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Sehool.

The District School Journal,

room, and hence he entertained no chimerical schemes.

Himself a practical man, and possessing the experience is published monthly, and is devoted exclusively to the promotion of twenty years' teaching, all his suggestions in regard of Popular Education.

to the management of a school were practicable: and the EDWARD COOPER, EDITOR.

committee, very soon after his appointment, formed the TERM5.–Single copies 50 cents ; seven copies $3.00; twelve copies opinion of him—which they never altered—that he was $5.00; twenty five copies $10.00; payable always in advance.

a safe man, and that his judgment in regard to educational 15 All letters and communications intended for the District matters could be relied on. In addition to all this, he School Journal should be directed to the Editor, Albany, N. Y., was a loborious teacher. Regarding his office as the most Post Paid.

honorable and important which any person could occupy, From the Steam Press of Weed, Parsons &Co., 67 State-street, he never grew weary of his work: fatigued he often was Albany.

by his severe labors, but the consciousness of doing right

not only sustained him, but caused his flagging powers to ANNUAL REPORT

rally, and he returned to his pleasant toil, refreshed and of the Executive Committee of the State Normal buoyant, as if his crushing cares were a light and easy

burden. TO THE LEGISLATURE.

It would be easy to say much more in praise of Mr.

Page, but it is not the province of the committee to write Pursuant to the provisions of the act, chap. 311 of the his eulogium-thus much duty to the dead required them Laws of 1844, the undersigned have the honor to transmit to say; and thus much duty to the living also requires, the Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the for in the late principal of the Normal School, teachers State Normal School, which has been received and ap- have an example worthy of their imitation.. proved of, and which contains a full statement of the re

In selecting a new principal, the committee felt that ceipts and expenditures under the same act during the they had an important duty to perform, and yet it was past year, in pursuance of appropriations made by law.

not a difficult duty, for within twelve days after the death
CHRISTOPHER MORGAN. of Mr. Page, George R. Perkins, Esq., was unanimously
Superintendent of Common Schools. elected his successor.
PETER WENDELL,

From the first opening of the school, Mr. Perkins had Chancellor of the University, in behalf fiiled the Professorship of Mathematics, and had most diliof the Regents.

gently co-operated with the committee in forming and exeAlbany, Jan. 11, 1849.

cuting the plans of the school. Besides, they had enjoyed

an intimate acquaintanceship with him for about three REPORT.

years; they had seen him in the school room, by the fireTo the State Superintendent of Common Schools, anà side, and in the street, and their knowledge of him caused

his unanimous appointment, and now after the lapse of a Regents of the University of New-York :

year, the committee are happy to add, that they have The Executive Committee of the State Normal School never repented of their selection. RESPECTFULLY REPORT:

The following is a list of the names and duties of the The last report which was presented to your honorable present corps of instructors. body, bears date December 13, 1847. Shortly after the

George R. Perkins, A. M., school experienced a severe loss in the death of its prin Principal and Professor of Mathematics. cipal, David Perkins Page, Esquire. The committee

William F. Phelps, need not say much in regard to the laborious and success

Permanent Teacher of Experimental School. ful services of this gentleman; for, it is believed that

Darwin G. Eaton, those services are duly appreciated by you. It may be

Teacher of Mathematics, fo. well, however, to make mention of them, for thus the

Sumner C. Webb, late principal of the school may serve as an example to

Teacher of Aritkmedoc, fc. the teachers of the State. One of the prominent excellen

Silas T. Bowen, encies of Mr. Paige was his remarkable self-possession.

Teacher of Grammar, Mathematics, fc. While he was quick in noticing an intentional insult, still

William W. Clark, no one could under any circumstances, move him to dis

Teacher of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. play the least ebullition of anger. Thus he was prepared

Truman H. Bowen, to govern others; for no one can govern a school who

Teacher of Vocal Music, foc. cannot govern himselt. Mr. Page never called his stu

Elizabeth C. Hance, dants dolts, or blockheads, or fools; and none of the pu

Teacher of Reading and Geography. pils of the Normal School had reason to complain of him,

Ann Maria Ostrom, as manifesting impatience on account of their slowness or

Teacher of Drawing. inaptitude to learn. Sloth he would reprove; but the Upon the transference of Mr. Perkins to the principalyouth of small capacity was regarded as deserving com- ship, no addition was made to the number of instructors, miseration, and he always received a larger share of at- but a considerable increase of duties was imposed upon tention.

the 1eachers; and the committee are happy to state, that Mr. Page was not a mere theorist in regard to educa- their wishes in this respect were cheerfully acceded to, tion; he had learned the wants of a school in the school- ! and the duties imposed have been faithfully performed.

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The arrangements of the institution remain substantially Onondaga,

18 17

35 the same as at the date of the last report, a few changes Orange,

11

25 have, however, been made, which will now be mentioned. Ontario,

12
6

18 One change has been, the introduction of “Wayland's Orleans,

1 Elements of Moral Science, abridged,” as a text book. Oswego,

13 Moral Philosophy had been previously taught by lectures Otsego,

16

25 alone, but it was foand that mere oral instruction was not Putnam,

5
0

5 sufficient to give the student definite ideas upon the all Queens,

5
1

6 important subject of man's moral relations; a text-book Rensselaer,

11 22

33 was therefore introduced, to which the lectures of the Richmond,

2

2 teacher will hereafter be subsidiary. Another change Rockland,

5 has been the arrangement of the course of study to suit Saratoga,

14

21 the division of the students into classes. The school is Schenectady,

4 divided into three classes, called Junior, Middle and Se Schoharie,

10

16 nior, and each class has now its own appropriate studies, Seneca,

6 which are taken up at a fixed time, and which follow St. Lawrence, 10 each other according to a fixed order. This change is Steuben,

13

22 found to be of decided advantage; there is now a time Suffolk,

15 for every study, but before this arrangement was made, Sullivan,

10 the studies were left somewhat to convenience, and each Tioga,

3

5 did not receive the measure of attention which it deserved. Tompkins,

15 For a list of the studies pursued in each divsion, and Ulster,

12

14 also of the text books, see Appendix (A.)

Warren,
STATISTICS.

Washington,
14

23
Wayne, .

10

18 The school began its ninth term on the first of Novem

Westchester,

4
6

10 ber. The following table will show the number of stu

Wyoming,

10 dents in each term, and also the sex and number of the

Yates,

4
3

7 graduates.

Graduales.

Total,.
524 394

908
TERM. Students. Male. Female. Total.
1st. Winter,

98

0
0

0

In addition to the above, the executive committee have 2d. Summer, 185

29

5 34 appointed eight males and thirty-six females, making in 3d. Winter, .. 197

32
15

47 all 952 persons, who have enjoyed the advantages of the 4th. Summer, 205

37
26

63

Normal School. 5th. Winter,

178

27
19

46 In appointing these forty-four persons, it will be noticed, 6th. Summer, 221

37
27

64

that the committee have departed from the rule which 7th. Winter,

25

25 50 was made by themselves, and approved by the Regents. 8th. Summer, 208

17
29

46

This rule limits the number of pupils, who may at any one 9th. Present term,.. 175

time be admitted to the school, to 256; each county hav

ing the privilege of sending twice as many students as it Total,.... 1665 204 146 350

has members in the assembly: this rule furthermore enThe following table will show the total number and perintendents in each county; the following direction,

trusts the selection of pupils to the county and town susex of the pupils sent to the school from the different counties, since the first opening of the school, December pointinents : “That the appointments in each county should

among others, being given, to govern them in making ap18, 1844.

be made at a meeting of the county and town superintendCOUNTY. Male. Female. Total from county. ents, called by the county superintendent for that purAlbany,. 12 28

40

pose.” This duty, the committee take pleasure in stating, Allegany,

6
4
10

was always most cheerfully and faithfully performed by Broome,

2
6

the above named officers. At the close of each term of Cattaraugus, 7

8

the school, the State Superintendent was accustomed to Cayuga, 16

21

send a circular to each county superintendent, informing Chautauque,

13

him of the number of vacancies, which it would be neChemung,

2
8

cessary to fill, and upon the receipt of the same, the Chenango

10
5
15

county superintendents immediately called a meeting and Clinton, 3

5

examined the applicants who presented themselves.Columbia,

8 10

18

But they did more than this ; they made diligeut inquiCortland,

6
6
12

ries in their respective counties for suitable persons, and Delaware,

5
14

having found them, tried to induce them to avail them. Dutchess, 11 10

21

selves of the advantages of the school. By this means, Erie,

10
9
19

the representation of the counties was kept up, and it Essex, 6

9

may be added, they were represented by the most suiFranklin,

4

table persons that conld be obtained. It is also nothing Fulton,

3
2
5

but justice to say still further, that the duty of seeking Genesee,

13

out and selecting such suitable persons was mainly, if not Greene, 11

19

entirely discharged by the county superintendents; the Hamilton,

1
0
1

town superintendents seldom doing more than attending Herkimer,

8
5
13

the meeting and giving a vote. Jefferson,

17
6
23

From a knowledge of these facts, the committee reKings,

3
5
8

garded with deep anxiety the debates of the Legislature Lewis,

4
1
5

in regard to the county superintendency, and when these Livingston,

7
8
15

debates were ended by the abolishment of the office, Madison, 13 10

23

they were seriously apprehensive, that the change would Monroe, 16 12

28

be very detrimental to the Normal School. The comMontgomery, 8

mittee regret to add that these apprehensions have been New-York, 31 32

63

proved to be well grounded, for the number of the stuzNiagara, 11

dents in the Normal School has most sensibly diminished Oneida, 17 12

29

since the county superintendents went out of office.

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That the Regents may have the facts in the case fully pre-seen, that the school has experienced a serious diminution sented to their view, the following table is subjoined, in the number of its students. In the eighth term, which which will show the actual state of the school since the was the first after the county superintendents went out county superintendency was abolished. The first column of office, there were fifty-seven vacant seats, and at the of figures shows the number of students which each coun- beginning of the present term, the school lacked one ty has a right to send to the school. The second gives the hundred and twenty-two of having a full representation number which were in the school from each county during from the counties. In the eighth term, twenty-six the term beginning May, 1848. The third gives the num- counties were partially represented, four had no repreber of empty seats in each county during the same terın. sentation, and twenty-nine were fully represented. In The fourth gives the number of students from each coun- the ninth (the present) term, thirty-five are partially rety, who are now in the school, the term having begun presented, eleven have no represention, and but thirteen November last, and the fifth gives the vacant seats: are fully represented. No. of pupils

In view of these facts, the question may very properly each county Term beginning Term beginning be asked, wliat is the cause of this diminution? if the

is entitled to May, 1843. Nov., 1948. committee are called upon to answer the inquiry, they COUNTIES. No. sent. Vac's. No. sent. Vac's

will say, that it is the firm and settled conviction of their Albany,

0

1

minds, that it arises from the want of the faithfal, fosteAllegany,

4
0

1

ring care of the county superintendents, and that the Broome,..

1

nrmal school camot answer its designed end, unless Cattaraugus, 4

there be in each county some competent and efficient suCayuga,

4 pervising and auxiliary agency. That the diminution has Chautauque,

not been caused by any loss of the public confidence in Chemung,

2

the school is manifest, first, from the often repeated exChenango, 4

pressions of favor which have been made to the committee Clinton. 2

and teachers by respectable citizens residing in every part Columbia,

4

of the state; and secondly, from the communications, Cortland, 2 2

0

which have been received by the committee and teachers, Delaware,

4
4

4 from persons, inquiring how they may secure appointDutchess,..

6
4

5

ments and avail themselves of the advantages of the Erie,

3 5

school. There is, indeed, no reason to doubt, that there Essex,.. 2 2

1

1

are now a hundred persons living in the different counties Franklin, 2 2

1

of the state, who would have been registered as students Fulton,..

1 0
1

in the normal school, had the office of county superin

0 1 Genesee, 4

2

tendent been continued. Greene,

4
0

2

It is a duty, which the committee owe to themselves Hamilton, 1

to state still further, that in as much as they had anticipaHerkimer, 4 2

ted this diminution, they used every precaution and exerJefferson, 5

ted all their energy to prevent it. A circular was preKings,

6
1 5 1 5

pared and printed, which was signed by the State SupeLewis,

2
1
1

rintendent, and sent to every town superintendent in the Livingston, 4

state, urging the calling of a meeting for the examination Madison, 4

of applicants. But in as much as the names of these offiMonroe,..

6
0

cers were not known, the circulars had to be addressed Montgomery, 4

2

"10 the town superintendent,” &c., and hence there is New-York, 32 26

13 19

reason to fear that a large number of the circulars never Niagara, 4

2

reached the hands of those for whom they were intended. Oneida, 8

But whether the circulars were received or not, this is an

3 Onondaga, 8

6

undoubted fact, that in many counties no meeting of the Ontario, 3

town superintendents was held; and where they were Orange, 6

held, few, and in some cases, no applicants appeared. Orleans, 2

And yet from some of these counties, letters have been Oswego,..

1 received from persons asking to be admitted to the school. Otsego, 6

From these facts, the committee feel warranted in concluPutnam, 2

ding, that the diminution, in the number of students, has Queens,

been caused by the want of the faithful guardianship of Rensselaer, 4

the comty superintendents. Richmond,

Under these circumstances, the committee were obliged Rockland,

to depart somewhat from the former rule of selection, Saratoga,

3

and since the town officers failed to appoint, the committee Schenectady,

0

have admitted to the school all suitable persons, residents Schoharie, 4

of the state, who have applied to them; such applicants Seneca,

2

2

having been in every case examined, and having given a St. Lawrence,

6

pledge, that they would devote themselves to the work Steuben,

of teaching common schools. The number of persons Suffolk,

4

1

thus appointed, were six during the eighth term, and Sullivan,

Several others, upon 2

forty-one during the present term. Tioga,...

2

examination were found incompetent, and rejected, thus Tompkins, 3

being subjected to much trouble, expense and mortificaUlster,

3

3

tion, the greater part of which might have been avoided, Warren,

2

2

if the meetings of the town superintendents had been Washington, 4

0

held in every county. Wayne, 4

1

Library and Apparatus. Westchester,

1 Wyoming

There are at present seren hundred and forty-five vo2

0

lumes in the miscellaneous library, showing an increase Yates,

2
2

of thirteen volumes since last report. The text book li

brary numbers six thousand one hundred and thirteen vo256 202 57 134 122

lames, showing an increase of four hundred and three From a careful examinatian of these tables, it will be (volumes since last report.

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No additions of any importance have been made to the promise and agree to and with the parties of the second philosophical and chemical apparatus.

part, that if the Legislature shall hereafter appropriate

the further sum of seven thousand and five hundred dolEcperimental School.

lars for the purpose of having said building fully and comIn the experimental school there are seventy pupils, pletely finished, and shall put that sum at the disposal of between the ages of six and sixteen years, of whom the parties of the first part, as such executive committee, thirty-five are free pupils. The others pay for their tui- for that purpose, then and in such case, the parties of the tion $20 a year. This school gives the senior class of the second part, covenant, promise and agree to and with the Normal School an opportunity of learning and practising parties of the first part, to fully and completely finish in the best modes of instruction and government. In regard every respect and particular, the said building according to this school, the committee have nothing to add to the to the annexed specifications and the aforesaid plans and very full report of it, which was given last year

drawings, and to do and complete said work within six In closing this report, the committee would embrace months after said appropriation shall be made." the opportunity of reiterating the expression of their confidence in the normal school. After the lapse of another mittee would direct the attention of the State Superinten

In this contract there are two points to which the comyear, they are happy to say that nothing has occurred to dent and Regents. diminish confidence in the system, but on the contrary, 1st. If the Legislature should be unwilling to grant any much has come under their observation, which has served further appropriation, the school can be kept in the new to deepen former impressions of the absolute necessity of building, though the arrangements will be very far from the normal school to give completeness and efficiency to commodious. our common school system. By an act of the Legislature, passed April 12, 1848, ture, the full and complete finishing which the contract

2d. If the additional $7,500 be granted by the Legislachapter 318, entitled “ An act for the permanent establish speaks of

, is not the rendering the building what it ought ment of the Normal School," the Legislature appropriated to be, but the mere fulfilling the terms of the specificathe sum of fifteen thousand dollars, for the erection of a tions. Now the specifications, upon which this contract suitable building for the accommodation of the State Nor mal School."

was made, were drawn up with the thought ever present The second section of that act is as follows: "The said building shall be erected under the direction to the mind that even some necessary things must be left of the executive committee of the school, upon the ed to appropriate, or to speak more correctly, that the ex

out, that the Legislature might not feel themselves requirground owned by the state, and lying in the rear of the ecutive committee might not do a dishonorable action. Geological Rooms."

The Committee feel no little inward satisfaction in sayIn accordanee with this act, the committee immediately ing, that if the Legislature should feel indisposed to make began their arrangements for the erection of said building. Their first business was,' to obtain, from the corporation thing which will hinder them from acting according to

further appropriation, the committee have done noof the city of Albany, a release of their right to the lot their wisdom and pleasure. But at the same time, they upon which the Legislature had ordered that the building cannot for a moment believe, that the sum will be denied, should be erected. This was accomplished without diffi- which will render the Normal School a lasting blessing to culty, the corporation cheerfully executing the necessary the State of New-York. release. It is also due to the corporation of Albany to say, that they have always been ready to accede to every

If it should be inquired of the Committee, how large wish of the committee in reference to the school. Since what in the opinion of the Committee

, it ought to be; they

an additional sum would be needed to make the building, the establishment of the school, the city of Albany has would answer that an addition of $10,000 to the original expended over $3,000 for it. They have paid $5,000 for

appropriation will be sufficient It may be proper to add the rent of the present school building, and the release of the lot in the rear of the Geological Rooms, involved that a further appropriation will be needed

for the furnishthe city in an expense of over $3,000 in the purchase of ing of the school rooms; for this purpose the unexpended a new site for the engine house, and the erection of a lishment of the Normal School" will be more than suffibuilding. They have also contributed $500 to the repairs cient; the committee would therefore ask that they be aland fitting up of the present school building.

The plans for the building next demanded attention lowed to draw as much of that fund as shall be necessary. This duty called for much observation, consultation and

Of the $15,000 appropriated for the erection of the new thought, and at length the committee resolved on a plan building, $9,000 have been drawn from the Treasury and of building, which they thought suitable to the wants of paid to the contractors. the school. But upon advertising for proposals, the com

A statement of the receipts and expenditures for the mittee, to their surprise, found that the appropriation support of the school

from Sept. 30, 1847 to Sept. 30, would be wholly insufficient. This threw them into a item are in the possession of the Committee.

1848 is herewith submitted, and the vouchers for every great difficulty; for they did not feel themselves at liberty to enter into a contract, which would involve the state in

All which is respectfully snbmitted. a much larger debt than was contemplated by the act, nor

Albany Jan. 8, 1849.

GIDEON HAWLEY, did they wish

to put up a building which would be wholly unsuitable.

WM. H. CAMPBELL, Under these circumstances they did that

H. BLEECKER. which seemed to them just and proper, and their action will be best understood by giving one or two extracts I concur in the above report. from the contract which they have made with the buil

CHRISTOPHER MORGAN, ders “The said building shall be so far completed that it

Supt. of Com. Schools. can be used for the purpose of keeping a school therein, according to the specifications aforesaid, and hereto an- Education for Upper Canada says: At a late public meet

Free Schools in the Town of Niagara. - The Journal of nexed and the plans and drawings aforesaid, on or before ing called by the President of the Corporaiion, it was the first day of July next for the sum of fifteen thousand decided, after a good deal of discussion, by a majority dollars to be paid as hereinafter specified.”. * And whereas, it is understood by and between the Schools, and not petition the Legislature for the re-esta

of the rate payers present, to continue the system of free parties to this agreement, that the said building is not to blishment of the old rate-bill system. be fully and completely finished according to the an. nexed specifications, and said plans and drawings for the

A Normal College for Wales is about to be erected at sum of $15,000, but is only to be so far finished for that Swansen. Forty designs for the new building were subsum, that it can be used for the purpose of teaching a mitted to the Committee, and at the last meeting it was school therein, and to the extent hereinafter specified; to unanimously resolved to adopt the one sent in by Messrs. accomplish that purpose, the parties of the first part Fuller and Gingell, architects, of Bristol.—[London Nex's.

REPORT

they are incompetent to the due discharge of the dutios

of a principal teacher. I have licensed 160 persons dur, Of the County Superintendent of Common Schools of the ing the year, and about one half of them have received City of New-York,

certificaies thus qualified. More teachers are allowed to

the same number of scholars in these than the old Public To the HON. CHRISTOPHER MORGAN,

Schools; and the teachers in the lower classes do not need Superintendent of Common Schools.

high scholarship. The prejudice against the monitorial In compliance with the requirements of law, the fol- system of instruction is so strong, that the Trustees of lowing statements and report have been carefully prepared; these Schools do not allow it to be used in the primary embracing in the opinion of the undersigned, all such department, where it really may be applied with advanhistorical facts and statistics as are necessary to be com- tage. These Schools are, in general, well conducted; municated to the Superintendent of Common Schools. and as these officers are emanations from the popular

The undersigned was appointed to the office of County voice, they can hardly, fail to enjoy advantages over Superintendent of Common Schools for the City and schools differently constituted. County of New-York, on the 8th day of December, 1847, About eight or nine years ago, singing was introduced and immediately entered upon the duties of the office; by a few teachers into some of the Public Schools, which and, with as much expedition as was consistent with a was barely tolerated at first, but which has so grown into faithful discharge of duty, went through and examined public favor, that it seems now to be necessary to the the whole 186 Schools and Departments subject to official success of a School. Many of the Ward Schools have visitation in this city.

improved upon this, and have made music a regular It will be within the knowledge of the Superietendent, branch, to be taught systematically in their Schools. The that it was omitted to be stated, in the summary of the time is probably not distant, when a knowledge of the School laws published by the department, that New-York science of music will be considered here as in the Gerwas made an exception to the general application of the man States, a necessary part of a Common School EducaLaw abolishing the office of County Superintendent; and, tion Singing has had its influence in cultivating the taste, so far as this County is concerned, the law is the same as in softening and improving the manners of the children, it was before the passage of that act.

and thus making the government more mild and easy, The anomalous and complex character of the School and the attendance more punctual and cheerful. organization of this City, made such an officer necessary 2 The Public School Society's Schools, from their in this City, while in the opinion of the legislature, it numbers and importance are entitled to an extended nomight be abolished without public detriment in the other tice. They are under the charge of an incoporated 80counties of the State. It seems proper, therefore, under ciety, whose business is in the hands of one hundred these circumstances, that the undersigned should go some Trustees, chosen annually, by gentlemen who have paid what into particulars with regard to the several classes of into the funds of the Society ten dollars each, to constitute Schools in this city which participate in the School Fund themselves members of the Society. of the State.

This Corporation, under various circumstances and de. The Schools of this City, in which instruction is free, gress of importance, has existed far more than forty years; may be classified as follows, viz: the WARD Schools, its Schools originally being purely Lancasterian. the Public Schools, the CORPORATE SsHools, and the The prevailing opinion in this city was not in favor of ASYLUMS.

Free Schools for the people generally, until within tho The City consists of Eighteen Wards; in each of which last 15 or 18 years. This Society was at its organization there are elected two Commissioners, and these constitute much in advance of public sentiment.

After a few years the Board of Education, to whose care is confided the of benevolent effort on the part of this Society, the local and municipal legislation, applicable to the Schools School system of this State went into operation; and by of the City.

a special enactment, the portion of this Čity in the School 1. The Ward Schools are the product of this municipal money, was allowed principally to this Society; and the legislation, there being no power elsewhere yested short bounty of the State was dispensed by the Public School of an act of the State legislature by which Common Society as early as 1815. Schools can be established. These Ward Schools, being The private pay Schools of the City educated the under the immediate management of the elected ward middling classes, and indeed the mass of the youthful officers, seem to many a little nearer the people; and population of the City, up to about 1828 or 1830; until where they are judiciously located and properly managed, the Public Schools, having improved in character, and have enjoyed a high degree of popularity. When the pro- increased in numbers, became to a considerable extent, rata allowance of public money has been insufficient to the Schools of the people. In 1829, the private Schools meet their current expenses, the Board of Education have had in them 15,320, and the Corporate, Charity, and not hesitated to recommend such further appropriations Public Schools, counted together, had but 8,632 scholars. as appeared to them right. These Schools are becoming Since that time, attention has been more turned to publie

In about twenty houses, with fifty-four de- instruction, and Free Schools have become more a matter partments, they have nearly 16,000 scholars. These of general interest. The People have demanded changes Schools, whose existence commenced within the last and improvements in the subjects to be taught, and in the seven years, under considerable opposition, have gone manner of teaching, as well as in the organization of the on prospering. Two or three of them are, in my judg. Schools. These Schools were originally designed for the ment, unfortunately located, either where they were not poor; and it was an object with the Society to do the needed, or where the neighborhood is unsuited to instruc- good that conld be done, with the least possible expene. tion. These will be sustained with difficulty. The pre- Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic, were taught mostly sent apportionment of $6.22 cts. per scholar, will not be by Monitors, in one large room, with from 300 to 500 sufficient to pay the teachers in these Schools. These scholars, with one Master and a Monitor of order. But Ward Schools are, in general, supplied with good teach- even with these scanty means, much was accomplished

There are, however, departments of instruction in with a class of people who would not, but for these which there are exceptions to this last remark; and there means, have been taught at all; the imposing array of are instances both in these Schools and in others, in which large numbers, and the almost military precision of the the very lowest grade of acquirement that can be allowed evolutions and government which were necesarily adoptto pass, is used in the subordinate places. This efror of ed in such Schools, in which there wore few teachers judgment, or this mistaken economy, is not of that fla- and many scholars gave them a popularity with the unini. grant character which would sanction my official interpo- tiated in the business of instruction beyond what they sition, further than that I should qualify the certificate of intrinsically deserved. The teachers were generally men license, by inserting “primary teacher," or "primary as of considerable tact. Thero was system in their managesistant.” The persons receiving these licenses being ad- ment, and although the course of instruction, which conjudged barely competent to this subordinate station, while I sisted of Reading, Writing: and common Arithmetic, was

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