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American Provinces, may be applied, but considers this subject as being intimately connected with those conservative principles which form the safety of Governments and the guarantees of Society.

All other considerations are insignificant in comparison with the latter; and therefore His Catholick Majesty forbears to recor to the less important reasons which, in ordinary times, diplomacy would employ in the support and defence of justice.

In looking at the question, in reference to the political balance of power, Spain presents, in all her relations, new and powerful motives for determining other Powers to preserve the strictest impartiality towards her. Exempt from every kind of ambitious pretensionplaced, relatively to other Nations in an inoffensive position, and exclusively occupied with the establishment and consolidation of her internal happiness—she ought not to provoke either suspicion or rivalry, nor to excite a desire to dismember the different parts of the Monarchy, with the object of weakening her. Spain, whatever her strength may be, cannot menace the repose or the safety of other Nations, but, rich and flourishing, she may have an advantageous influence in preserving the equilibrium of the Powers. An instinct of honour and integrity has united the dispersed elements of her power; and, whilst she was engaged in the most unequal struggle, she afforded time to the Continent to rise against the common Enemy, and to destroy his oppressive yoke. This fact alone renders every other reflection and coinment unnecessary; it is sufficient to inspire interest in favour of a magnanimous Nation, and to convince the World that her influence will be always beneficial, but never offensive. This is the position amongst Nations which nature and policy have assigned to Spain. European Governments acted upon this great political principle, when they caused the colossal power of Spain to be destroyed, which, during 2 Centuries, had alarmed Europe. After a long conflict, it remained to be considered how to fix the destiny of this Kingdom, which was looked upon as connected with the federative system of Europe, and the advantage was then recognized of consolidating its power, by securing for it in America a point of support, which, by increasing its importance, rendered it the better qualified to maintain the equilibrium of the political balance of Europe.

This consideration in favour of the general interest appeared of such importance, that Spain was bound not to transfer or alienate, in any form, the smallest portion of her Territory in America; and, in order to render her possession of it still more secure and inviolable, and, at the same time, to dispel every motive for mistrust, she was deprived of the

power of granting to other Nations, by any means or under any pretext whatever, the advantage of trading with that Quarter.

Time has, nevertheless, produced on this point a very important change; and a less restricted policy, the changes in the commercial relations, the adoption of more economical principles, and a multitude of

other causes combined, have convinced Spain, that the continuance of the commercial monopoly, which had been formerly regarded as the principal bond of union between the two great parts of the Spanish Monarchy, would be as injurious to the welfare of the Peninsula, as it would be to that of the American Provinces.

His Catholick Majesty is, moreover, of opinion, that no ties are durable except those which are founded on mutual interest; that European Spain can obtain commercial advantages by means of her industry and Navigation, without aspiring to exclusive privileges; that new necessities and desires, consequent upon the progress of civilization and wealth, render it necessary to adopt towards the Provinces beyond seas, a more frank and liberal system; and that, instead of uselessly struggling against the spirit of mercantile speculation, which exercises such an influence over the political conduct of modern Nations, the true interest of Spain consists in encouraging that spirit as a useful Ally, instead of converting it into an irreconcileable Enemy.

In order to obtain such important results, all the Laws and Arrangements which have been made since the restoration of the Constitutional Government in Spain, have had a beneficent, generous, and favourable tendency towards the colonization of Foreigners in Spanish America, and the freedom of commerce with that distant Territory. The trial made in the Island of Cuba has been sufficient, practically, to demonstrate, that the interests of the Spanish Provinces, both in Europe and America, correspond with those in general of other Nations.

His Catholick Majesty, by these simple and natural means, is enabled to remove the only obstacle which could prevent an entire conformity between the policy of Spain and that of other Cabinets. When the Government of that Country, solid and stable, and recognized as the faithful observer of Treaties, is disposed to negotiate with its Insurgent Provinces of America, and offers to other Nations the greatest commercial advantages; it would be impossible to point out (though the question were reduced to a simple calculation of advantage) an object which could serve as a counterpoise in the opposite direction.

Civil war and anarchy, which are often the consequence of Revolution, and more particularly when, as in America, its elements are heterogeneous and opposite, are assuredly not calculated to multiply the exchangeable productions of a Country, nor to attract Foreigners, by offering them that security which leaves no doubt, and which is the soul of commerce ; neither can vacillating Governments do so, which are precarious in their nature and without any guarantee, and which cannot secure to themselves even the advantages which they promise. Buenos Ayres, abandoned to itself, has endeavoured in vain, for the last 12 Years, to consolidate a Government; and the wretchedness and depopulation of the Provinces of Terra Firma have removed, instead of having advanced, the epoch of their prosperity and happiness. In affairs

of this description, and when facts come to the support of reasoning, it would be useless to oppose vague and indefinite hopes to certain and evident results.

But it appears that a new calamity has arisen to increase the evils which might have been anticipated. The insurrection of the American Continent has revived Piracy on the High Seas, and has carried it to a pitch, not exceeded, perhaps, by any instances recorded in the history of former crimes of that class; and commerce in general begins to feel the danger of this immoral and barbarous warfare, which knows no other Law than that of sordid gain, and pillages indiscriminately the industrious Subjects of all Nations.

Thus, by an extraordinary concatenation of circumstances, every thing concurs in demonstrating the utility, and the urgency, of a de finitive arrangement of a Question which has such vast and profound ramifications; and every thing contributes to impress upon the Spanish Government the folly of retarding through any secondary motive, an accommodation of such vital importance.

His Catholick Majesty, in entering upon this frank and amicable Negociation with the Insurgent Provinces, expects, with the greatest confidence, to find in all Governments, that circumspection and cautious conduct, which are dictated by justice, recommended by policy, and counselled by sentiments of impartiality and good will.

Whilst the Spanish Nation endeavours to put an end to this domes. tick misunderstanding, the same inviolable respect which she professes for the rights of other Nations inspires her with the just expectation of being treated with reciprocal consideration and regard. She canne even suspect, on the part of the Powers who desire to

preserve friends ship and good understanding with her, that any rash step will be taken, which might imply a supposition that the Question is already solved, the decision of which, peculiarly and exclusively, belongs to Spain alone, in the exercise of her legitimate and recognized rights, which she has never renounced. The steps which have been taken to induce the different Powers to a recognition of the Independence of the Insurgent Provinces of America, will afford to the Cabinets in question, a solemn occasion to sanction the fundamental principles upon whiel are founded the integrity of Territory, the repose of Nations, and the publick morality of Governments.

The tenour and spirit of Treaties—the good faith which ought to reign between Powers in amity—the conviction of a duty which is equally supported by a generous and an enlightened policy--the real welfare of the Insurgent Provinces and the general advantage of si Civilized States-afford to His Catholick Majesty as many guarantes that his laudable desires will obtain from His August Allies the most favourable and friendly reception. (A true Copy.) H. E. The Marquis of Londonderry.

LUIS DE ONIS

AUSTRIA, FRANCE, PRUSSIA, AND RUSSIA, AND SPAIN. 895 CORRESPONDENCE between the Ministers of Austria,

France, Russia and Prussia, at Madrid, and the Spanish Government, respecting the safety of The King and Royal Family of Spain. -July 1822.

The Foreign Ministers to the Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs. MONSIEUR,

Madrid, le 7 Juillet, 1822. Apres les déplorables Evènemens qui viennent de se passer dans la Capitale, les Soussignés, en proie aux plus vives alarmes, tant par l'affreuse situation actuelle de Sa Majesté Catholique et de Sa Famille, que par les dangers qui planent sur leurs augustes têtes, s'adressent de nouveau à Son Excellence M. Martinez de la Rosa, pour réitérer avec toute la solemnité requise par d'aussi immenses intérêts, les déclarations verbales qu'ils ont eu l'honneur de lui adresser bier collectivement.

Le sort de l'Espagne, et de l'Europe entière, depend aujourd'hui de la sureté et de l'inviolabilité de Sa Majesté Catholique et de Sa Famille: ce dépôt précieux repose entre les mains du Gouvernement du Roi, et les Soussignés se plaisent à renouveler l'hommage qu'il ne peut être confié à des Ministres plus honorables, et plus dignes de confiance.

Les Soussignés, entièrement satisfaits des explications pleines de noblesse, de loyauté, et de dévouement à Sa Majesté Catholique, reçues hier de la bouche de Son Excellence M. Martinez de la Rosa, n'en trahiroient pas moins le plus sacré de leurs devoirs, s'ils ne réitéroient dans ce moment, au nom de leurs Souverains respectifs, de la manière la plus formelle, la déclaration, que de la conduite qui sera tenue envers Sa Majesté Catholique, vont irrévocablement dépendre les rapports de l'Espagne avec l'Europe entière, et que le plus léger outrage à Sa Majesté Royale, plongeroit la Péninsule dans un abyme de calamités. Son Excellence M. Martinez de la Rosa.

The Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs to the Foreign Ministers. MESSIEURS,

Madrid, le 8 Juillet, 1822. On connait assez les Evènemens déplorables survenus ces jours derniers, depuis qu'un Corps respectable spécialement destiné à la garde de la Personne Sacré de Sa Majesté Catholique, est sorti sans aucun ordre de ses Quartiers, a abandonné la Capitale, et s'est établie à deux lieues de Madrid dans la Résidence Royale du Pardo. Cet incident inat. tendu a placé le Gouvernement dans une position aussi difficile que singulière : il s'est trouvé privé d'un des principaux appuis qui lui servaient à maintenir l'Ordre public; la force destinée à faire exécuter les Lois a secoué le joug de la subordination et de l'obéissance, et des Mi

896 AUSTRIA, FRANCE, PRUSSIA, AND RUSSIA, AND SPAIN,

litaires chargés du dépôt sacré de la Personne du Roi, non seulement l'ont abandonné, mais encore ont fixé l'attente générale sur le Palais de Sa Majesté, qui continuait à être occupé par leurs Compagnons d'Armes. Dans de telles circonstances, le Gouvernement a reconnu qu'il devait diriger tous ses efforts vers deux objets principaux; 1°. Conserver à tout prix la tranquillité de la Capitale, sans donner lieu à ce que l'état d'alarme et l'irritation des passions amenassent des desordres ou des provocations d'aucune espèce; 2°. Tenter toutes les voies de paix et de conciliation pour ramener au devoir un Corps égaré, sans être oblige de recourir à des moyens de force, et sans arriver à la douleureuse extrémité de verser le sang Espagnol.

Rélativement au premier objet, les mesures du Gouvernement ont été si efficaces que l'état de la Capitale dans des jours aussi critiques, a offert un exemple bien frappant de la modération et de la sagesse du Peuple Espagnol. On n'y a pas même vu éclater ces légers desordres, qui même dans les tems ordinaires et tranquils sont si fréquens dans les Capitales.

Quand au second point, les dispositions du Gouvernement ont eu un résultat moins heureux par l'opiniâtreté de la troupe séduite; on a vainement employé toutes les mesures conciliatrices qu'ont pu dicter la prudence, et le désir le plus ardent d'éviter des suites déplorables; on a épuisé tous les moyens de dissiper les motifs d'alarme et de défiance qui eussent pu servir de prétexte au Corps insubordonné; le Gouvernement lui a donné à trois reprises et en trois occasions différentes, l'ordre de se diriger sur deux points qui lui étaient assignés pour quartiers; le Conseil d'Etat, consulté trois fois, a indiqué des voies de conciliation qui ont toutes été adoptées; enfin le Ministère a poussé si loin sa condes. cendance, qu'il a proposé aux Troupes du Pardo, d'envoyer les Officiers qu'elles voudraient choisir, pour entendre de la bouche même du Roi, quelle était sa volonté, quels étaient ses désirs : ce qui a eu lieu, quoique sans amener l'effet qu'on en attendait. Malgré tout cela, le Gouverne ment, forcé d'ailleurs de prendre les précautions convenables, a si pea dévié de la ligne de la modération, que non seulement il n'a pas employé contre les Soldats insubordonnés les Troupes en garuison dans la Capitale, mais pour éviter toute appareil hostile, il n'a pas déployé d'autres ressources que celles qui étaient à sa disposition, et dont il a pu légitimement se servir, depuis que ses Ordres ont cessé d'être obéis comme ils devaient l'être ; mais tant de ménagemens de la part du Gouvernement, loin de ramener les Bataillons égarés, n'ont fait que les encourager dans leurs coupables projets, qu'ils ont enfin essayé de mettre en exécution en surprenant la Capitale. On sait trop leur invasion hostile; ou sait leurs efforts impuissants pour surprendre et battre les vaillantes Troupes de la Garnison et de la Milice Nationale; on sait enfin quelle a été l'issue de leur témérté. Au milieu de cette crise et de l'irritation qu'a dû produire dans les

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