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THE DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL racy, as for the purpose of establishing a general published monthly, and is devoted exclusively to the promotion of principle for the guidance of practical teachers, and Popular Education.

the benefit and highest improvement of their pupils. EDWARD COOPER, EDITOR.

For, as far as the term to learn is used to denote the TERM8.- Single copies 50 cents; seven copies $300; twelve copies act of him who communicates knowledge, it implies

95 00 twenty-five copies $10 00 payable always in advance. Allletters and communications intended for the District School our

a state of passivity in him to whom the communication val obould he directed to the Editor Syracuse N. Y. Post Paidh

is made; and thus, as the necessity of active exertiou. Printed on the Power Press of

on his part, seems to be superceded, all voluntary efBARNS, SMITH & COOPER,

fort is discouraged, and he becomes indolent and inAt the Office of the Daily and Western State Journal.

active of course. Indeed, the consequences of such

an impression, naturally made by the careless TEACHING AND LEARNING.

use of this term (though that impression be but a The terms placed at the head of this article are re

floating opinion,) must be everywhere, and on all ciprocal, but not convertible. They both denote the minds, pernicious and unfavorable, if not fatal, to high same relation; but each implies a distinct related ob- attainments in literature and science. Such an imject, and indicates the peculiar action of this object or pression on the public mind must lead to the adoption person in its appropriate relation. To teach is one of injudicious expedients to promote the cause of gething; to learn is another; and although related to the neral education--expedients which may be of tempoformer act, is entirely distinct from it, and performed rary apparent utility, but such as must ultima:ely by a different agent. It is true, the verb, to learn, is depress the standard of learning, enervate the mental often vulgarly used interchangeably with the correla- powers of the rising generation, make smatterers and tive term, to teach ; and this usage has sometimes been socialists, and produce a race of superficial thinkers

, carelessly sanctioned by high literary authority. But instead of ripe scholars of vigorous intellects and high it is time that this anomaly should be excluded

as attainments. Such an impression, or rather sentiment, well from our colloquial as from our written language.

however indistinct, must produce in the mind of the To teach, is to communicate knowledge-to give in- pupil, indolence and stupid inaction in that of the struction; to learn, is to acquire knowledge to be in- teacher, discouragement and a spirit of formality-in structed. The teacher gives; the learner receives.-- that of the pareni, and even the friend and patron of The teacher imparts; the learner acquires. The learning, a disposition to complain and find fault with teacher (truly, without diminishing his acquired stock, the most laborious and faithful teachers." which actually increases, in his own mind, while it Let it never be forgotten, then, that the act of learnis thus diffused into the minds of others) communi- ing belongs to the pupil, and not to the teacher. Incates what he has previously learned; and the leamer deed, activity of mind is as requisite in the one as it makes what is thus communicated to him his own. is in the other, in order to secure the happy results of The teacher, therefore, in the appropriate functions of education, and especially of intellectual education his office, performs an act depending on his own will

, The pupil

, as we said, must learn for himself. This over which no other mind has control; while thé is his own appropriate work-a work which must be learner, by the exercise of mental powers equally his perforined by himself; it cannot be done by another. own, makes an acquisition corresponding with the In order to acquire knowledge, he must put forth per-. strength of those powers, and the energy with which sonal effort. He must seek if he would find; he must they are exercised

strive if he would ascend the hill and enter the temple Nor is this analysis of the relation between teacher of science. In other words, his mind must be in a and learner, or this proposed definite and precise use recipient statem.Wakeful, activei putting forth iis of the term learn, embarrassed by the fact that men powers and pushing forward its susceptibilities, beiore are said to be self-taught. For, in cases in which this he can participate in the benefits of the best instrucepithet is used with propriety, the learners make to tion. Without this preparation in the pupil, and conthemselves teachers. The very instruments and means sequent reciprocal action with the teacher, all ile by which they acquire knowledge, are their teachers. labors of the latter will be lost. The knowledge imThey hear the voice of Nature; they listen to the in- parted by the teacher will find 'no reception, certainiy, structions of Revelation. They learn by observation no permanent lodgment; in the sluggish mind oi' the and experience. The word and the works of God are pupil. Instruction, to constitute education, ronst ve their teachers; and, as truly as in any case, they sus received as well as given, and so received as to exetain the subjective relation of pupils, recipients ; put- cise and discipline the faculties of the mind which it ting forth their powers to reach the coming knowledge, enters; so received as to be permanently held; 8 and to mold and fashion it to their own capacities and received and held as to become wcorporated with the habits of association; and thus making it their own, mental powers themselves and ready for appilusia.e and preparing it for future use.

use. It must, indeed, become the absolu.e propery These critical remarks, however, are here introdu. of the mind receiving it; and be retained by that ced, not so much for the sake of grammatical accu- mind, not as a thing of arbitrary associatiou anti meni

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THE PHILOSOPHY OF A TEAR. mind, diffuse itself through it, and become assimilated to it, as substantially to constitute a part of the mind Beautiful Tear! whether lingering upon the brink itself.

of the eye-lid, or elarting down the furrows of the careThis doctrine of mental activity in the learner as

worn cheek-thou art beatiful in thy simplicity-great here stated, if trae, is obviously a highly important because of thy modesty strong from thy very weak. and practical doctrine ; important to teacher and pu- ness. Offspring of sorrowwho will not own thy pit, to parents, and the friends and patrons of educa- claim to sympathy? who can resist thy eloquence many valuable inferences drawn from it, adapted to Tear! the circumstances of the age and the condition of our Let us trace a tear to its source. The eye is the schools. The space allotted to this article, however, most attractive organ of animal bodies. It is placwill not allow a full statement and particular illustra- ed in a bony socket, by which it is protected, and, tion of them in this connection. It will, therefore, be wherein it finds room to perform the motion requisite closed with a few hints, thrown out without much to its uses. The rays of light which transmit the imaorder, and designed principally for the consideration ges of external objects enter the pupil through the chrysof professional teachers.

talline lens, and fall upon the retina, upon which, withi. The teacher should devise means, and adopt in the space represented by a sixpence, is formed, in expedients, to excite the curiosity and rouse the en- all beauty and perfection, an exact image of many ergies of his pupils.

miles of landscape, every object displaying its proper 2. He should then endeavor to fix their attention, color and true proportions--trees and lakes, hills and and concentrate their awakened energies, on the pre- valleys, insects and flowers, all in true keeping, are scribed subject of inquiry and instruction.

there shown at once, and the impression produced 3. He should connect with his instructions, as far thereby upon the filaments of the optic nerve causes as possible, what is interesting and attractive ;'so that a sensation which communicates to the mind the apthe associations, formed in the minds of his pu- parant qualities of the varied objects we behold. pils, will leave them in love with the subject of inves

That this wonderful faculty of vision may be unintigation, and in proper time, bring them back to the terrupted, it is necessary that the transparent mempursuit with readiness and alacrity.

brane which forms the external covering of the eye 4. He shoult carefully prescribe for each scholar shall be kept moist and free from the contact of opaque in his school a proper number of branches, to be pur- substances To supply the fluid which shall moissued in a given time; so as not to distract attention by ten and cleanse the eye, there is placed at the outer variety, nor weary and exhaust it by dull uniformity. and upper part of the ball, a small gland, which secretes

5. He should exclude from his illustrations, as far the lachrymal fluid, and puts it out at the corner of the as practicable, everything calculated to divert the eye, whence by the motion of the lids, it is equally minds of his pupils from the principal subject of in- spread over the surface, and thus moisture and clearvestigation.

ness are at once secured.. 6. He should be careful that awakened curiosity be

When we incline to sleep, the

eye
becomes

compa110t gratified too soon, by unnecessary and supera- ratively bloodless and dull The eye-lids drop to shut bundant aid, leaving no motive and no opportunity out everything which might tend to arouse the slumfor effort, on the part of his pupils ; nor, on the other bering senses. The secretion of the lachrymal glands hand, be suffered to evaporate, and end in despair, is probably all but suspended, and the organs of sight for the want of timely and necessary aid, to enable participate in the general rest. When, after a long them to overcome appalling difficulties. With this night's sleep, the eyelids open, there is, therefore, a view, he should intermingle with text-book instruction dullness of vision, arising probably from the dryness of a due proportion of familiar lecturing; enough of the the corner; then occur the rapid motions of the eye-lids, one with the other to guard against the pernicious ef- familiarly termed "winking'son.etimes instinctivefects of excess in either.

ly aided by rubbing with the hanıls—and after a few 7. He should prepare, select, or adapt his text-books, moments the “ windows” of the body have been prowith a due regard to the capacities of his pupils, and perly cleansed and set in order, the eye adjusted to the with reference to the development and exercise of quantity of light it must receive, and we are awake? their various powers of mind, as well as to the imme- for the day, and may go forth to renew our acquaindiate acquisition of knowledge. If text books are too tance with the beauties of nature. plain and simple, they will either enervate or disgust; It is from the glands which supply this moisture that if too concise, abstruse, and deficient in illustration, tears flow. Among physiologists it is well known that they will vex and discourage; and in both cases pro- emotions--impressions upon the nervous system-exduce mental inaction. The pupil must be made to ercise a powerful and immediate influence upon the work; but he must work voluntarily, cheerfully, with secretions. As, for instance, the mere thought of some hope. Aided too much, his energies remain dormant; savo::ry dish, or delicious fruit, or something acid-of too little, they are soon exhausted, and he sinks into the juice of the lemon-will excite an instant flow of a state of despair, and thus both excess and deficiency the salivary fluid into the mouth. An emotion of the produce the same pernicious result..

mind influences the lachrymal glands, which copious8. The teacher, in all his plans of government and ly secrete and pour forth the chrystal drops, and these, in-truction, should keep in view the principal business as they appear upon the surface of the eye, we denoinassigned him. This, according to the doctrine of this inate teurs. communication, and as far as intellectual education is A similar action, called forth by another kind of ex. involved, is to rouse the curiosity of his pupils, and citement, when dust or other irritating substance comes keep it awake; to furnish, in a sufficient quantity, in contact with the eģe; the glands instantly secrete wholesome food for their minds, and suitable mate- abundantly, and pouring the chrystal fluid out upon rials for the active, vigorous employment of all their the surface, the eye is protected from injury, and the menial powers

offending substance is washed away. The feeling. Other hints might be given. and these more amply which excite excessive laughter of joy also stimulat illustrated. But enough for the present.-Massachu- this secretion—the eyes are said to water." It i setts Teachrs.

only when the chrystal drops come forth under the im

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OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK.

103

pulse of sorrow-cthus speaking the anguish of the

OUR WONDROUS ATMOSPHERE. - mind--that it properly can be called a tear. Hence its The atmosphere rises above us with its cathedral

sacred character, and the sympthy which it seldom fails dome, arching towards the heaven, of which it is the to create.

most familiar

synonyme and symbol. It floats around Every tear represents some indwelling sorrow prey- us like that grand object which the apostle John saw ing upon the mind and eating out its peace. The tear in his vision-'a sea of glass like unto crystal.' , So

comes forth to dcelare the inward struggle, and to plead massive is it, that when it begins to stir, it tosses ! a truce against further strife. How meet that the eye about great ships like playthings, and sweeps cities s should be the seat of tears where they cannot occur and forests, like snowflakes, to destruction before it.

unobserved, but blending with the speaking beauty of And yet it is so mobile, that we have lived years in it the eye itself, must command attention and sympathy. before we can be persuaded that it exists at all, and

Whenever we behold a tear, let our kindliest sym- the great bulk of mankind never realize the truth that opathies awake let it have a sacred claim upon all that they are bathed in an ocean of air. Its weight is so

we can do to succour and comfort under affliction.- enormous, that iron shivers before it like glass; yet a What rivers of tears have flown, excited by the cruel soap-ball sails through it with impunity, and the tiniand

perverse ways of man! War has spread its car- est insect waves it aside with its wing; It ministers nage and desolation, and the eyes of widows and or- lavishly to all the senses. We touch it not, but it phans have been suffused with tears! Intemperance touches us. Its warm south winds bring back color has benighted the homes of millions, and weeping and to the pale face of the invalid ; its cool west winds, wailing have been incessant! A thousand other evils refresh the fevered brow, and make the bijod mantle which we may conquer have given birth to tears enough in our cheeks; even its north blasts brace into new to constitute a flood-a great tide of grief. Suppose vigor the hardened children of our rugged clime.we prize this little philosophy, and each one determine the eye is indebted to it for all the magnificence of never to excite a tear in another—how pleasantly will fare sunrise, the full brightness of mid-day, the chasened mankind! Watching the eyes as the telegraph of the audiance of gloaming, and the clouds that cradle near mind within, let us observe it with anxious regard; and the setting-sun. But for it the rainbow would want whether we are moved to complaint by the existence of its triumphal arch,' and the winds would not send supposed or real wrongs, let the indication of the com- their fleecy messengers on errands round the heavens, ing tear be held as a sacred truce to unkindly feeling, the cold ether would not shed its snow-feathers on and all our efforts be devoted to the substitution of the earth, nor would drops of dew gather themselves mercy for tears ! --R. Kemp.

on the flowers. The kindly rain would never fall,

nor hail-storm nor fog diversify the face of the sky.THE POWER OF AMERICA.

Our naked globe would turn its tanned and unshadMen tell us it (the war) shows the strength of the owed forehead to the sun, and one dreary, monotonation, and some writers quote the opinion of Euro

nous blaze of light and heat dazzle and bum up all » pean Kings, who, when hearing of the battles of Mon- things.. Were there no atmosphere, the evening sun

terey, Buena Vista, and Vera Cruz, became convinced would in a moment set, and without mamning, plunge that we were a great people.” 'Remembering the the earth in darkness. But the air keeps in her hand character of these Kings, one can easily believe that a sheaf of his rays, and lets them slip bnt slowly such was their judgmeni, and will not sigh many times through her fingers; so that the shadows of evening at their fate, but will hop- to see the day when the gather by degrees, and the flowers have time to bow last King who can estimate a nation's strength only by their heads, and each creature space to find a place its battles, has passed on to impotence and oblivion. of rest, and to nestle to repose. In the morning, the The power of America---do we need proof of that? garnish'd sun would at one bound burst from the bosom I see it in the streets of Bostou and New York; in of night, and blaze above the horizon: but the air Lowell and in Lawrence; I see it in our mills and watches for his coming, and sends at first but one our ships; I see it in those letters of Iron written al: little ray to announce his approach, and then another, over the Norih where he may read that runs; I see it and by and by a handful, and so gently draws aside in the unconquered energy which tames the forest, the the curtain of night, and slowly lets the light fall ou sivers, and the ocean; in that school-hou: e which list the face of the sleeping earth, till her eyelids open, its modest joof in every village of the North; in and, like man, she goeth forth again to her labor in the churches that rise a'l over the Free man's land the evening.-Quarterly Review. would to God that they rose higher-pointing down to man and to human duties, and up to God and immor

LETTER FROM HON. SALEM TOWN. tal li'e. I see the strength of America in that tide of

AURORA, August 8th, 1848. population which spreads over the prairies of the West Hon. Ira Mayhew: Dear Sir.— It was my intention, and, beating on the Rocky Mountains, dashing its to be present at your meeting on the 16th. As an in. peaceful spray, to the very shores of the Pacific sea. dividual, it would have afforded me great pleasure. Had we taken 150,000 men and $200,000,000, and As a Delegate from the New York Association, I puilt two Rail Roads across the continent, that would should consider it still more desirable. Circumstanhave been a worthy sign of a nation's strength. Per ces, however, are such as to deprive me, at this time, haps Kings could not see it; but sensible men of the happiness } had in view.

ould see it and be glad Now this waste of treasure The object contemplated by your Society is one of ind this waste of blood is only a proof of weakness. vast interest, not only to the western States, but the Var is a transient weakness of the nation, but slavery entire Union. The relations of an enlightened and

permanent imbecility.--Theo. Parkeris Sermon on the virtuous communit; to National freedom and prosVerican War.1,1

perity, are 'neither fancy nor fiction; and I cannot xs.

but feel the deepest solicitude in behalf of popular Books * In this so hollove, but solid seeming world, education. It is the birth right of every child of our ood books are almost the only friends we can safely country, and the main channel through which the . Eust; the only friends that are sueb_simply because very lite blood of a Republic Hows. Each present ney have the power to make us wiser, and better, and generation must educate each suceeeding one, and appier by their society.

each succeeding one, will, in the main, be what th

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former has made it. Here then is a responsible with the fertility of the soil our western brethren culagency from which there is no escape, and infidelity tivate, and the resources of the country in which on the part of this generation, may bring down on they dwell

. our memories, the most withering reproaches of pos. You will accept, dear sir, my kind regards, and pre terity, our country and the world.

sent the same to the society. You are also at liberty We are evidently now standing between the past to read this hasty sketch of miscellaneous thoughts history of our country, and her future destiny, as yet to them if you think it worth your while, and believe to be recorded ; and the exigency of the times on me

Yours, &c., which we have fallen, demand action, speedy, effi. Hon. I. Mayhew.

S. TOWN. cient, unremitting action, as individuals, as commu. nities, as a Nation. The safety of our Institutions re

CULTIVATE ENERGY. quires it. The rapid improvements of the age in Many of the physical evils, the want of vigor, the which we live; the resources of a vast domain, yet inaction of system, the langor and hysterical affections to be developed by Ast and Science, require it. The which are so prevalent among the delicate young commanding position we occupy on this western women of the present day, may be traced to a want hemisphere, the relations we sustain to other coun. of well-trained mental power and well exercised selftries, and above all, the influence this Nation is, in control, and to an absence of fixed habits of employ. the providence of God, most manifestly destined to ment. Real cultivation of the intellecʻ, earnest exer. exert on the ietellectual and moral, the political and cise of the moral powers, the enlargement of the mind. religious condition of the world even, demand such by the acquirement of knowledge and the strengthenefforts as no former age has yet called for.

ing of its capabilities for effort, the firmness, the enduI entertain no doubt, we are now educating that rance of inevitable evils, and for energy in combatting very generation, during whose life time the great such as may be overcome, are the ends which educa. questions, as to our future National character, moral tion has to attain; weakness, if met by indulgence, and intellectual, is to be decided; and whatever the will not only remain weaknes, but become infinity result may be, the present generation will, to a great The power of the mind over the body is immense. extent, be held responsible. The children of these Let that power be called forth; let it be trained and United States are now coming up under that course exercised, and vigor, both of mind and body will be of training with which they are to meet this momen- the result. There is a homely, unpolished saying, tous crisis. As a Nation, we are now demonstrating that it is better to wear out than rust out ;" but it the great problem of universal suffrage, before the tells a plain truth, rust consumes faster than use.

Betworld. We are, therefore, called upon as men, as ter, a million times better, to work hard, even to the itizens, as christian philanthropists, to make this Na- shortening of existence, than to sleep and eat away ion the leading power of Earth, in knowledge, in the precious gift of life, giving no other cognizance of virtue, and in the science of the human government, its possession. By work, or industry, of whatever is a model worthy of 'mitation, and adoption of other kind it may be. we give a practical acknowledgement ountries. Never, before, was a work of such mag- of the value of life, if its high intentions, of its manitude committed to human agency. Never was ifold duties. Earnest, active in lustry is a living hyma here a people in whose hands providence had p'aced of praise, a never failing source of happiness; it is such ample means for its accomplishment. Never obedience, for it is God's great law for moral exwas a Nation planted on the globe with a more hope- istance. !ul opportunity to become the universal benefactor of all mankind. We may. as a people, we may as a Nation even, disregard such considerations; but dis.

SOUND MIND. A perfectly just and sound mind is regarded, distinguished, or evaded as they may be a rare and invaluable gift

. But it is still much more we cannot, as a Nation, escape that tremendous res- unusual to see such a mind unbiased in all its actings. ponsibility, created by our own natural relationship

to God has given this soundness of mind to but few; and hose countless millions yet to succeed us in this a very small number of those few escape the bias of broad Empire

Whatever, therefore, is done for some predilection, perhaps habitually operating; and ihose of the next generation, now coming up to man

none are at all times perfectly free. I once saw this hood, must be done quickly There is a tide in subject forcibly illustrated. human affairs that waits not-moments even, on

Å watch-maker told me that a gentleman had put which the destiny of Nations may balance. Such, i an exquisite watch into his hands that went irregularly, am constrained to believe, in view of the unprece He took it to pieces and put it together again twenty

It was as perfect a piece of work as was ever made. Jented increase of the western population, is the point which we are rapidly approaching. As the times. No manner of defect was to be discovered, western States, as the great valley of the Mississippi and yet the

watch, went intolerably: , At last it struck is one half century hence, so will this nation be. Give him that, possibly, the balance-wheel might have been der then the puritan stamp of New England charac near a magnet

. On applying a needle to it he found ier now, and she will give the world the Bible, intelli: his suspicions true. Here was all the mischief. The jence, freedom and morals too, in all coming time.

st :el work in the other parts of the watch had a perI doubt not the members of the Northwestern Edu. petual influence on its motions, and the watch went cational Society, are actuated by a deep solicitude to as well as possible with a new wheel

. If the soundest advance the nob' e cause in which they are engaged;

mind be magnetized by any predilection, it nrust act and as one

who aided, in some small degree, in its irregularly.–Cecil. formation, my sympathies have been wedded' to its EFFECTS OF AN AMERICAN EDUCATION. Among the prosperity: I ardently hope the steady efforts of its persons arrests by the Cuban Government on suspi. members will be crowned with triumphant success, cion of favoring the insurrection, there are several .n arousing the public mind of the great west, dis

young Cubans who were educated at the American nel the gathering clouds of ignorance, and let in the colleges. We naturally find these young men among guiar sun nght of science, to that swelling Empire of the votaries of liberty, and we just as naturally find wund,

That our nation may witness a development that their American education is viewed as a source of 1.4 intellectual ability, and moral power, that comports suspicion by the Government.-Phil. N. American.

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From the Mooroe Advocate.

The Statutes are very specific. The following is OFFICE OF SUP'T. OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, from the 88th section of the Revised School Law.

Monroe, Mich., Sept. 12th., 1848 “ No certificate shall be given by the inspectors, unDEAR SIR :

less they are satisfied that the applicant possesses a In your letter of August 25th, you inquire whether good moral character.?! the practice of Sabbath-breaking morally disqualifies In my opinion, neither the Sabbath-breaker, nor the a person for teaching school, provided his qualifica- profane person, nor the inebriate, nor he who fretions in other respects aje good. You allude particu- quents the gambling table, nor persons openly and larly " to the practice of mingling with parties of habitually guilty of any, immorality, can, with any pleasure and riding about the country for recreation propriety, be considered as qualified, in regard to on the Sabbath »

moral character

to teach school." Whether the question be viewed abstractly, as a

Respectfully and truly yours, matter of sound policy and of right, or whether it be

IRA MAYHEW, considered as under the Statutes merely, I have no

Sup't. of Public Instruction. hesitation in saying that in my opinion the Sabbath. RICHARD KENT, Esq., breaker is morally disqualified for the proper dis

School Inspector, charge of the duties of a teacher of youth. The wel. Adrian, Mich. fare of the rising generation and of our country, as

THE TONGUE. well as the statutes of our state, requires that no Sabbath-breaker be licensed to teach school. And I may Leighton,

and two of them, so far as concerns the

There are but ten precopts of the law of God, says add, it would be well if none were so employed with outward organ and vent of the sins there forbidden out a license.

are bestowed on the tongue; one in the first table, The statutes of our state make it the duty of school and the other in the second ; 'as though it were ready inspectors " to examine, annually, all persons offering to fly out both against God and man if not thus brithemselves as caxdidates for teachers of primary dled. schools in their township, in regard to moral character,

Pythagoras used to say that a wound from the learning and ability to teach school," and to deliv- tongue is worse than a wound from the sword, for the er to each person so examined and found qualified, a latter affects only the body, the former the spirits certificate signed by them, in such form as shall be the soul. prescribed by the Superintendant of Public Instruc It'was a remark of Anacharsis, that the tongue was tio.l."

at the same time the best part of man and his worst : It will be seen the law contemplates three distinct that with good government, none is more useful, and requisites to constitute a “ qualified reacher.". These without it none more mischievous. are, ist, A good moral character, 2d, Sufficient learning, calumny and detraction; nor ever thought it necessary

Boerhave, says Dr. Johnson, was never soured by 3d, Ability (or aptness) to teach.

to confute them; “ For," said he "they are sparks All of these combined are necessary to constitute a which, if you do not blow them, will go out themgood teacher. The necessity of the second qualifica- selves." tion specified, every one will admit. But without the We cannot, says Cato, control the evil tongues of third, the teacher's labors will

be unavailing. And, others, but a good life enables us to despise them. however perfectly, he may combine these two qualifications, his services will be worse than useless, in either better or worse.

Slander, says Lacon, cannot make the subjects of it

It may represent us in a false less he possesses a good moral character. This is the light, or place a likeness of us in a bad one. But we crowning excellence of a good teacher, and, in our are the same. Not so the slanderer; the slander that Statutes it is wisely placed first among the teacher's he utters makes him worse, the slandered never. qualifications. As is the teacher, so will be the No one, says Jerome, loves to tell a tale of scandal school,' has become a proverb. While no teacher except to him who loves to hear it. Learn then to reshould be employed whose intellectual and social buke and check the detracting tongue, by showing habits are not such as we would have our children that you do not listen to it with pleasure. form, I may add, tione should receive the inspector's certificate, whose moral character may not be safely

CONNECTICUT COMMISSIONER. -Gurdon Trumbul?? copied. The teacher's influence for weal or wo, is Esq., of Stonington, has been elected by the Legisla immense. The law contemplates that it shall be un- ture of Connecticut, Assistant School Commissioner, dividedly on the side of virtue.

to become sole Commissioner at the close of the

pres. In the 43d chapter of the Revised Statutes of this ent fiscal year, or on the resignation of the present state, it is expressly provided that, on the first day of incumbent. Dr. Beers, the present Commissioner, has

years,

dua the week, “no person shall be present at any game, ably filled the office for about twenty-five sport, play, or public diversion, or resort to any pub? ring which, he remarks, in a recent letter, his duties. lic assembly, excepting meetings for religious wor have compelled him to travel an average of three ship, or moral instruction,” under penalty of

fine

thousand miles per annum, in the five States in which not exceeding five dollars for each offence." the fund is invested. Mr. Trumbull is very widely

From this language we see that Sabbath-breaking, known as a gentleman of eminant literary, ability even in its milder forms, is niade a penal offence. whose business talent and experience render him fully It would then be mockery, for the same statutes to competent to take charge of the office, which is the require school officers to examine “candidates for most responsible and laborious one in the State.-teachers” in regard to “moral character," under in- Jour. of Commerce. structions to grant certificates to such only as are M. Guizot is reported to be in Scotland, spending a found qualified," and yet allow Sabbath-breakers to few weeks at the ancient city of St. Andrews. His receive such certificates.

object is to consult some rare valuable historie treasThe fact is, the teacher's office is a responsible one, ures that exis: in the University library. This would and is so regarded by the Statutes. The teacher should show that the ex-minister has resumed those profound be a pattern of excellence in all things :- and especially historical investigations which first raised him to Eushould this be true of him socially and morally. orpean celebrity

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