evidence of a great determinate consequential meanings and specific apenhancement of value. As specimens of their charac- plications, and not ordinarily allowed the full range ter, we select a few, mostly under letter C:
of its capacity, the lexiographer is required to enumer